Applied Studies in Agribusiness and Commerce (APSTRACT) publishes high quality contributions on topics related to Agribusiness and Commerce and provides managers, researchers and teachers with a forum, where they can publish and acquire research results, case studies and reviews, which are important to the global food chain. The APSTRACT is an Open Access (OA) Journal. Submitted manuscripts should have a relationship to the economics of agriculture, natural resources, environment, or rural development.

Papers should have a practical orientation and demonstrate innovation in analysis, methods, or application. Topic areas include production economics and farm management, agricultural policy, agricultural environmental issues, tourism, regional planning and rural development, methodology, marketing of agricultural and food products, international trade and development, sport management.

Research on a significant economic component, analyses of problems connected to research, extension, and teaching of the International MBA Network in Agribusiness and Commerce are also encouraged.

Applied Studies in Agribusiness and Commerce (APSTRACT): An internationally recognised journal of business and commerce ISSN : 1789-221X, electronic version: ISSN 1789-7874 have been listed on the IDEAS/RePEc.

All of our articles and Issues are available in the following repositories: AgEcon Search and University of Debrecen Electronic ArchiveOur Journal DOI name is: 10.19041/APSTRACT

Journal Policies

Applied Studies in Agribusiness and Commerce (APSTRACT) is the official periodical of the International MBA Network in Agribusiness and Commerce published to promote the discussion and dissemination of applied research in applied economics, agribusiness and commerce carried out within the International MBA Network.

These instructions detail policies and procedures for publishing in the APSTRACT Journal. We recommend that authors refer to these instructions, as well as the Instructions to Authors: Style and Formduring submission, peer review, acceptance, proof correction, and final publication phases.

The journal publishes on its website the Annual Report of the International MBA Network in Agribusiness and Commerce, thus enabling members to have immediate access to the papers. Reactions to articles previously published in APSTRACT should be sent to the Editor.

Authors are responsible for reading their manuscripts and hereby affirm that the content of their manuscripts (data including graphs, figures, tables, and illustrations) has not appeared in print elsewhere (except as abstracts, local or regional field day reports, extension letters, or non-peer-reviewed proceedings of conferences). Authors are aware that if the content detailed above has been published elsewhere, our Journal cannot accept it.

To avoid plagiarism, after the manuscript arrives at the editor’s office, it will be checked by an international plagiarism search software programme. If the similarity index is too high the manuscript will be immediately refused.

All new submissions are screened for completeness and adherence to the Guide for Authors. uthors of manuscripts rejected at initial evaluation stage will normally be informed within 1-2 week of receipt. Typically the manuscript will be reviewed within 80 days. Reviewers or Editors may request more than one revision cound of a manuscript, and alternative reviewers may also be invited to review the manuscript at any time. After acceptance, it currently takes 1 week to get a citable, uncorrected draft of the article online, another 4-5 weeks to get the final corrected article online, and a few weeks later this is compiled into an online and offline volume and issue. The print copy follows 2-3 weeks later.

Current Issue

Vol 15, No 3-4 (2021)

Published December 22, 2021



Genetic-based personalized nutrition in Hungary – is there a viable business model?

A move from population-based nutrition guidance toward personalized nutrition may offer a more effective strategy than before to improve dietary habits of citizens worldwide. However, a significant number of consumers are not willing to adopt the highest level of personalization, i.e., gene-based personalized nutrition. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether there is a viable business model for genetically based personalized nutrition services in Hungary, and what business model would promote a higher level of consumer acceptance of the new technology. As a first step, a systematic Internet search was conducted to gather personalized nutrition counselling services that meet four criteria: they are related to nutrition; show some level of personalization; offer a product or service; and use some kind of consumer information to personalize a product or service. The second step was an expert content analysis of the service providers’ websites to identify the nine elements of the Business Model Canvas, based in which business model archetypes were identified. We can conclude that the vast majority of services available in the Hungarian market are based on phenotypic information; gene-based personalized nutrition is only rarely found. Our results suggest that business models of the Hungarian market differ significantly from the models identified by previous research. Of the eight identified business model archetypes, the “All in one place” model would promote a higher level of consumer acceptance of nutrigenomics-based services.

