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Relationships of the sport and the life quality in the University of Debrecen
Published June 5, 2009
87-96

In the sport- life of the University of Debrecen there has been a demand formulated on the making of a comprehensive, long-term development plan, which obviously incorporates all
fields of sport. This document guides the way for people in the sport- life of the university how they could organise their activities connected with sport on a cal...culable, predictable level.
Necessarily, the preliminary collection of professional informations has been a basic requirement for the establishment of this document.
The program provides foreseeable instructions to the organisation of sport pursuits both for sport people in the university, and members of the sport spehere in a wider sense. It
offers a cohesive solution for all kinds of tasks defined with the sport life, and also gives a guidance for the various ways of realisations of these challenges. Thus it can answer such questions as for example how the university can conduce the initation of conditions for the healthy living through spare time sporting, how it can participate in the financing of contest sport with the contributing project of reinforcement training and how the university can support the sport life of handicapped people. The project also contributes to the cultivation of the sport traditions of the university by bankrolling not only the official university sport
life but also the leisure time sporting of the students.
On the basis of rethinking the situation of sport at the university with its future possibilities the program paraphrases the tasks of the university in the sport life, the long term aims of
university sport politics with its operative aims that should be performed and also the possible steps which lead to these purposes.
The target of the project is to turn the University of Debrcen in every field into a “Sporting University”. It means, that beyond the development of quality sport and outstanding contest sport a much wider range of university people should be included in sporting in order to utilize all the advantages of sport. With this the physical culture could become not only a substantial form of spending our free time, but with getting one of our natural everyday activities it can also become our lifestyle.
Sporting prominently contributes to both the university students’s and the whole society’s mental and physical wellfare, and it also helps to improve our helthstate on various fields of life:
with its special functions it is a means for establishing a healthy nation, for promoting common relationships, for nourishing the economic activity of people and also for strengthening the national values and one’s self-esteem through providing equal opportunities.
The prosperousity of contest sport at the university and the maintaining and protesing of its efficiency fortifies our selfregard, as it is able to hold appropriate sportsmen up as examples
to both present and future universtity students, and also offers exacting ways of entertainment. Besides all these the advataged purpose of the project is to find and delibaretaly include those
necessary mechanisms which are needed for the working of the sport market.

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The irrigation influence under the soil, microclimate and plants in maize from Crişurilor Plain
Published October 5, 2010
180-186

The paper is based on the researches carried out in the long term trial placed on the preluvosoil from Oradea in 1976, for establishing
the soil water balance. In the irrigated variant the soil moisture was determined 10 to 10 days for maintaining the soil water reserve on
irrigation depth (0 – 50 cm for wheat and bean, 0 – 75cm for m...aize, sunflower, soybean, sugarbeet, potato and alfalfa 1st year and 0 – 100
cm for alfalfa 2nd year) between easily available water content and field capacity. Thus, an average irrigation rate of 2560 m³/ha was used
in the 9 experimental crops. The average of the annual rainfall for the 1976 – 2008 period was of 625.0 mm. The technologies used were
correlated with the needes of the crops, such as melioration crop rotation, chemical fertilizers in accordance with the chemical export on the
yield, manure (40 t/ha) was used in potato and sugarbeet. After 33 years of the irrigation use the soil structure degree (38.62%) did not
decrease when compared to the unirrigated maize – wheat crop rotation (37.01%). Bulk density, total porosity, penetration resistance and
hydraulic conductivity have worse values than the ones in the unirrigated variant. The humus content is very close to the humus content
determined in 1976, the phosphorus and the potassium content increased very much in comparison with the initial content (117 ppm vs 22.0
ppm); (180.0 ppm vs 102 ppm). The use of the adequate fertilization system and of the irrigation water with a good qaulity did not determine
a decrease of the pH value of the soil. The irrigation determined the improve of the microclimate conditions, the increase of the plant water
consumption, yield gains very significant statistically and higher protein content of the maize grains.

