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  • Studies on Consumer Motivation Among Users Of Fitness Services
    442-453
    Views:
    280

    The rate of inactivity experienced world-wide is the cause of numerous health problems. The sedentary lifestyle of the population represents a great burden to a nation’s economy. The health indicators of Hungary are below the European average, not only those concerning physical activity, but also with respect to  smoking, nutrition, and alcohol consumption [1]. In 2013, only 38% of the Hungarian population exercised regularly, while 62% rarely or never [2]. The diseases associated with inactivity represent a higher burden to the economy than the costs of raising the level of activity would be [3]. Based on previous studies, the motivating factors for leisure athletes in Hungary are the preservation of health, to increase physical strength, relaxation, recreation, the love of exercising, and stress management [4; 5]. The sports facilities available to a wide range of people, the fitness clubs offer the possibility to join regular sports activities, which is why it is necessary to examine the motivation behind the participation of athletes taking part in the trainings provided by fitness facilities. Many previous studies examined the goals of athletes and the motivational factors behind exercising, and came to the conclusion that trainings held in fitness rooms and at home are related to intrinsic motivational factors, while taking part in other sports activities are related to intrinsic motivational factors [6; 7]. The focus of my study are leisure athletes using the services provided by fitness clubs (753 people), of whom I evaluated the motivational factors behind taking part in trainings. The results show that the motivational factors driving consumers of fitness services show a ranking that is identical to those of other leisure athletes, with most of them taking part in fitness trainings in order to preserve their health, to improve physical strength, and for recreational purposes, while the improvement of physical appearance also plays an important role.

  • An Analysis of the Leisure Preference System of Students with Disabilities in the Light of a Study
    98-115
    Views:
    671

    With the increase in the number of disabled people and people with disabilities, research on the target group of people with disabilities has gained momentum in recent decades. Research is very diverse, looking at the labor market situation of people with disabilities, their leisure-time habits, or the factors that support and inhibit their sport.

    In our questionnaire research, the leisure and sporting habits of children with disabilities aged 8-18 are described and analyzed (N = 639). Data were processed with spss software, where basic statistics and contextual analysis were performed. The results confirm that passive activities (TV, listening to music) dominate the leisure activities of children with disabilities. Sports consumption (active and passive) was more prevalent among male respondents and less prominent among girls. In the motivation of sports, besides improving the state of health, entertainment and company appeared.

  • Survey of the Service Offer of Fitness Clubs for Group Classes in Debrecen
    35-48
    Views:
    292

    The economic and social importance of the fitness sector is steadily increasing. The range of services provided by fitness centers is expanding and the popularity of fitness clubs is constantly growing. Fitness workouts are easily accessible for everyone, and there are numerous types of fitness centers which can play an important role in everyday physical activity. There are many factors that can influence the choice of fitness consumers for the gym, also fitness professionals play a key role in this regard. It is essential for fitness clubs in order to remain competitive on the market, to employ fitness instructors with the optimal personality and expertise, but in many cases, there is a lack of verification of qualifications. In our study, we conducted interviews with 20 fitness instructors who work in a fitness center that offers group lessons to consumers. The questionnaire included questions about consumer preferences, fitness facilities, trainers qualifications, and activities. Our study was made among eleven fitness clubs in Debrecen. The number of fitness clubs is constantly changing, with each year closing, opening or rebuilding fitness centers, which vary widely in size and number of services offered. The majority of respondent trainers are women as are the participants women in group lessons. Most of the interviewed trainers have OKJ qualifications, but the results reflect that fitness providers have not checked their qualifications at all before applying them. Fitness professionals play an extremely important role in leisure sports, contributing in maintainance and development of the fitness consumers’s health. Their work has a particular responsibility, as they can influence the physical and mental health of others in both positive and negative ways. Not only to avoid the risk of injuries, but also to prevent long-term health damage, fitness professionals play an important role. Controlling the qualifications also be in the interest of fitness clubs, not only avoiding accidents, but also increasing attendance at group classes by employing reliable, excellent personal trainers.

