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  • Survey of the Service Offer of Fitness Clubs for Group Classes in Debrecen

    The economic and social importance of the fitness sector is steadily increasing. The range of services provided by fitness centers is expanding and the popularity of fitness clubs is constantly growing. Fitness workouts are easily accessible for everyone, and there are numerous types of fitness centers which can play an important role in everyday physical activity. There are many factors that can influence the choice of fitness consumers for the gym, also fitness professionals play a key role in this regard. It is essential for fitness clubs in order to remain competitive on the market, to employ fitness instructors with the optimal personality and expertise, but in many cases, there is a lack of verification of qualifications. In our study, we conducted interviews with 20 fitness instructors who work in a fitness center that offers group lessons to consumers. The questionnaire included questions about consumer preferences, fitness facilities, trainers qualifications, and activities. Our study was made among eleven fitness clubs in Debrecen. The number of fitness clubs is constantly changing, with each year closing, opening or rebuilding fitness centers, which vary widely in size and number of services offered. The majority of respondent trainers are women as are the participants women in group lessons. Most of the interviewed trainers have OKJ qualifications, but the results reflect that fitness providers have not checked their qualifications at all before applying them. Fitness professionals play an extremely important role in leisure sports, contributing in maintainance and development of the fitness consumers’s health. Their work has a particular responsibility, as they can influence the physical and mental health of others in both positive and negative ways. Not only to avoid the risk of injuries, but also to prevent long-term health damage, fitness professionals play an important role. Controlling the qualifications also be in the interest of fitness clubs, not only avoiding accidents, but also increasing attendance at group classes by employing reliable, excellent personal trainers.

  • Studies on Consumer Motivation Among Users Of Fitness Services

    The rate of inactivity experienced world-wide is the cause of numerous health problems. The sedentary lifestyle of the population represents a great burden to a nation’s economy. The health indicators of Hungary are below the European average, not only those concerning physical activity, but also with respect to  smoking, nutrition, and alcohol consumption [1]. In 2013, only 38% of the Hungarian population exercised regularly, while 62% rarely or never [2]. The diseases associated with inactivity represent a higher burden to the economy than the costs of raising the level of activity would be [3]. Based on previous studies, the motivating factors for leisure athletes in Hungary are the preservation of health, to increase physical strength, relaxation, recreation, the love of exercising, and stress management [4; 5]. The sports facilities available to a wide range of people, the fitness clubs offer the possibility to join regular sports activities, which is why it is necessary to examine the motivation behind the participation of athletes taking part in the trainings provided by fitness facilities. Many previous studies examined the goals of athletes and the motivational factors behind exercising, and came to the conclusion that trainings held in fitness rooms and at home are related to intrinsic motivational factors, while taking part in other sports activities are related to intrinsic motivational factors [6; 7]. The focus of my study are leisure athletes using the services provided by fitness clubs (753 people), of whom I evaluated the motivational factors behind taking part in trainings. The results show that the motivational factors driving consumers of fitness services show a ranking that is identical to those of other leisure athletes, with most of them taking part in fitness trainings in order to preserve their health, to improve physical strength, and for recreational purposes, while the improvement of physical appearance also plays an important role.

  • An Analysis of the Leisure Preference System of Students with Disabilities in the Light of a Study

    With the increase in the number of disabled people and people with disabilities, research on the target group of people with disabilities has gained momentum in recent decades. Research is very diverse, looking at the labor market situation of people with disabilities, their leisure-time habits, or the factors that support and inhibit their sport.

    In our questionnaire research, the leisure and sporting habits of children with disabilities aged 8-18 are described and analyzed (N = 639). Data were processed with spss software, where basic statistics and contextual analysis were performed. The results confirm that passive activities (TV, listening to music) dominate the leisure activities of children with disabilities. Sports consumption (active and passive) was more prevalent among male respondents and less prominent among girls. In the motivation of sports, besides improving the state of health, entertainment and company appeared.