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Theoretical and comparative study regarding the Galerkin-Vlasov method use for study the free vibrations of wood flat plate
Published October 5, 2010
223-228

As for the historic record of the problem related to the study of flat plates, the first results were out for publishing at the end of the 18th century, the beginning of the 19th century, having Chladni E, Strehlke, Konig, R, Tanaka S, Rayleigh L, Ritz W and later on Gontkevich V, Timoshenko S, Leissa as pioneers. Each of the above mentioned au...thors have had significant contributions regarding the development of methods in order to solve the plates and establish some rigurous solutions of their differential equations of equilibrium. 
The making of constructions, machines and different high-perfomance appliances, whose functioning should take place in safety conditions, have required theoretical studies of rich complexity, as well as practical experiments, within which the problem of their free and forced vibrations represent an important category in the respective theme of research.

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Livestock production development in AP Vojvodina
Published September 5, 2018
501-513

The aim of this paper is to present the effects of breeding program implementation on the development of animal breeding in Vojvodina since 2010. Data from the Main breeding organization (controlled population) and data from the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia (total population) were used as a basis for this research. The main bree...ding organization is the Departmant of
Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Novi Sad that implemented the main breeding programs in cattle, pig, sheep, goat, horse and poultry production. The milk yield in a recorded population of Holstein Friesian and Simmental cows shows evident phenotypic increasing trend as opposed to a population that is not controlled. The results of the selection measures in Vojvodina show that pig breeding has an upward trend and that we have an increasing number of small and medium (family) farms. Interest in sheep and goat production is increasing primarily because of the high demand for products made from sheep meat and goat milk and meat. In the recent decades, Vojvodina has been faced with a decrease in the number of horses. At the same time, there is an increasing interest in sports horses and recreation. According to poultry production results of parental flocks, an increasing tendency was  observed in the production of controlled flocks recently, while the number of breeding stock breeders was reduced.

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The comparison of sperm motility and density in four different goldfish (Carassius auratus) types
Published May 26, 2022
135-140

Different goldfish types play an important role both in ornamental fish farming and science. Considering its historical background, the goldfish is a suitable model animal for the study of artificial selection as well as for developmental biological studies. Sperm motility and cell density is an important parameter in determining sperm qual...ity. The aim of our study was to examine the effects of different goldfish types on the sperm quality. Several sperm motility parameters (progressive motility (pMOT, %), straight line velocity (VSL, μm s-1), curvilinear velocity (VCL, μm s-1), linearity (LIN, %), amplitude lateral Head Displacement (ALH, μm), Beat Cross Frequency (BCF, Hz)) of four different goldfish types (Common goldfish-“wild type” N=5, Shubunkin N=4, Black Moor N=4, Oranda N=5) was compared during 60 hours (at 12-hour intervals) at refrigerated storage (4 °C). The variability of sperm density was also investigated in all types. A similar cell concentration was determined in the four goldfish variants (Common goldfish 2.01*1010 ± 3.46*109; Shubunkin 1.71*1010 ± 3.25*109; Black Moor 1.66*1010 ± 3.02*109; Oranda 1.56*1010 ± 5.83*109). Statistically significant difference between the 4 goldfish types in the motility parameters and cell density was not noted. However, a decreasing tendency in Black Moor sperm motility parameters (pMOT, VCL and VSL) was observable, as well as a reduced spermatozoa density in Oranda was also recorded. Our results can contribute to the improvement of the common hatchery propagation of goldfish. Future studies can add more evidence of the possible effects of artificial selection on the reproduction in different goldfish types.

 

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Effect of genotype on the hematological parameter of TETRA-SL and Hungarian Partridge coloured chickens at young age
Published May 26, 2022
99-104

Indigenous chickens are well known for their dual-purpose function and palatable meat. However, the information on their hematology parameters is lacking and hence hampering the poultry industry production of local breeds. The main objective of this study was to examine the hematological parameters of Hungarian Partridge Coloured hen (HPC) ...and TETRA-SL (TSL) genotype and determine the hematological reference interval values. This trial was part of the larger experiment where a total of 200 chicks (HPC + TSL) were reared. For this trial the blood samples were obtained from brachial wing veins of 8 chicks of each genotype for blood hematological analysis. The results indicated that some of the hematological parameters such as red blood cells-RBC, white blood cells-WBC, hemoglobin-Hb, hematocrit-Ht, platelets-Plt, lymphocytes-LYM, and granulocytes-GRAN were significantly affected by the genotypes (p < 0.05). The genotype did not affect the mean corpuscular volume-MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin-MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration-MCHC, and GRAN (p > 0.05). The hematological reference interval values were slightly higher in the TSL genotype compared to HPC chicks. It is concluded that genotype has a significant effect on the hematological parameters. The results from this trial will be help and design the baseline reference values for the HPC genotype which will be useful in assessing the health status of these indigenous chickens.