  • Roguelike Games: The Way We Play
    80-92
    Views:
    1178

    The spread of the gameable personal computers and game consoles resulted in the diversification of the video game genre, and from the 7th generation of the gaming consoles, the experience support of the games became largely enhanced. These games are now consumable owing to their resolution, the content, the plots are so fascinating so that they tie the gamer to the seat. Gamers seek experiences in the games. Still, such a special genre called roguelike was established, which is characterized by the constant termination of this world of experience in such a way that the gamer, as a results of the high level of difficulty, is obliged to start the game again and again. These new genre games are now leading titles of the new generation consoles, such as Demon’s Souls or the Returnal, gaining huge role in the introduction and sale of the new gaming console PS5. This study aims to reveal specifications of this genre, moreover, aims to describe through empirical research how gamers relate to it, and whether features of these games contribute to the devotion to them or lead to the disappointment from this world of experience. 

  • Development of Entrepreneurial Skills Among Engineering Students
    209-225
    Views:
    167

    Education is the major contributor to the development of culture, including entrepreneurial culture as well. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the characteristics of a successful entrepreneur and how can be developed the initiative and entrepreneurial competence through education. The task of the education is to help young people develop qualities that are the basis of entrepreneurship. Such is creativity, initiative, responsibility, risk-taking and independence.

  • Comparative Analysis of Equestrian Facilities in the North Great Plain Region
    79-93
    Views:
    392

    Equestrian services appear in recreation, sports and tourism as well. The favorable natural and cultural values of Hungary and the image of the equestrian nation based on the traditions of the horse provide a favorable background for the development of supply elements. The lowland character and horse culture of the Northern Great Plain region, and the continuous development of horseback riding services here, reinforces the equestrian supply element in the field of sport and leisure. Our in - depth interviews were conducted among service providers with a “horseshoe rating” (N = 11) operating in the Northern Great Plain Region. The results show that all service providers consider and plan the development of equine, infrastructure and human resources, although the source of its financing is different (from state, other successful businesses, realized business results of equestrian enterprises). Equestrian service providers with no horseshoe rating have identified the improvement of quality, the 3, 4, and 5 horseshoe qualified service providers for the expansion of the complex program offering and product diversification.

  • COVID-19 Pandemic Impact on Employees’ Physical Activity
    72-84
    Views:
    770

    Globalization and the recent explosive development of technology have significantly changed people’s lifestyles resulting in an increase in the number of people living a sedentary lifestyle. COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the situation and created an unprecedented situation in the world. In the present study, we investigate changes in the physical activity and sedentary behavior of adult workers caused by the coronavirus epidemic. In our online cross-sectional research, we used snowball methodology. The target group of the survey was adult workers. 108 people filled in the questionnaire, the majority (73.1%) are women, the average age is 37.18 years and most of them have higher degrees (Diploma: 74%, PhD: 14%). The present study revealed a decrease in physical activity and an increase in sedentary time for the employees in our study. Despite respondents detected a decrease in their physical activity, an increase was reported in the proportion of online training participants. The majority of respondents partially, or totally switched to work from home during the pandemic, which may further increase their sedentary lifestyle. We did not find significant differences among the domain of work and leisure time or occupational physical activity patterns. The workplace is a great opportunity for promoting physical activity and reducing sedentary time in the adult working population, therefore it would be important for organizations, decision-makers and health professionals to work on the design of strategies to these goals.

  • Elsős mérnökhallgatók véleménye (a szakmáról, a szakmai erkölcsről és a mérnöki etika tárgyról)
    60-68
    Views:
    122

    A műszaki felsőoktatásba érettségi után bekerülő hallgatók már rendelkeznek valamilyen elképzeléssel a mérnöki szakmáról, a helyes mérnöki magatartásról, és a saját alkalmasságukról. Az első felmérésem kérdései a hallgatói tanulmányok kezdetekor ezekre a témákra irányultak. A második felmérést a félév végén készítettem, amikor már a kötelezően oktatott mérnöki etika tantárgy ismereteit elsajátították. A hallgatói válaszok azt mutatják meg, hogy mennyiben segítette elő ennek a tárgynak az oktatása azt, hogy jobb mérnökké válhassanak a diploma megszerzése után.