  • Roguelike Games: The Way We Play

    The spread of the gameable personal computers and game consoles resulted in the diversification of the video game genre, and from the 7th generation of the gaming consoles, the experience support of the games became largely enhanced. These games are now consumable owing to their resolution, the content, the plots are so fascinating so that they tie the gamer to the seat. Gamers seek experiences in the games. Still, such a special genre called roguelike was established, which is characterized by the constant termination of this world of experience in such a way that the gamer, as a results of the high level of difficulty, is obliged to start the game again and again. These new genre games are now leading titles of the new generation consoles, such as Demon’s Souls or the Returnal, gaining huge role in the introduction and sale of the new gaming console PS5. This study aims to reveal specifications of this genre, moreover, aims to describe through empirical research how gamers relate to it, and whether features of these games contribute to the devotion to them or lead to the disappointment from this world of experience. 

  • Wearable technology usage among students of the University of Debrecen

    The lack of physical activity and the growing prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle are urgent public health problem worldwide. The problem is also typical of the young population, especially university students, who spend most of the day in a sitting position. Technological development is one of the catalysts for the rise of a sedentary lifestyle, nevertheless, thanks to this, many devices have appeared on the market that can be used to encourage physical activity. The widespread of wearable activity tracker devices – wristwatches, wristbands – among the population shows a constantly increasing trend, with a parallel increase in the amount of data collected about ourselves (step count, calories burned, heart rate). The main goal of the present study derives from the recognition of the gap in this field in the domestic sports science literature therefore our focus is on modern information technology tools in the dimension of physical activity. The aim of this study is to assess the attitudes of the university student population towards activity-tracking devices. We conducted a cross-sectional online quantitative survey (questionnaire) among DE GTK students. 340 people filled out the questionnaire correctly. In addition to descriptive statistics, parametric and non-parametric tests (Pearson's chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, t-test, Mann-Whitney test) were used to examine the relationships. The results of the statistical tests were considered significant if p<0.05. We performed the distribution of the variables using the Kolgomorov-Smirnov test. The majority of respondents (55%) have already tried some kind of wearable device that measures physical activity. Every third student (34%) are currently using their device. Those who have not tried these devices so far indicated the price as the primary deterrent. 32% of the students plan to invest in such a device in the future. 39% of device users use an activity tracker bracelet, while 61% use or used a smartwatch. In terms of sex, we did not find any differences in asset ownership. The primary goal of the students (66.8%) was to track their physical activity. The most frequently used function was tracking the number of steps, indicated by 81% of the respondents, followed by heart rate measurement (67%). Most of them (69%) set some kind of goal regarding their number of steps. According to every third student, they moved more as a result of the device and managed to maintain the increased level of physical activity. 44% of the students claimed that their physical activity did not change despite using the device. Students tend to disagree with the positive statements related to the devices in connection with a healthy lifestyle. Although the present study suggests that wearable devices have an impact on students and they track their measured data, it is questionable whether the devices themselves are enough of an incentive for students to develop a healthier lifestyle.

  • Determination of the Accumulation of the Heavy Metal Content of the Sediment of River Danube by Plants

    In these days, the surface waters and their floodplains and oxbow lakes are operating as ecological corridors, although their touristic role is not negligible. The monitoring and saving of these wetlands need for sustain these areas for the future generations. The environmental parameters of floodplains and oxbow lakes is revealed with the analyses of the quality of the water and sediment. The main sampling place of our research is a sediment dump was created by excavation from the Open Beach of Dunaújváros in 2009. In 2010 the whole sediment dump was planted with trees, and many kinds of weeds were also grown here. The main aim of this research is to analyse the heavy metal content of the sediment dump in Dunaújváros. Furthermore, the heavy metal content of the parella (Rumex obtusifolius L.), perennial rye-grass (Lolium perenne) and riparian sedges (Carex riparia) which are growing on the sediment dump were also analysed. The distribution and the accumulation of the heavy metals inside this plant can be also determined with these measurements.