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Preliminary data on the effect of semi-synthetic baits for Noctuidae (Lepidoptera) on the non-target Lepidoptera species
Published June 2, 2015
71-80

Noctuidae are one of the most important Lepidoptera groups containing dangerous pest species. Monitoring and detection of these pest species is routinely performed by traps baited with sex-pheromones. Baits that attract both males and females were developed for improved pest management. First the effectiveness of different synthetic compounds w...as evaluated. We also tested semi-synthetic baits that contained both synthetic and natural components (wine and beer). These were more attractive for moths considering species richness and abundance. Disadvantage of this increased effectiveness is that the traps catch more non target, rare and even protected species. In this study we analysed the effect of semi-synthetic baits developed for Noctuid moths containing wine on other non-target Lepidopterans. In the six sampling sites traps caught 17158 individuals of 183 Lepidoptera species. The number of Noctuidae species was 124, while their proportion was 84.4%. The traps caught 813 individuals of 9 protected and 20 valuable species, which was only 4.7% of all Lepidopterans. In contrast the mean proportion of 33 dangerous and potential pest species was 31.3% (5375 individuals). Number and abundance of both protected and pest species were affected by landscape structure. The risks of catching non-target species was higher in species rich natural and semi-natural landscape. In homogenous arable lands the number and proportion of valuable Lepidopterans was not significant.

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Tulip bulbs preparation by heat treatment for forced culture in green house
Published October 5, 2010
70-72

Tulip can be grown in parks as ornamental plant and cut flowers, or possibly in protected areas for cut flowers during winter and early
spring.
An important condition for the successful cultivation of tulips is the quality of the bulbs that are going to be planted and their
biological preparation.
Under the quality aspect bulbs have... to be uniform and large, preferably with circumference greater than 11 cm and must have good
phytosanitarical status.
Preparation of organic bulbs for ensuring the continuation of the differentiation process of germs (floral), is made during the storage.
It is known that the preparation of organic bulbs are made in interaction with environmental factors, among which temperature plays an
important role. At the beginning and throughout the process of biological preparation, temperature is maintained at a higher level then the
temperature must be low until planting.
The temperature level and the duration of treatment varies by followed objective respectively early or late flowering and staggered
flowers production over a longer period of time.

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Identification of the Slovak traditional cheese “Parenica” microflora
Published September 5, 2018
227-239

Numerous studies have demonstrated the higher accuracy, faster time-to-results and lower costs provided by MALDI Biotyper systems compared to classical methods. In this study, the culturable population of total count of bacteria, enterococci, coliforms bacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and microscopic fungi and yeasts from cow’s dairy prod...ucts was identified using the MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper. Altogether, 50 samples of the Slovak cheese “Parenica” were examined. Total numbers of bacteria were cultured on Plate count agar at 37 °C for 24–48 h, aerobically; enterococci were cultured on Enterococcus selective agar at 37 °C for 24–48 h, aerobically; coliforms bacteria were cultured on Violet Red Bile lactose agar at 37 °C for 24–48 h, aerobically. The LAB were cultured on MRS (Main Rogosa agar), MSE and APT agar at 30 °C in microaerophilic conditions. The microscopic fungi and yeasts were cultured on Malt extract agar at 25 °C for 5 days, aerobically. Isolated strains (total 669) were subjected to identification by the MALDI-TOF MS. Among total count the identified bacteria mostly were Acinetobacter baumannii, Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus warneri. Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae were the most abundant coliform bacteria representatives identified. Coliform bacteria included Citrobacter, Hafnia and Klebsiella. Altogether three genera belonged to the LAB – Lactobacillus, Lactococcus and Leuconostoc were identified with Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus coryniformis, L. fructivorans and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were considered as the dominated LAB species in dairy products. Among yeasts, Kluyveromyces lactis, Candida zeylanoides and Yarrowia lipolytica were among the most isolated.