JEL code: I12, M31


Assessment of women farmers’ credit needs in imbulpe ds division in Sri Lanka

The study was conducted to identify the role of women farmers’ credit needs, using Imbulpe (Divisional Secretariat) DS Division in Sri Lanka. As the sample size of study 238 women farmers were selected from seven selected (Grama Niladhari) GN divisions of the study area. This study was conducted to identify the areas and level of credit needed by women farmers. And also, the agricultural credit sources of was identified. Women farmers were selected by using the simple random sampling method. Questionnaire Survey was used as the data collection method from March to July 2019. Descriptive statistics was used for the data analyzing process and the result showed that, 59.7 % of the women farmers were observed within the middle ages (40-59 years), most of them were married, and 4-5 members within their family. 64.3 % of women farmers were studied up to secondary level education. Majority of the women farmers were noted that they need credit facilities for the application of agrochemicals and fertilizers. In Addition to that, utilization of modern farming technologies, transportation & marketing of agricultural products and purchasing improved seeds & livestock related credit neediness most important for them. And also, they were showed a less interest regarding the credit neediness for pre-planting activities, irrigation facilities and harvesting activities. Most of the respondents were indicated high level of credit neediness for the application of agrochemicals and fertilizers and utilization of modern farming technologies while moderate and low level of agricultural credit neediness regarding the pre-planting activities, irrigation facilities and harvesting activities within the study area. Majority of the respondents were showed savings from the previous agricultural earnings and other family member or fellow women as their major credit sources of agricultural activities. Private money lenders act as the least important credit source for agricultural activities in the study area.

Analysis of household crop commercialization in Nigeria

Nigeria is experiencing a gradual shift from subsistence to commercialized agriculture, thereby increasing involvement and activities at different nodes of agribusiness. Participation of farmers in markets is an important determinant of well-being and development, and one of the pathways towards economic growth. This study analysed household crop commercialization in Nigeria. The secondary data used were the General Household Survey (GHS, 2018) Wave 4. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, household crop commercialization index (HCCI) and ordered probit regression model.

Mean age of Nigerian farmers was 50.04 years (±15.22), majority (85.68%) were male, married (82.51%), and 72.14% had formal education. Farming is viable in all the geopolitical zones and majority (87.64%) of the farmers were from the rural sector, holding a mean total plot size of 12.61(±15.63) hectares, and planted 3 crops on the average. The most produced crop categories are cereals (46.75%), tubers (20.70%) and legumes (19.00%); legumes and cereals are highest in the North, and tubers in the South. Subsistence households were 32.81% (HCCI=0), only 1.71% of the households were fully commercial (HCCI=100), while semi-subsistence households (0≤HCCI≤100) constitute 65.48%. Years of education (p<0.05) and crop production in North East and North West zones (p<0.01) constrain commercialization, while at p<0.01, crop production in the rural sector and the South zones, and increased land holding are the drivers of household crop commercialization in Nigeria.

Nigerian farming households are mainly semi-subsistence and are diversified in crop production. Nigeria relies more on market participation of the semi-subsistence households, through their marketable surplus, to feed her teeming population and for exports. Further attention on rural infrastructure development in all geopolitical zones and awareness creation on producing market oriented products will increase agribusiness activities. This will generate green decent jobs that will take unemployed youths off the streets of urban centres. This is in tune with the economy diversification bid and the new Nigeria Economic Sustainability Plan of the Federal Government of Nigeria.


Hungarian traditional clothing, as on- and offline marketing

Several experts have already formulated the fact, that this time is the fourth industrial revolution, which affects our lives and it results in a change affecting all areas of life. It is not an exaggeration, that the new procedures and tools change as well – establishing working methods and consumption habits but also affecting our mentality greatly too. We can get the information in different way than a few decades ago, and we can also process more easily information. The development of technology, internet and marketing is getting faster and faster, and many effects of these changes can be felt in all areas of our lives.