  • Sectoral Analysis of Hungarian Professional Football Clubs - Hungarian Football Money League 2014-2016

    Based on the model of the Deloitte Football Money League we recreated the „Hungarian Football Money League”, which gathers and analyses the most economically powerful Hungarian football enterprises. The model gave us an oppurtunity to analyse and compare the industry to the international level. With the hungarian professional football-enterprises we assume, the most economically powerful teams play in the NB. I. (National Championship). Because of this reason we only analysed NB 1. club teams. From the 12 participating team we selected only those 9 who stayed in the League for three consecutive years. The implications from this study is that the hungarian club teams stays well below the international level, altought top level enterprises' joint economical impact is indeed significant in the hungarian sportsector. 

  • Szervezeti struktúra jellemzői spanyol labdarúgó kluboknál

    In Hungary the developement of sport sector needs to changes in structural scheme of sport organizations. The question is that, in the different sports areasthe association-based sports model, or the buisness-based sports model can operate effectively. Nowadays, in addition to professional successes in sporting activities, Hungarian sports entities and professional sports enterprises do consider options for the most effective operations possible, and gather good international practices in order to establish such business-based sports models in Hungary that are efficiently operable. The business side of sports is particularly apparent in professional football. On a global scale, this sport clearly demonstrates the process of structural transformation that is directed at the realization of the appropriate form of enterprise and structural setup. This article has been written to describe the Spanish model by example of organizational scheme of Real Madrid and Barcelona FC.

  • Evaluation Opportunities tor Recreational Sport Services – Adapted to Higher Education Environment

    In our study, we analyse various researches dealing with quality aspects of sport services, and different quality models related to the interpretation of quality. The results which were obtained in the framework of primary research activity present the opinions of students from five different research universities. Sport services’ operation and sustainability are determined by market regulations, as parts of the service industry. Considering that the university leisure sports services take place in a competitive environment, the universities often have to compete with external sports service providers for achieving confidence of the young generations. For the qualitative tests, we used the QSport-14 measurement scale, which is generally applied by sports centres. This scale investigates the sports services according to three different aspects: (1) instructors, (2) infrastructural facilities and equipment and (3) offered sport programs. We have adapted the measurement scale to the university environment because of the differences and special characteristics of external sports service providers and university sports services. In addition, we analysed the factors influencing recreational sports, and we also examined that what changes would be needed in order to improve the quality of recreational sport activities in higher education.

  • Security Analysis of a „Location-stamping” Protocol for GPS Coordinates

    Due to the rapid growth of GNSS based techniques in everyday life a service which can provide certified location information given by GPS coordinates became a worth considering idea. We designed two protocols that can  achieve this goal, these can provide authenticate location and time information for any device which has a GPS receiver. In this article, I would like to prove -with the help of ProVerif software tool-, the latter statement. I investigated the authenticity and data integrity properties of the protocol.

  • Motivational Factors of Choosing BMX and Other Extreme Sports

    Extreme sports play an increasingly important role in the supply of recreational activities, as an increased consumer demand has shown a dynamic growth over the past decades. In our research, we investigated motivational factors related to leisure time and in particular BMX sport on a sample of 237 people who do extreme sports. Our results have revealed that BMX is mostly chosen by young men as a leisure time activity. The consumers of extreme sports are characterized by internal motivation, pursuit of their own boundaries, testing of novel and exciting activities and the need for doing joint activities with acquaintances and friends.

  • The Relationship Between Sports Civic Organizations and Human Resources

    Every spring the Hungarian Central Statistical Office records through its ELEKTRA database system the human and economic related operation data of the past year of civic organizations. This data source is usually considered as a standard at the evaluation of the domestic civic sphere. Still, the available handout titled “Most important features of the non-profit sector”, applying mainly descriptive statistics only provides a brief picture of specifications of the sector. Parallel with it, its background database is available yearly, which provides a unique possibility for a researcher to perform secondary analysis aiming to reveal deeper relationship. The objective of our study is purely to reveal a minor part of this considerable field, the relationship between subsidies and human resources mainly due to the fact, that human resource in this sector is composed of employees and volunteers, and it is questionable whether subsidies have an impact on employment.  Results revealed that there is a relationship between human resources and subsidies, where mainly private nature subsidies have a strong impact equally on voluntariness and work related employment