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Improved soil and tomato quality by some biofertilizer products
Published September 5, 2018
93-105

The use of microbial inoculums is a part of sustainable agricultural practices. Among various bioeffectors, the phosphorus-mobilizing bacteria are frequently used.

The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of some industrial biofertilizer inoculums, of containing P-mobilizing bacteria on the quantity and some quality para...meters of tomato fruits. Spore-forming industrial Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 (Rhizovital) as single inoculums and combinations with other Bacillus strains (Biorex) were applied on Solanum lycopersicon Mill. var. Mobil test plant. Soil microbial counts, phosphorus availability, yield and fruit quality, such as total soluble solids (TSS) content and sugars (glucose, fructose) were assessed. The results found that single industrial inoculums of FZB42 product had positive effect on P-availability and fruit quality in the pots. Fruit quality parameters, TSS content, soluble sugars were significantly improved (p<0.05). Such better fruit taste was correlated significantly by the most probable number (MPN) microbial counts. Use of such bioeffector products is supported by the positive interrelation among measured soil characteristics and inside healthy quality parameters of tomato fruits.

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Sporting habits of students at the University of debrecen Centre for Agricultural Sciences
Published April 8, 2014
155-162

In 2007, a new sport strategy was implemented, (XXI National Sportstrategy), which analyses the current conditions in recreational sports in Hungary and describes its developmental potentials. Additionally, last year a new concept for university sport was introduced (Hajos Alfred Program), having as its most important goal, to develop the recre...ational sporting activities within the universities’ environment. The latter is of high importance, as this is the last period, when, on an institutional level, we can establish and enhance the need for physical activity among young generations. In this study recreational sport is analysed in the University of Debrecen Faculty of Applied Economics and Rural Development. The purpose of the study was to analyse data on the sporting habits of the faculty students, their preference of where they like to exercise, within or outside of the university campus, and the reasons which can be found behind these preferences. Moreover, this study aimed to evaluate the service quality offered in university recreational sports. Data collection was completed on a paper based questionnaire, 42 closed-type questions were included and a total of 123 students completed it. Based on the results, college students usually complete their competitive level sport activity when they enter college and they continue this activity on a recreational level. Almost two third of them choose to exercise in places outside of the university campus. For those who choose university facilities for their recreational exercise, they do so because; it is usually cheaper and closer to access. In the service quality results we see, that females are less satisfied with teaching staff quality than males, it may be possible that females need more and more effective implementations in order for the universities to better satisfy their needs for physical activity.

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Comparision of growth of mature all-female and mixed-sex Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) stocks in RAS
Published May 20, 2020
65-68

The common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) is the most important fish species in Hungary, it is more than 70% of the total Hungarian fish production. The common carp production is important not only just in Hungary but in Middle-East Europe, as well as Southeast Asia. Majority of the production comes from fishpond culture. If the production secto...r wants to meet the increasing customer demands, there is need to intensify research on the intensive fish production opportunities for example all-female common carp technologies. The all-female technology is one of a genom-manipulation technology. Its production showed better growth rate than mixed-sex population in pond culture. Our experiment combined the recirculation aquaculture system (RAS) and the all-female common carp stocks intensification technologies. The reason for the experiment, is that there are no result about the growth of all-female common carp growth in RAS.

The experiment used the „Tatai grey scale type” common carp stocks. We propagated two all-female stocks (T2 and T3) and a control group (TK). Due to technological characteristics of RAS, the water quality parameters were the same for all treatments and corresponded to the technological tolerance of common carp.

The experimental period was from July 10, 2019 – November 20, 2019. Result of growth performance showed that the growth of mixed-sex stock was significantly higher than all-female stocks; (Control=3692.0±590.5g, T2=3438.8±415.4g, T3=3294.1±659.1g). Feed conversation ratio (Control=1.3±0.1 T2=1.5±0.2 T3=1.6±0.5) and SGR% (Control=0.8±0.0 T2=0.7±0.1 T3=0.7±0.1) were similar.