There are new trends, which can give new marketing related solutions for companies. These companies have to recognize the fact, that the marketing activity has to be integrated, most importantly, well thought out and also well versed in the case of traditional marketing tools and also online and social media tools. People spend most of their time online whit checking their social media sites.

How important is Hungarian tradition and the preservation of these traditions in the 21th century? Do traditions have any role in the life of the modern man today? What is the social, cultural and economic importance of tradition? This study presents the research result of the company, which started before the pandemic in 2019, furthermore it introduces with the help of the products of the company, and assists people in getting to know the Hungarian tradition and folk costumes too.

Can a company work without online presence nowadays? The internet and the social media sites give new possibilities, which can help to build the reputation, but they also contain risks.

How can a company work effectively on social media? The consistency and the definition of the targeted groups are important in online marketing. What is needed for excellent communication? The company has to know the purpose of the communication: whether it would like to keep contact with the existing partners or would like to make new connections?


Comparison of consumption and purchase habits for University students for industrially kept pigs and mangalica pigs

The aim of the study is to compare the preferences for the purchase and consumption of industrially kept pigs and mangalica pigs. The research was conducted among the students of the Faculty of Economics and Business of University of Debrecen in October 2019, in the form of an online questionnaire. Descriptive statistical methods, chi-square tests, Spearman rank correlation indexes, factor analysis and two-step cluster analysis were used to analyze the data obtained from the survey. Based on the results, it can be said that there are differences in consumer perceptions of industrially kept pigs and mangalica pigs among a number of sociodemographic factors. Factor analysis was used to delimit three factors in the case of industrially kept pigs (“domestic-branded-fresh product” aspects, factors related to health awareness, aspects of a marketing nature), while in the case of mangalica pigs one factor was identified. Next, I used a two-step cluster analysis using the isolated factors, where several sociodemographic variables were tested. The best fit was shown by the combination of gender and highest educational level. Based on these, it can be concluded that in the case of industrially kept pigs, the factors considered in the purchase were the most important for women and men with higher education in the case of two factors (“domestic-brand-fresh product” aspect and marketing aspects) and for mangalica pigs. While in the case of industrially kept pigs, the third factor (factors related to health awareness) that were taken into account in the purchase proved to be the most important for men with a secondary education.

JEL Code: I12, M31

Factors affecting acceptance of smart retail solutions in Hungary: an empirical study using UTAUT2 model

In today's digitalisation process, retail is also undergoing a transformation, with the emergence of new smart solutions. Integrating intelligent solutions into a business model means new strategic challenges for retailing companies. The aim of the research is to examine the factors influencing the behavioural intention and use behaviour of smart retail solutions (SRS). The proposed model was based on the extended Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2). Data was collected by conducting a questionnaire of 302 Hungarian respondents. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and partial least squares (PLS-SEM) estimation were implemented. The results showed that behavioural intention is significantly and positively influenced by effort expectancy and it is significantly and negatively influenced by facilitating conditions. Most of the respondents are not yet regular users of SRS, and the market penetration of front-end intelligent solutions in retail is considered as rather low.

JEL code: M10, M31, O14

The situation of agricultural sector in Hungary – trends and territorial aspects

Based on its geographical features, Hungary is basically an agricultural country. The proportion of the production area within the total area of the country is approximately 80% and the proportion of arable land is 60%. This makes our country one of the first in the European Union. In the EU, only Denmark and the United Kingdom have a higher proportion of agricultural land. Hungary accounts for only 3% of the total agricultural area of ​​the EU-27 Member States, however, it plays a significant role in the production of certain products. (Harangi-Rákos, 2013)

In addition, the climate is favorable for agricultural production, which also strengthens the country's agricultural character. Throughout history, we have rightly been given the honorable name “pantry” (Marosi, 2009), which was true both within the Monarchy and Europe. In the socialist system the agricultural country became a so-called “industrial-agrarian” country due to the violent industrializations.