  • Analysis of the Supply of Sport Services by Organizational Aspects
    465-474
    Views:
    268

    The spread of consumer societies has led to the commercialization, and the emergence of profit-oriented operating frameworks in the fields of sport. The sports enterprises, involved in the operation of competing groups on professional, spectator fields of sport have already been examined from legal, economic, organizational points of view by a number of international and Hungarian researchers. In this article, we attempt to cover and summarize the Hungarian research approaches on this subject. The motive behind our investigation is that we should launch an organizational examination of the Hungarian profit-oriented sports suppliers in the near future. We plan to analyse the property, financial, income, organizational, management and labor management related situation of these sports enterprises. In order to ground the research, the review nature summary of domestic economic, organization science related secondary examinations is essential, which allows the development of the appropriate research methodology and the comparison of our results with the antecedents.

  • Sport Civic Society – Approaches and Facts
    158-166
    Views:
    218

    After the change of regime in Hungary in 1989, the domestic civic sphere started to improve, and after numerous change in the legal regulation, currently the Act on Civic Organizations (Act 174/2011.) rules the operation of the sector before all, supplemented by additional legal background. The vital component of the new regulation is possibility of the appearance of the novel organizational form, the civic society, which is quite odd even considering the past and even on international level. The database enabling the statistical overview of the domestic nonprofits publish the end of 2019 provides no information on the data and operational features for this organizational form, which provides a thorough reason for the researcher to be interested in the topic and the organizations. Through the possible secondary data, a primary database of a lately done sports civic organization related research includes such basic data (even its sample height is small), which may be considered as a starting point at the examination of the specifications of the sports related civic societies.

  • Investigation of Parental Roles in Relation to Youth Football
    105-114
    Views:
    145

    My research is based on the fact that, thanks to the development of sports and the capital flowing into the sector, youth sports are no longer just a useful way of spending free time for children and a mean for educating them for a healthy lifestyle, but also an opportunity to lay the foundation for an adult sports career and, with it, secure future existence. In order for the training to be effective and productive, one of the many components is the existence of parental support. Youth competitive sports pose many challenges for a family and influence their lives from several aspects. In my research, I examined how youth sports affects parents in terms of certain demographic variables, what changes it generates in their family life, and I also paid attention to what expectations the family has about sports. The basis of the study is an online questionnaire survey, which was filled out by more than 700 parents of youth football associations. My research revealed that, in accordance with the previous literature related to the topic, their children's sports have a significant impact on the lives of the parents and they set different expectations regarding it, which are also influenced by various social and demographic factors.

  • Opportunities for Keeping Talent Highlighting Career Needs
    31-43
    Views:
    425

    Organizations should focus not only on finding a workforce, but also on finding a talented employee and to be able to keep them. That is why we considered it important to pay attention to talents and careers. In this paper, we attempt to identify those factors which are important for career prospects among future employees and those already in the workforce. Moreover, we want to identify the factors which those who are already employed consider to be factors influencing their career prospects. We conducted a survey of students using questionnaires. 116 questionnaires were completed, of which 73 were filled in by BSc / BA students and 43 by Msc / MA students. We sought to discover to what degree the respondents considered the career factors we presented them with as influencing their ability to acquire an ideal job, as well as to what degree the same career factors would be able to assist them in their future career advancement. Presently, in their roles as students seeking gainful employment, important factors include perseverance, diligence, knowledge, and aptitude, all of which the respondents feel will become even more important in making their later advancement possible. At present, they do not consider the support of companions / partners and morality important; but they consider the support they receive from their colleagues to be a factor which grows in importance over time. In the questionnaire survey of employees, we were looking for two answers. On the one hand, which factors are important in shaping their careers, and on the other hand, at the workplace, which factors were related to employee retention and satisfaction. For their careers, they consider it important to have diligence, morality, and the support of colleagues. These results are similar to the views expressed by the students. However, those who already work consider ‘kissing up to the boss’ to be more important for their advancement possibilities than the students did. The responses concerning factors contributing to successful employee retention brought interesting results. Factors that are most commonly fulfilled, such as a good co-worker relationship and the working relationship with a leader, are barely above the average score of 4, which is actually a result that is above average. Medium results include the realization of independence, challenging work, fair pay and career prospects factors, all of whcih would be vital for talented people to experience flow in their careers. In the long term, leaders and HR professionals need to pay attention to take calculated, equisite steps to keep talented workers.