  • Evaluation of a Trainee Program’s Selection and Induction

    The research based on the trainee program of a large Hungarian company. The company recommends the program to entrants or those who have 1-1,5 years of work experience. The main objective is the evaluation of the effectiveness of the program through some of the HR functions. This study contains the process of the selection and the evaluation of getting into the program. What makes the program special, is the appearance of the technical mentor. According to the hypothesis, the mentor’s assistance reduces the uncertainty when the trainee inducted into the organization. The occasions of the beginner education, the conversations and feedbacks during the induction adds more efficiency to the success of the program. The searched data in literature features HR functions and mentoring. To learn about the program, a case study was made beforehand, and then the questionnaire was edited for the trainees at the company. In the course of the research, an interview was done with the technical mentor. The interview was based on the questionnaire. In point of the results, recommendations were defined connected to the assumed shortages of the program, also to increase the efficiency of the selection and induction. In conclusion, the maintenance of the trainee program is equally beneficial for the trainees and for the company as well.

  • 3X3 Basketball Tournaments in Debrecen

    Faster attacks, spin speed, increased adrenaline levels, vehement play. This is all about the 3X3 basketball. In Debrecen, the first 3X3 basketball matches were held in 2015, most of them did not even think that the sport would be popular in Hungary as well. Practically, from the start of the first minute, the games were played with great success. Following the successful settlement, the International Basketball Association immediately offered a 3-year contract to Debrecen. The purpose of our research was to examine the 3X3 basketball tournaments in Debrecen, which was analyzed using a questionnaire and an in-depth interview. 69% of the respondents participated in the 2016 and 2017 events, but only 37% attended the 3X3 basketball tournaments that were held for the first time in 2015. It can be stated that this trend is growing and the event is gaining popularity nationwide. Sponsors and sponsors covered every issue of the event so the event was free of charge over the years. 72% of fillers, however, are willing to spend money on a possible entry fee. In terms of revenue growth, the introduction of admission fees is unlikely to reduce interest. Up to 1200 seats have been filled up for the event every year. Therefore, it is not surprising that a lot of people would like to enjoy a higher auditorium with more space. The introduction of 4-point boundaries (3 points) for 3X3 matches would be a great opportunity to try the "little brother" of basketball in the 4-point so that it can be introduced in traditional basketball. Hungary became the pioneer of the sport due to the results of the Hungarian national team and the successful organization of sporting events.

  • The characteristics of civil organisations for sports with special regards to employment

    The aim of our article to compare the characteristics of the civil organisations operating in Hugary and in Romaina with special regards to the employment characteristics of the sport civil associations. We ascertained during our research work that the civil sector of the two investigated countries show several similarities. One of these similarities is the lag from the same sectors operating is Western-European countries. The use of volunteer working is a main characteristic of the employment in the civil sector however the paid work plays an important role too.

  • Development Opportunities of Health, Wellness and Sports Services in Medical Tourism Based on a Research Study

    The quality and quantity of additional services play an increasing role in the competitiveness of service providers in the tourism sector. In our research, our goal was to explore the service development possibilites of two different sites of a Northern Hungarian healthcare institution in the framework of a market research. In the field of services, we focused on different issues of health, wellness and sports services. Our research has shown that the availability of additional services and therapeutic recreational, sport or wellness services are important for patients as they can positively influence their quality of life and health status.

  • Why do not people attend football matches in Hungary?

    Both international and domestic research on passive sport consumption focuses on the motivations of fans. However in Hungary, unlike the examples of North America and Western Europe, we have to look for answers to the question of why people do not go to football matches. In order to find an answer to this question, we conducted an online survey with a number of items of 347 people. For the latter a scale measuring absence from sport consumption was used and the reliability of the scales was tested by Cronbach's alpha calculation. After our principal component analysis, we developed 5 internal and 5 external factors, on which we conduct hypothesis test along demographic and sports consumption variables. Based on our results, we have established that, contrary to public opinion, the low number of spectators in Hungarian football matches is not only and primarily due to unsucces and the low quality of matches. Our respondents are mostly kept away from stadiums by football-related government measures, as well as by preferring to participate in other recreational program opportunities.