Beyond industrial development, the service sector plays an important role in the national economy due to its technology-intensive nature. In addition, agricultural production is still significant in Hungary (Lakner et al. 2020). The agricultural sector is significantly involved in the production of the gross domestic product (Fróna-Kőmíves 2019) and in the positive development of the export-import balance. During the 2008 world crisis, it was thanks to this sector, among other factors, that the recession that affected our country did not deepen. The domestic consumption is largely covered by domestically produced commodities (Csatáriné, 2019)

The most relevant factors and trends in energy cooperation between Kazakhstan and China, focused on renewable energy sources (RES)

This paper analyses the good political and legal environments, mutually beneficial strategic policy, along with level of economic development and growth, superior geographical conditions and cultural integration degree of the important effecting factors of the energy cooperation between Kazakhstan and China. By using the main points listed above this article refers to related trade and investment theories, and it’s divided into two aspects: Kazakhstan's export of Chinese energy products with time series data 1998-2014 and China's investment in Kazakhstan's energy sector with time series data 1998-2016 to construct the vector autoregressive model (VAR).We selected relevant variables and data to construct an econometric model from the perspectives of trade and investment to make an empirical analysis on the influencing factors of energy cooperation between Kazakhstan and China. Our results show that China's demand for large-scale market and for opening to the outside world as well as Kazakhstan’s great energy potential are the most important factors their cooperation. It can be stated that in our days Kazakh legislation is suitable for promoting the Chinese energy investments, but in the long run it would be beneficial to mobilize national capital especially in RES investments and research. In the end, we found the most important reserves in competitiveness of electricity and heat (both from fossil and renewable energy sources) are power grid consolidation and waste heat utilization in the short run.

JEL CODE: F14; Q43

Value in grass: Matter of fibre and carbs

Climate adaptation is a major challenge. Chasing the sufficient amount of hay is getting in higher priority. Distant mass hay producers give favourable offers despite long distances. Quality is also gaining position and indicators like RFQ (Relative Forage Quality) is highlighting the marketing language. Hay market as we knew no longer exists in Hungary. Most farmers produce their own hay and do not spend extra cents to buy bales. Climate change however, force them to adapt and store more bales for the future. Horse owners and dairy farmers are the main driver to convince hay producers to provide high quality forage. We gathered Hungarian regional hay-price information and evaluated the trends in this sector. The demand-driven hay-price is in contradiction with premium quality timothy grass hay.

JEL code: Q11

Opportunities for wastewater heat recovery in Hungary and its role in the circular economy

Most of the energy content of wastewater can be found in wastewater heat, however, its recovery is limited. In this article, the current situation, future opportunities of wastewater heat recovery are presented based on secondary data collection, mentioning the constraints and main influencing factors of sustainable implementation of heat recovery systems in Hungary. Besides, the already existing systems are described. As regards the capacities of treatment plants, 103 of the 574 domestic plants have a capacity of over 20,000 Population Equivalent (PE), of which 25 plants have a capacity of over 100,000 PE. According to our calculations, in big cities/capitals (20.000 – 100.000, and over 100.000 inhabitants), it may be possible to recover wastewater heat sustainably in several places. In small towns (5.000 – 20.000 inhabitants), wastewater heat recovery can be technologically and economically sustainable only in the presence of agricultural or industrial plants with high and continuous wastewater feed into the pipeline system. Taking into account the temperature conditions at each place of use and their estimated fluctuations, it can be said that proper, careful planning, sizing and implementation have a crucial effect on the efficiency of microbiological activity in the treatment plants. In bigger cities, of course, the effect of the temperature drop of one main collector may be minimal, however, in smaller and medium-sized settlements, excessive heat extraction may result in complete inhibition or cessation of nitrification. In Hungarian case studies, the maximum acceptable temperature drop is approx. 2-3 °C. It can be stated that energy recovery from wastewater may be very promising considering the size and temperature limitations. Therefore, the rational recovery of wastewater heat can be an important part of the implementation of circular economy and sustainable energy utilization in wastewater management, resulting in significant energy savings and pollutant reduction.