  • Sports Civic Organizations-Subsidies and the Subsidy Exposure
    341-347
    Views:
    137

    When we discuss the topic of civic organizations, especially sports profile civic organizations we need to note and comment that issue how these organizational forms are able and capable to accept subsidies. The related data of the Central Statistical Office (KSH) highlight the phenomenon that incomes of the classic civic organizations are mainly composed of state or private source donations. Although there is a really and pretty predictable subsidy system in the field of civic sphere currently, from one hand the distribution of the single subsidy forms considerably vary, on the other hand it result in the considerable amount of available financial resources. The fact whether subsidy forms and subsidy incomes have relationship with the addition alvariables of the organizational operation, such as subsidies provided, employment relationship, and expenditures may acquire special attention at the management of organizational operation together with the planned strategic interventions in the field of the civic sphere. 

  • Elmélet és gyakorlat ellentmondásossága a mérnöki etikában
    1-10
    Views:
    86

    Economy is the framework of the activities of technological managers. The function of an economy is substantially impact by behaviors of the persons are involved in the economy. Its function depends on how they follow rules of society and community. Reliability and order of an economy are created by right conducts of such participants of economy as technological managers. This paper analyses the complex relations of law, morality and economy.

  • Monitoring of the Profitability Effect of Tourism Supports in the North Great Plain Region
    165-175
    Views:
    101

    Today the tourism is one of the largest and the most dynamically progressive sector, monitoring of its performance important research area. The sector and its companies' performance are related tightly, a present study deals with the corporate performance test. Its accurate goal is the monitoring of the profitability effect of 2007-2013.yearly budgetary periods tourism supports in the North Great Plain Region through the example of two of a region's companies. The basis of the examination the statistical, corporate data which can be reached publicly and data from the questionnaire filled by the companies and data from their competition registrar.

  • The Potential of Online Workouts for Fitness Trainers
    49-60
    Views:
    365

    The importance of physical activity for both physical and mental health is unquestionable. For leisure athletes, fitness clubs can be considered as  popular facilities for everyday workouts. Classes run by qualified trainers, whether individual or group workouts, are very popular. In line with the worldwide trend, there is a growing expectation for fitness workouts to be reachable as simple as possible, in as many forms as possible, regardless of the location. The aim of our study is therefore to map the prevalence of online training among trainers working in the fitness sector. There is a significant demand for such workouts, even if it cannot completely replace hours of personal presence. In addition, as well as for target groups who want to find a form of exercise that can be performed anywhere, anytime, the online space provides an ideal opportunity to practice regular physical activity, as well as a good opportunity for coaches to expand their clientele and services.

  • A Debreceni Egyetem Gazdaságtudományi Karának Controlling és teljesítménymenedzsment szakirány kurzusainak értékelése
    100-107
    Views:
    494

    It is of major importance for the Faculty of Economics and Business of the University of Debrecen to become familiar with the opinion of students about the education carried out at the University, therefore particular attention is given to the feedback of students related to education. Measurement and evaluation/reviews serve multiple purposes. Students may – if explicit written consent of the lecturer is provided – get to know the opinion of their fellow students about each course, lecturers may receive feedback about the reputation of their courses, the University and Faculties may acquire information about the overall opinion of their students about the training. Feedback is basically suitable for supporting the work aimed at the improvement of training quality. In the scope of present study the reviews submitted by the students of the Controlling and performance specialisation within the Management and Organisation course are introduced.