  • Security Evaluation of MODBUS RTU Protocol, Testing New Cryptographic Methods

    In the late decade, the number of attacks against SCADA, CIS, or ICS systems had grown considerably. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the results of the implementation of a new cryptographic method on th e MODBUS RTU line.

  • A Case Study on Human Resource Management Practice of a Sport Organization

    Human resource with the adequate ability and skills is of decisive importance in all organizations, irrespective of the field of activity in which they operate. It is no different with the life of sports organizations. The human resource management of sports organizations is peculiar which is influenced by, on the one hand, the operating form of an organization, on the other hand, the nature of employment. Those well-known jobs can be also found in the sport organizations which are necessary to operate an organization and carry out the general tasks, at the same time, the amateur or professional athletes turn up as specific human resources. Aim of the study is to explore the specific characteristics of the human resource management of a particular organization, namely Debreceni Egyetem Atlétikai Club Sport Nonprofit Közhasznú Kft. (University of Debrecen Athletic Sport Non-profit Public Benefit Purpose Ltd., hereinafter: DEAC Ltd.), primarily focusing on the traditional HR functions. After reviewing the domestic and international specialized literatures, the practice of the examined sport organization will be described by means of case study, document analysis and managerial interview methods. Based on the results, it can be determined that there is no separate HR manager in case of the examined sport organization, due to its size, but the managing director carries out the tasks as an economic and HR manager in one person. From the aspect of organizational operation, the practice of HR functions is similar to the practice of other SME business organizations, at the same time, the management of athletics as human resources means its specific characteristic where the managements of labour supply, career and talent has other interpretation.

  • Extreme Sports Consumption Implications from a Re-search

    Nowadays, more and more research focuses on recreational sports consumption, its motivational background, the determination of target group characteristics. Extreme sports are becoming more and more prominent in leisure sports and are increasingly represented in competitive sports. In our research, we are dealing with Extreme Sports Consumption, Questionnaires were collected in the form of a Google Survey, an online questionnaire survey, which was divided into groups of people who focused on individuals with a variety of social media and targeted extreme sport interests. Data was processed using IBM SPSS software, basic statistics and correlation analysis. Our results were also graphically illustrated. After data deletion, we processed 167 questionnaires. The results show that men prefer extreme sports. Our study shows that in Hungary, the most popular recreational extreme sports are cross cycling, rock climbing, mountain bike, paintball and skateboarding. Among young people with higher incomes, there is a significantly higher proportion of extreme sports consumption. Because expensive sport thus assumes higher discrepancies in income and higher spending propensity, which is confirmed by our research. The brand selection of sports equipment for young adults with extreme sports is not characterized by extreme sports-specific brands, but by classic market-leading sports brands (Nike, Adidas).

  • Environmental Index and Environmental City Resilience Index calculation for Four Settlements in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County and Four in Győr-Moson-Sopron County

    Globalization and urbanization pose a number of challenges for different settlements. Stakeholders seek to cure global problems through sustainable projects. Since the Brundtland Commission's definition of sustainable development in 1987, the approach to sustainability has permeated all dimensions of the economy, including the environmental dimension. In Hungary, IBM conducted a study (Lados - Horváthné Barsi, 2011), in which the search for green, sustainable solutions defined in the definition of a livable city plays a key role. The characteristics of sustainable cities, that they are resilient to disasters, return to equilibrium after a shock has occurred (Seeliger, Turok, 2013). Resilience can also be mentioned as one of the pillars of sustainability. In a UN-Habitat statement, resilience refers to the ability of any urban system to withstand and recover from multiple shocks and to maintain the continuity of its services (OECD, 2018). In my study, I would like to present the results of the environmental index and the Environmental Urban Resilience Index (EURI) of the four largest cities selected on the basis of the population in the easternmost and westernmost counties of the country.