By the results it can be said the all-female common carp technology has neither advantages nor disadvantages compared to the mixed-sex stock. The all-female technology can be beneficial if the consumers need female common carps. It is worth continuing the experiment and examine how the stocks will perform above 3kg body weight.

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The effect of β-glucan, carotenoids, oligosaccharides and anthocyanins on bacteria groups of excreta in broiler chickens
Published May 26, 2022
15-20

This study was conducted to examine the effect of natural compounds, such as β-glucan, carotenoids, oligosaccharides, and anthocyanins in the diet on bacteria gropus of excreta in Ross 308 broiler chickens. Chickens were fed 5 diets: control (basal) diet, a diet supplemented by β-glucan at 0.05%, and diets supplemented by carotenoids, oli...gosaccharides, or anthocyanins at 0.5% of each compound. On experimental day 19, excreta were collected to determine the proportion of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Campylobacter, Clostridium, and Escherichia coli. Samples were collected aseptically and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen. Bacterial DNA was isolated from samples, then polymerase chain reaction using primer pairs designed to the 16S rDNA of bacterial groups were applied to define the proportion of the mentioned bacteria. Another universal primer pair was used to amplify a region of 16S rDNA of all the examined bacteria. Proportion of each bacterial groups was determined relatively to the intensity of universal PCR product band by gel documenting system and ImageLab software. Based on the results, carotenoids and anthocyanins increased the proportion of Bifidobacterium, which might imply the beneficial effects of the mentioned compounds on the bacteria composition of excreta.

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Effect of plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPRS) on yield and quality of processing tomato under water deficiency
Published December 1, 2020
19-22

Chlorophyll fluorescence was measured of H1015 tomato hybrid with different bacterial treatments (B0–B1–B2–B3) and three irrigation treatments: regular irrigated (RI), deficit irrigated (DI) and non-irrigated conditions (I0). The aim of the experiments was to show the effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on the yield, dry m...atter and vitamin C content of processing tomato during different irrigation treatments, and measuring the chlorophyll fluorescence during the ripening and development stages. According to the results, none of the bacterial treatments had a statistical effect on the quantity and quality of the tomato and on the chlorophyll fluorescence, only the irrigation. Further studies are needed.

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The applicability of 10 ml cryotubes for sperm cryopreservation in a Hungarian carp landrace (Cyprinus carpio carpio morpha accuminatus)
Published December 28, 2018
93-97

In our study, the comparison of 5 ml straw and 10 ml cryotube during sperm cryopreservation in a Hungarian carp landrace (Cyprinus carpio carpio morpha accuminatus) was carried out. Three different dilution ratios (1:1, 1:4 and 1:9) were also tested using the cryotube. A significantly higher pMOT was recorded using the cryotube in comparison wi...th the straw. VCL and STR were similar in both groups. Cryopreservation had a negative effect on pMOT and VCl using the cryotube and also the straw where, STR was not reduced significantly. An increasing tendency was observed using higher dilution of sperm during cryopreservation; however, significant difference was not recorded between the three groups. VCL and STR were similar in all groups. Cryotube was applicable for the sperm cryopreservation of the Hungarian carp landrace. However, the standardization for the freezing method specified for this volume is recommended. The different dilution ratios needed be tested also during fertilization.

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Structural and concepcional changes related to the University of debrecen and its sport organizations between the period 2000–2013
Published April 8, 2014
133-139

The strategic and conceptional approach to sport has brought substantial changes in the sporting life of University of Debrecen during the period between 2005–2013. The restructualisation process aiming at the development of university sport as well as the measures related to creating a more transparent financing system demonstrates elements ...of improvement in comparison to the period prior to the Bologna process. The Sport Concept of the university operates the different areas of sport within a transparent, planed and complex structural framework in accordance with the principles outlined in both the National Sports Strategy (2007) and the legal regulations specified by the Sports Law and its modification (2004, 2011). The conceptional changes of sport at the University of Debrecen followed the main objectives and guidelines of the European Commission that lays a great emphasis on issues such as the integration of athletes into higher education allowing maintenance of parallel educational and athletic carriers for athletes.