  • Wearable technology usage among students of the University of Debrecen
    33-47
    Views:
    130

    The lack of physical activity and the growing prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle are urgent public health problem worldwide. The problem is also typical of the young population, especially university students, who spend most of the day in a sitting position. Technological development is one of the catalysts for the rise of a sedentary lifestyle, nevertheless, thanks to this, many devices have appeared on the market that can be used to encourage physical activity. The widespread of wearable activity tracker devices – wristwatches, wristbands – among the population shows a constantly increasing trend, with a parallel increase in the amount of data collected about ourselves (step count, calories burned, heart rate). The main goal of the present study derives from the recognition of the gap in this field in the domestic sports science literature therefore our focus is on modern information technology tools in the dimension of physical activity. The aim of this study is to assess the attitudes of the university student population towards activity-tracking devices. We conducted a cross-sectional online quantitative survey (questionnaire) among DE GTK students. 340 people filled out the questionnaire correctly. In addition to descriptive statistics, parametric and non-parametric tests (Pearson's chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, t-test, Mann-Whitney test) were used to examine the relationships. The results of the statistical tests were considered significant if p<0.05. We performed the distribution of the variables using the Kolgomorov-Smirnov test. The majority of respondents (55%) have already tried some kind of wearable device that measures physical activity. Every third student (34%) are currently using their device. Those who have not tried these devices so far indicated the price as the primary deterrent. 32% of the students plan to invest in such a device in the future. 39% of device users use an activity tracker bracelet, while 61% use or used a smartwatch. In terms of sex, we did not find any differences in asset ownership. The primary goal of the students (66.8%) was to track their physical activity. The most frequently used function was tracking the number of steps, indicated by 81% of the respondents, followed by heart rate measurement (67%). Most of them (69%) set some kind of goal regarding their number of steps. According to every third student, they moved more as a result of the device and managed to maintain the increased level of physical activity. 44% of the students claimed that their physical activity did not change despite using the device. Students tend to disagree with the positive statements related to the devices in connection with a healthy lifestyle. Although the present study suggests that wearable devices have an impact on students and they track their measured data, it is questionable whether the devices themselves are enough of an incentive for students to develop a healthier lifestyle.

  • Determination of the Accumulation of the Heavy Metal Content of the Sediment of River Danube by Plants
    163-170
    Views:
    112

    In these days, the surface waters and their floodplains and oxbow lakes are operating as ecological corridors, although their touristic role is not negligible. The monitoring and saving of these wetlands need for sustain these areas for the future generations. The environmental parameters of floodplains and oxbow lakes is revealed with the analyses of the quality of the water and sediment. The main sampling place of our research is a sediment dump was created by excavation from the Open Beach of Dunaújváros in 2009. In 2010 the whole sediment dump was planted with trees, and many kinds of weeds were also grown here. The main aim of this research is to analyse the heavy metal content of the sediment dump in Dunaújváros. Furthermore, the heavy metal content of the parella (Rumex obtusifolius L.), perennial rye-grass (Lolium perenne) and riparian sedges (Carex riparia) which are growing on the sediment dump were also analysed. The distribution and the accumulation of the heavy metals inside this plant can be also determined with these measurements.

  • Sectoral Analysis of Hungarian Professional Football Clubs - Hungarian Football Money League 2014-2016
    284-296
    Views:
    700

    Based on the model of the Deloitte Football Money League we recreated the „Hungarian Football Money League”, which gathers and analyses the most economically powerful Hungarian football enterprises. The model gave us an oppurtunity to analyse and compare the industry to the international level. With the hungarian professional football-enterprises we assume, the most economically powerful teams play in the NB. I. (National Championship). Because of this reason we only analysed NB 1. club teams. From the 12 participating team we selected only those 9 who stayed in the League for three consecutive years. The implications from this study is that the hungarian club teams stays well below the international level, altought top level enterprises' joint economical impact is indeed significant in the hungarian sportsector. 