  • Control of Metal Trading Activities, in Particular the Purchase of Scrap Metal

    Over the past decade, the metal trade was a frequented area of the black economy. The transformation of the legal background of registration and reporting obligations has played an important role in the change of the situation. There were several steps taken to whiten metals trade such as introduction of the reverse charge, then a few years later, the possibility of nationalization, the metal Act and the related decree. From the impact of all these the authors introduce the influence of registration and reporting obligations related to certain acquisitions of enterprises engaged in metal trading activities.

  • Volunteering in Sport

    The subject of our research was the examination of the sports ambition and its motivational background. Our aim was to examine the volunteer experience of young adults in volunteering. Our goal was also to analyze the areas in which sports are chosen most voluntarily and what motivates them in sport. The basis for our questionnaire research was the concept of volunteering "4 W" (who, what, where, why). The questionnaire was designed to answer these questions in relation to sports ambition. The data of the questionnaire completed by 371 young adults (mean age = 23.93, sd = 9.93) were analyzed using SPSS statistical software, where we calculated basic statistics (mean, standard deviation, median, mode) and Chi2 test. More than 75% of the respondents have already worked as volunteers. One of the most popular areas of volunteering was sport. The most frequented volunteering area was among schoolchildren and students as well as university sports among young people, after which the area of competition and recreational sports proved to be the most popular. The main motivation of young volunteer workers was the following, : „I had a good mood”, „I loved sport”, „teamwork”, „work experience”, „learning and skill development” and „career perspective”. Organizations, marketing and communication areas in the field of sporting events and sportsclubs volunteering were the most popular in the area where the respondents had experience. A significant difference was found in the field of organizing and marketing volunteering in sports events, 61% of Hungarians worked, while respondents from other countries were only 34.2% (p <0.05). In the field of communication, higher values of respondents from other countries (45.7%), compared with Hungarians (33.7%) (p <0.05).

  • Monitoring of the Corporate Competitiveness Effect of Tourism Support

    Today the tourism is without doubt strategic of importance in the world. In Hungary's case can be related, that contributes to the performance of the economy largely, and its role is very important in the employment, too. Because of national economic weight it is suitable to analysing, but for the sake of complexity the consideration of economic performance, competitiveness exceptionally complicated task. The two sections are attached most directly, the performace is measurable through the accomodation service and hospitality. Present study does not intend to measure the performance of whole tourism section, the aim is from a corporate side, measure the corporate competitiveness from accountancy datas, the examination of part. The object of the actual examination is monitoring of the profitability effect of tourism supports through the example of 8 companies.

  • Változott-e az elsős mérnökhallgatók véleménye? (a szakmáról, a szakmai erkölcsről és a mérnöki etika tárgyról)

    A 2016-os tanév őszi félévében tettem először kísérletet arra, hogy információt szerezzek az első éves mérnökhallgatók elképzeléseiről: a mérnöki szakmáról, a helyes mérnöki magatartásról, és a saját alkalmasságukkal kapcsolatban. Az első felmérésem a félév első óráján készült. A feltett kérdéseim arra irányultak, hogy kiderítsem, tisztában vannak-e az érettségi után a műszaki felsőoktatásba bekerülő fiatalok azzal, hogy milyen szakmát választottak, milyen jellemvonások jellemzik a jó mérnököt, valamint hogyan látják önmagukat, megvannak-e bennük ezek a tulajdonságok. A második felmérés a féléves mérnöki etika tárgy oktatásának befejeződése után, tehát a félév végén készült. A kérdésekre adott válaszokból azt akartam megtudni, hogy mennyire segíti elő a mérnöki etika tárgy oktatása azt a nemes célt, hogy erkölcsös mérnökké váljanak a hallgatók. A következő évben egy új évfolyam esetén szintén hasznos mindezek tisztázása, ezért 2017 őszén újra elvégeztem ugyanezeket a felméréseket, és érdekes különbségekre bukkantam. Ebben a tanulmányban mutatom meg mindezt

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