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Effect of different production types on the yield and ß-carotene content of sweet potato /cultivar Ásotthalmi- 12/
Published June 1, 2021
45-49

Production of sweet potato is extending in Hungary, despite the fact that there is no field-specific production technology. Therefore, many growers cannot utilize potential yields and quality. The goal of this study was to determine the optimal production method of the Ásotthalmi 12, a Hungarian sweet potato cultivar which can adapt to the... Hungarian climate. The effect of single and twin rows production on the yield of this cultivar was examined. The planting was carried out on June 24th, the harvesting on October 20th and the growing-season was 120 days long. Uniform nutrient supply was applied to the whole field experiment. During basic fertilization, 206 kg Knd 20 kg N, 36 kg P ha-1 were used on the soil. While forming the ridges, we used an additional 25 kg N, 45 kg P and 62.5 kg K ha-1. We adopted drip tape irrigation on the experimental field. After the planting, from the 8th week of the vegetation, another 21 kg ha-1 K, 10 kg ha-1 MgSO4, and 2 kg ha-1 Ca(NO3)2 was added in one dosage weekly, until the 13th week of vegetation. At the evaluation of the experiment, we examined the yield regarding the whole experimental plot. SPAD and fluorescence measurements were carried out on 08.16. 2019, 08.28.2019, and on 09.13.2019, during the watering break. To demonstrate the difference between the dates, we applied ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests. For the measurement of phytonutrients HPLC, a liquid chromatograph was used, where the carotenoid content of the Ásotthalmi 12 cultivar was determined in connection with the different production methods. Test results showed that twin rows production leads to a nearly 30% greater yield, than single row production. We determined, that the growth of yield correlates negatively to the ß-carotene content of the Ásotthalmi 12 cultivar sweet potato.

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The effect of diet composition, a probiotic and a symbiotic treatment on the ileal microbiota composition of one-week-old broiler chickens
Published June 1, 2021
213-220

A healthy microbiota present in the small intestine contributes significantly to small intestinal function, including digestion, nutrient absorption and health. The current study investigated the effects of a prebiotic, a probiotic and a symbiotic supplementation on ileal microbiota composition of broilers at 7 days of age. In a total of 57...4 male Ross 308 day-old chickens were divided into four groups using six replicate pens and 24 chickens per pen. A maise-soybean based control diet (C), a control diet supplemented with probiotics (Broilact; Br), a control diet supplemented with symbiotic (inulin, yeast, Bacillus subtilis; Sy) and a wheat based diet supplemented with wheat bran (W) were formulated. On day 7 of life, two chickens per pen were slaughtered and ileal chymus samples were collected. For microbiota analysis 16S rRNA (V3-V4 region) gene targeted Illumina MiSeq sequencing was used. Feeding all diets supplemented increased the diversity to varying degrees compared to the control (C) diet (p=0.006). As a conclusion, all supplementation substantially influenced ileal microbiota of broiler chickens at an early age. All these results could offer some information for the future study on the relationship between early intestinal microbiota and the compounds of the feed.

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Cytochrome b diversity of Hungarian Botrytis cinerea strains
Published November 10, 2010
18-21

In the mitochondrion of eukaryotes, cytochrome b is a component of respiratory chain complex III. Cytochrome b is encoded by the
cytochrome b (CYTB) gene located in the mitochondrial genome. The fungicidal activity of QoIs relies on their ability to inhibit mitochondrial respiration by binding at the so-called Qo site (the outer quinol-oxida...tion site) of the complex III. Since their introduction, QoIs (like azoxystrobin) have become essential components of plant disease control programs because of their wide-ranging efficacy against many agriculturally important fungal diseases like grey mould on various crops. QoI resistance primarily arises from a target-site-based mechanism involving mutations in the mitochondrial CYTB. As the management of grey mould is often dependent on chemicals, the rational design of control programs requires the information about the diversity of genes connected with resistance in field populations of the pathogen.
Monospore B. cinerea field isolates has been collected during 2008-2009 from different hosts in Hungary. PCR fragment length analysis
indicated the high frequency presence of type large intron in the isolates while in a few strains G143A substitution could also be detected.
These results indicated the heterogeneity of CYTB in the Hungarian B. cinerea populations, which possibly involve the heteroplasmy of this
mitochondrial gene, moreover indicates the existence op azoxystrobin resistant populations in Hungary.
This work was supported by NKFP-A2-2006/0017 grant. Erzsébet Fekete is a grantee of the János Bolyai Scholarship (BO/00519/09/8).