Integrated approach in Ukrainian dairy industry: a case study from Poltava region

Integration processes in the field of agriculture, and particularly in dairy industry, have real prospects for improving the efficiency of business entities in this industry due to technological features. Particular attention should be paid to vertically integrated business models that allow hedging of various risk groups and minimizing costs due to the optimal combination of the efforts of enterprises belonging to such associations.

The purpose of the article is to study the current state of dairy industry in Poltava Region, Ukraine, and to show one of the conceptual ways to increase its economic efficiency. The paper presents a theoretical hypothesis concerning the necessity of vertically integrated agricultural formation’s creation in order to improve the competitiveness of dairy production in the region and having positive effect on sustainable development of dairy industry.

The practical significance of the study includes the possibility to use findings and recommendations set out in the paper for introduction of mutually beneficial economic relations between agricultural, dairy and trade enterprises in concluding agreements on joint activities based on a successful example from Poltava Region, and contribute to the stabilization, development and increase of the enterprises’ efficiency in Ukrainian dairy industry.

JEL code: F15, Q13

Consumers’ Awareness, Perception and Interest in Labelling of Processed Foods in Ghana: A Case of ‘Sobolo’

Food labels contain much information that helps consumers to make decisions based on the details which are of much importance to them. The study assessed awareness, perception and factors that influence consumers’ interest in labelling of sobolo in the Kumasi Metropolis of Ashanti region, Ghana. Systematic random sampling was used to select 300 respondents from five randomly selected sub-metros and data were collected using a semi structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, tables and percentages were used to summarize the socio-economic characteristics of respondents. Perception index was used to assess the perception statements on the product labelling and the Logistic Regression Model was used to analyze the factors that significantly influence consumers’ interest in labelling of sobolo. Results of the study showed that majority (97.3%) of respondents were not aware of labelled sobolo but 67% was interested, though with low awareness. The estimated perception index (2.8) showed that consumers had positive perception about labelling of sobolo. Among the socio-economic characteristics; age, education, household income and household size and respondents’ perception on health and safety aspects of sobolo were found to significantly influence interest in labelling of sobolo. In conclusion, the study found that, consumers would prefer different information on labels and thus their interests are significantly influenced by different factors. It is recommended that efforts should be made to promote the awareness, education and interest in labelling of food products to enhance production, consumption and sustainability of the food industry.

Exploring livelihood strategies of herder households in Mongolia: income-based approach

The classification of livelihood strategies is important for identifying different lifestyles and developing poverty reduction measures. The research was aimed to identify Mongolian herder households’ livelihood strategies and assess capital factors that impact their choice and livelihood outcomes in connection with wealth and poverty. A total of 350 herder households were surveyed using the stratified sampling methods from four different economic regions. The Income-Based Approach was applied to identify herder households’ livelihood strategies based on their primary income sources and Pearson correlation was used for assessing the influencing input. The study hypothesizes that herder households earn the majority of income sources from animal husbandry and an essential factor in the choice of livelihood strategy is the number of animals. The study found that livelihood strategies of nomadic herder households clustered into four main types: а) livestock income sources, solely b) earn from kinship and assistant herder salary in addition to livestock income; с) social benefits and pension income in addition to livestock income and d) income sources dependent on natural resources in addition to livestock income. Location, financial capital, and physical capital were the main factors for choosing a specific livelihood strategy. There was an insignificant difference between poor and wealthy herder households in terms of physical assets ownership. To reduce rural poverty, we need tailored sustainable development policies based on different herder households’ livelihood strategies.

JEL code: Q01, Q12, I30, D19, D31

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