  • Szervezeti struktúra jellemzői spanyol labdarúgó kluboknál
    1-11
    Views:
    347

    In Hungary the developement of sport sector needs to changes in structural scheme of sport organizations. The question is that, in the different sports areasthe association-based sports model, or the buisness-based sports model can operate effectively. Nowadays, in addition to professional successes in sporting activities, Hungarian sports entities and professional sports enterprises do consider options for the most effective operations possible, and gather good international practices in order to establish such business-based sports models in Hungary that are efficiently operable. The business side of sports is particularly apparent in professional football. On a global scale, this sport clearly demonstrates the process of structural transformation that is directed at the realization of the appropriate form of enterprise and structural setup. This article has been written to describe the Spanish model by example of organizational scheme of Real Madrid and Barcelona FC.

  • Evaluation Opportunities tor Recreational Sport Services – Adapted to Higher Education Environment
    150-164
    Views:
    209

    In our study, we analyse various researches dealing with quality aspects of sport services, and different quality models related to the interpretation of quality. The results which were obtained in the framework of primary research activity present the opinions of students from five different research universities. Sport services’ operation and sustainability are determined by market regulations, as parts of the service industry. Considering that the university leisure sports services take place in a competitive environment, the universities often have to compete with external sports service providers for achieving confidence of the young generations. For the qualitative tests, we used the QSport-14 measurement scale, which is generally applied by sports centres. This scale investigates the sports services according to three different aspects: (1) instructors, (2) infrastructural facilities and equipment and (3) offered sport programs. We have adapted the measurement scale to the university environment because of the differences and special characteristics of external sports service providers and university sports services. In addition, we analysed the factors influencing recreational sports, and we also examined that what changes would be needed in order to improve the quality of recreational sport activities in higher education.

  • Security Analysis of a „Location-stamping” Protocol for GPS Coordinates
    1-12
    Views:
    147

    Due to the rapid growth of GNSS based techniques in everyday life a service which can provide certified location information given by GPS coordinates became a worth considering idea. We designed two protocols that can  achieve this goal, these can provide authenticate location and time information for any device which has a GPS receiver. In this article, I would like to prove -with the help of ProVerif software tool-, the latter statement. I investigated the authenticity and data integrity properties of the protocol.

  • Motivational Factors of Choosing BMX and Other Extreme Sports
    426-441.
    Views:
    455

    Extreme sports play an increasingly important role in the supply of recreational activities, as an increased consumer demand has shown a dynamic growth over the past decades. In our research, we investigated motivational factors related to leisure time and in particular BMX sport on a sample of 237 people who do extreme sports. Our results have revealed that BMX is mostly chosen by young men as a leisure time activity. The consumers of extreme sports are characterized by internal motivation, pursuit of their own boundaries, testing of novel and exciting activities and the need for doing joint activities with acquaintances and friends.

  • The Relationship Between Sports Civic Organizations and Human Resources
    146-154
    Views:
    216

    Every spring the Hungarian Central Statistical Office records through its ELEKTRA database system the human and economic related operation data of the past year of civic organizations. This data source is usually considered as a standard at the evaluation of the domestic civic sphere. Still, the available handout titled “Most important features of the non-profit sector”, applying mainly descriptive statistics only provides a brief picture of specifications of the sector. Parallel with it, its background database is available yearly, which provides a unique possibility for a researcher to perform secondary analysis aiming to reveal deeper relationship. The objective of our study is purely to reveal a minor part of this considerable field, the relationship between subsidies and human resources mainly due to the fact, that human resource in this sector is composed of employees and volunteers, and it is questionable whether subsidies have an impact on employment.  Results revealed that there is a relationship between human resources and subsidies, where mainly private nature subsidies have a strong impact equally on voluntariness and work related employment

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