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Correlation analysis of relative chlorophyll content and yield of maize hybrids of different genotypes
Published May 26, 2022
211-214

In 2021, correlation between relative chlorophyll content and yield in three maize hybrids of different genotypes was examined. The data were collected at the Látókép Experimental Station of the University of Debrecen located on the Hajdúság loess ridge in Hungary. The soil of the small plot field strip plot trial, which was set up in ...2011, was calcareous chernozem. Apart from the control treatment (without fertilisation), N fertiliser is applied in the form of base and top dressing. The base fertiliser containing 60 and 120 kg ha-1 N of nutrient applied in spring was followed by top dressing containing +30–30 kg ha-1 N in V6 and V12 phenophases. SPAD values measured at different phenological stages of the growing season increased by an average of about 28% up to 10 leaf stage for all three hybrids. In the pre-silking period (Vn), the relative chlorophyll content decreased by 8% on average. After an average increase of 14% in the tasselling and silking period, SPAD decreased by an average of about 29% at full maturity (R6).

For the different fertiliser treatments, higher N doses resulted in higher yields. In the basal fertiliser treatment, the A 60 N dose resulted in an average 34% increase in yield, and the A 120 N dose resulted in an average 94% increase in yield compared to the control. The 60 kg ha-1 N basal fertiliser (A60) increased in the V6 phenophase with an additional 30 kg ha-1 N resulted in an average yield increase of 26%. When 120 kg ha-1 N of basal fertiliser (A120) was increased by an additional 30 kg ha-1 N in the V6 phenophase, only the Merida hybrid showed a significant yield increase (7%). No further yield increase was observed when V690 and V6150 treatments were increased by an additional 30 kg ha-1 N in the V12 phenophase. The yield of the Armagnac hybrid decreased by almost 20%, the yield of Fornad by 3% and the yield of Merida by 1%.

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Methodology adaptation and development to assess salt content dynamics and salt balance of soils under secondary salinization
Published June 1, 2021
199-206

The effect of irrigation with saline water (above 500 mg L-1) is considered a problem of small-scale farmers growing vegetable crops with high water demand in the hobby gardens characteristic of the Hungarian Great Plain. In order to simulate the circumstances of such hobby garden, we set up an experiment including five simple dr...ainage lysimeters irrigated with saline water in the Research Institute of Karcag IAREF UD in 2019. We regularly measured the electric conductivity (EC) of the soil referring to its salt content and the soil moisture content with mobile sensors. Before and after the irrigation season, soil samples from the upper soil layer (0-0.6 m) were taken for laboratory analysis and the soil salt balance (SB) was calculated. The actual salt balance (SBact) was calculated of the upper soil layer (0-0.6 m) based on the salt content of the obtained soil samples. The theoretical salt balance (SBth) was calculated by the total soluble salt content of the irrigation water and leachates. During the irrigation season, we experienced fluctuating EC in the topsoil in close correlation with the soil moisture content. Based on the performed in-situ EC measurements, salts were leached from the upper soil layer resulting in a negative SB. Combining SBact and SBth of the soil columns of the lysimeters, we estimated the SB of the deeper (0.6-1.0 m) soil layer. We quantified 12% increase of the initial salt mass due to accumulation. We consider this methodology to be suitable for deeper understanding secondary salinization, which can contribute to mitigating its harmful effect. By repeating our measurements, we expect similar results proving that saline irrigation waters gained from the aquifers through drilled wells in Karcag are potentially suitable for irrigation if proper irrigation and soil management are applied.

