Economic development is a continuous, stochastic process considering that development depends on a multitude of historical, political, economic, cultural, ethnic and other factors. In the process of development, each country puts effort into strengthening their manufacturing potential, increasing the competitiveness of their economy by moderniz...ing technology, and raising the level of education, culture etc. Owing to the accentuated actions of these factors, and different social, economic and other circumstances, there has been emerging polarizations in regional development, urbanization and so on. Proof of a country’s level of economic development can be found in various indicators such as capital equipment; the share of manufacturing, agriculture, and foreign trade; the share of the private sector in total ownership; the development of financial institutions and capital markets; the development and stability of the legal system; the development of transport, telecommunication and other infrastructure; the realized standard of living; the development of democracy and human rights protection; preserved environment etc. Economies of developing countries, including Montenegro, are usually characterized by a low capital equipment and low labor productivity, expensive manufacturing and insufficient share of world trade, high import dependence, uncompetitiveness, high unemployment, undeveloped entrepreneurship, and an undeveloped financial institutions. Polarized countries in an economic and development sense, are therefore those which are unevenly developed, and are constantly faced with highly pronounced problems of disparity in regional development and demographic problems. Solving these problems is a long-term process and necessitates. The design of a regional policy that is more efficient than the previous ones, as well, as building a different procedure for fulfilling the adopted regional policies.
The sheep sector is regarded to be a “black sheep” in Hungary, both in terms of economy and marketing. On one hand, the sector is not easily traceable as available relevant data are partial and infected by the effects of black market or underground economy; on the other hand, there are no clear, concrete statistical data or surveys on consu...mption either.
The present study attempts to dissolve the above anomalies and present findings by fact-based model calculations and actual marketing surveys. The fact-based model developed and used for more than 200 variables verifies the correctness of economic calculations. Original examinations were performed by Béla Cehla, doctoral candidate, in 2000–2011. The marketing survey, although not in full accordance with statistical requirements, was carried out in 2012 and it processed relevant data authentically.
The main conclusions are the following: It is clear so far that genetic basis should primarily be evolved in the industry, as it is the factor that mainly contributes to profitability and price-type factors come only following it. Genetic modification is achievable by changing breeds or crossbreeding. The findings of product chain level sensitivity analysis have provided clues that the added value generated in the sector is already determined during slaughter lamb production and progeny influences this value in approximately 80%. Critical points are feed conversion ratio and the relating price of lamb feed, which influence added values by 2.7–2.9%. The remaining factors affect added value through feeding costs, although not considerably.
The following activities can boost interest in the market of sheep products:
• Comprehensive market research
• Stimulation of cultural development by product-tasting, exchanging information and recipes
• Development of supply in accordance with demand
• Identification of target markets, positioning products
• Diversification of product range
• Community trade mark to guarantee excellent quality and Hungarian origin
• Selection of credible poster faces, organization of advertising campaigns
Many farmers, in addition to normal farming activity, have already turned to agritourism as a source of additional farm income and opportunities. There are numerous benefits from the development of agritourism: it may strengthen local economy, create job opportunities and new businesses; develop and promote training and certification programs t...o introduce young people to agriculture and environment. Agritourism helps preserve rural lifestyles and landscape and also offers the opportunity to provide "sustainable" or "green" tourism. Organic agriculture is a cultural evolution that finds its origins in a environmentalist culture. Furthermore the focus on these products is due to demand on healthy foods with high quality standard limiting chemical substances usage. It’s clear the link of the organic agriculture with agritourism and tourism services. They have a considerable role in the future development of rural areas. The purpose of this paper was to identify and examine those factors that have helped rural communities successfully develop agritourism, in particular organic agritourism and its entrepreneurship opportunities. Several focus groups were conducted with local business persons and leaders about a applicative case of South Italy area.
Outsourcing may well be a tool for increasing the efficiency of Japanese agriculture. However, outsourcing is not frequently used by Japanese farmers in their day-to-day management. This has resulted in a weakly developed market for agricultural contracting services. In order to take a closer look at the reasons for making use of outsourcing, a... comparative study was carried out between the agricultural contracting sector in Japan and that in the Netherlands, where agricultural outsourcing is a regular practice. In the Netherlands, especially small, diversified farms that lack sufficient labour tend to outsource agricultural work; in Japan, the situation is far less clear. Cultural factors possibly play an important role.