 

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Effects of bioactive plant extracts on immune-related gene expression of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)
Published December 1, 2020
49-56

 In recent years, intensive fish farming has led to an outbreak of several diseases, and the health status of fish can affect the economy of aquaculture. Since fish health and intestinal health are in correlation, it may also have an impact on immunity. Accordingly, many natural feed additives are being used to im...prove immune functions. In our study, carotenoids, oligosaccharides, and anthocyanins were applied at 1 m/m% in feed to investigate their effects on cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) in spleen and mid-intestine of 6 months old carp. Gene expression analysis was carried out to examine IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α, and IRF-1 mRNA levels in fish spleen and mid-intestine. The gene expression level of pro-inflammatory IL-1β decreased in the mid-intestine of carotenoid-fed carp compared to anthocyanin supplemented group, but the effects of the bioactive plant extracts were not observed on the examined cytokines compared to control fish.

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Climatic water balance in Hamelmalo, Eritrea
Published June 1, 2021
69-76

Agricultural production is an important sector for peoples to live, but it is highly affected by climate change. To have a good production we need to understand the climatic parameters which adversely affect production. Hamelmalo, which is located in the semi-arid area of Eritrea, is vulnerable to climate change and this is realised in the ...total production loss. Nevertheless, there is no concrete reference about the climate of the region due to lack of data for a long time. Changes in precipitation (P), evapotranspiration (ET) and, implicitly, in the climatic water balance (CWB), are imminent effects of climate change. However, changes in the CWB, as a response to changes in P and ET, have not yet been analysed thoroughly enough in many parts of the world, including Eritrea. This study also explores the changes of the CWB in the Hamelmalo region, based on a wide range of climatic data (P, relative air humidity and evaporation pan necessary for computing potential evapotranspiration (PET) with the pan evaporation method) recorded at Hamelmalo from 2015-2019. This analysis shows that the annual cumulative CWB for Hamelmalo is negative in 67% of the years. The dry season without precipitation leads to negative CWB and the change in CWB only starts from the raining or crop season. Based on this recent study, 2015 had the highest PET and lowest P, and this resulted in the lowest CWB in the investigated period. Opposite to this, 2019 had lower PET and highest P, which led to the highest CWB. However, the monthly values of CWB did not correlate with the annual P or ET. On the base of our study, it can be concluded that PET and P were very variable in the investigated years and P was the most influential elements of CWB.

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The effect of dissolved oxygen on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and basil (Ocimum basilicum) in the aquaponics system
Published June 1, 2021
89-96

Aquaponics is an integrated system that combines fish farming (aquaculture) and hydroponic plant production. The objective of this study was to examine how the level of dissolved oxygen with or without an air pump affects water quality, fish output and plant growth parameters for common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and basil (Ocimum... basilicum).

Ebb – and flood aquaponics systems (with automatic syphon) was used. Two treatments were set in this experiment, one of which was the aquaponics system without air pump (unit I), where water of the plant bed was pumped two directions, one falling back to the fish tank oxygenating the water the other was pumped to the hydroponics unit. The other system (unit II) was designed with an air pump.

In the course of the study, water quality parameters, such as oxygen saturation, dissolved oxygen (DO), electrical conductivity (EC) and nitrite were significantly different (p<0.05). Total basil biomass was higher in unit II. (5367.41 g). The final biomass of common carp were
2829.45 g ± 79.24 and 2980.6 g ± 64.13 g in unit I and unit II respectively. Weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) showed no significant differences (p>0.05) between the treatments. 

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Optimizing fish structure in angling ponds focusing on white fish
Published May 23, 2019
33-36

According to new amendments of laws, commercial fishing licenses of natural waters shall not be issued from the calendar year 2016 in Hungary. However, the most settlement of white fish to angler ponds originated from natural waters. Currently, there is no sufficient quantity of fish species belonging to this group available to fulfil the settl...ement commitments of fish farmers. The aim of this recent study is to develop a breeding and production technology that is suitable for settlement of large quantities of this fish species of appropriate length of (4–5 cm). The following methods are investigated: aquaculture cage system (pond-in-pond system), monoculture and mixed population with different ratio of white fish in fish structure. Due to the different environmental needs of different fish species, many parameters need to be investigated, for example: stocking density, feeding, oxygen level, monoculture or mixed populations, growth potential and mortality. A preliminary experiment was carried out following the artificial propagation of ide (Leuciscus idus) following a 21-day larval rearing experiment in which the effect of different stoking density was investigated for mortality and growth. On the basis of the expected results, the optimal conditions for the aquaculture cage system will be described, regarding to the white fish stock.

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