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A complex system for the production of pathogen-free grapevine propagating material
Published June 25, 2011
59-62.

The use of pathogen-free planting stock for new vineyard establishment is a key component in the maintenance and expansion of vine and quality table grape production. The success of the necessary changes in the structure of the grape industry is forced by the globalization process, the climate change, the rediscovery of autochton varieties as w...ell as breeding of new tolerant and resistant varieties. The renewal of vineyards largely depend on the availability of planting stocks. Serbia and Hungary found a common interest in establishing pathogen-free stock materials from newly breed resistant varieties and clonal selections of varieties which are traditional in the Serbian-Hungarian border area. During a cross-border cooperation program a complex system for the production of pathogen-free grapevine propagating material was established. Using heat therapy, in vitro shoot tip culture and traditional and molecular diagnostic techniques new pathogen-free stock materials were established from 26 varieties. They have been or will be tested for the presence of most important grapevine viruses, phytoplasmas, as well as bacterial and fungal pathogens. The complex system applying green grafting for indexing on grapevine indicators can shorten the duration of the procedure from 4 years to two-three years.

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The effect of cluster thinning, cluster tipping, cluster shredding and defoliation at the flowering on the vegetative and generative vine performance from Kékfrankos Cv.
Published April 25, 2012
63-68.

The cluster thinning is a method of the yield regulation.With the removal one part of the clusters, the yield pro leaf area will be lower, hereby the grape and wine quality will be improved. The regulation of the yield can lead to further advantages: the ratio of the vegetative and generative performance of the vines will improve, the condition... of the plants will better, the number of the physiological diseases can be reduced and the growth of the shoots and roots can be promoted. The grape growers make the cluster thinning almost exclusive by creating one cluster shoots. Usually the upper clusters are removed, because the sugar content of these second or third clusters will be lower. The cluster thinning is an easy task, can be done without special skills. It is an effective method improving wine quality, but its use can lead to other problems. The grapes try to compensate the removed clusters. Therefore the clusters will be bigger and thicker, but more sensitive to bunch rot. Moreover the treatment is expensive, because it needs manual work. It is worth to get acquainted and try the new yield regulation methods, which can help to avoid the occurring problems. Our aim is to show the results of our experiment, which was carried out in Eger, examining the red grape cultivar Kékfrankos. During our 4 years long experiment we compared the effects of cluster thinning, cluster shredding, cluster tipping and defoliation at the flowering, on the vegetative and generative vine performance.

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Primers designed for the detection of grapevine pathogens spreading with propagating material by quantitative real-time PCR
Published April 12, 2015
21-30.

Several grapevine pathogens are disseminated by propagating material as systemic, but latent infections. Their detection and identification have a basic importance in the production and handling of propagating stocks. Thus several sensitive and reliable diagnostic protocols mostly based on molecular techniques have been developed. Of these meth...ods quantitative real-time PCR (q-PCR) has recently got an emerging importance. Here we collected primer data for the detection and identification of grapevine pathogens which are important in the production of propagating stocks by q-PCR. Additional novel techniques that use DNA amplification, hybridization and  sequencing are also briefly reviewed.

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The importance of clonal selection of grapevine and the role of selected clones in production of healthy propagating stocks
Published June 25, 2011
15-24.

Genetical alterations and phytosanitary status promote the variability and modify the appearance of vine. Old vine varieties in old vineyards are highly variable and well adapted to selection. Clonal selektion is based on a visual performance: valuable individuals (clones) are picked out according to visible symptoms or characters. The genetica...l stability of clones is proved by testing the vegetatively propagated progenies on the basis of morphological and molekular (SSR, AFLP, SMPL, RAPD) markes. Authors take great care of the visual phytosanitary selection as part of the clonal selection being the oreliminary step to develop pathogen-free propagation stocks. In Serbia (Vojvodina) the selection breeding has been carried on for several decades resulted in comparative clone trials with home and imported clones of Welsch Riesling, Chardonnay, Pinot gris, White Riesling. Among the clones of home selection SK.54 Welsch Riesling clone is the most valuable. Its clearing from pathogene is being carried on in an interregional IPA programme (HUSRB/0901/214/123) in Kecskemét. In Kecskemét, the centre of the Hungarian Danube vine region 5 vine clones have been registered (Cegléd szépe K.73, Irsai Olivér K.11, Kövidinka K.8, Hárslevelû K.9, Pannónia kincse K.56). Besides them 18 virus-tested clones have also been qualified.Works aiming at their complete exemption are going on in order to obtain clones free of propagation wood-borne diseases.

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Effect of water supply on nutrient transport in grapevine varieties
Published February 23, 2000
64-68.

The effect of water supply on availability of macro nutrient elements (N, P, K) by the plants in the soil and their transport in the plants were examined. In a field experiment two grapevine varieties characterized by higher (White Riesling B 7) and lower (Kövidinka K 8) water requirement were compared on the basis of N, P, K concentrations of... leaf blades, petioles and berries. A different water supply of the vineyard was achived by striped coverage of the soil with plastic foil to exclude rainfalls from the beginning of May to ripening. Humidity of the soil decreased as the vegetative phase advanced. Soil cover resulted in 25-30% decrease of the water content in the soil at flowering but this difference gradually disappeared till veraison (i.e. the start of intense growth of the berries). The water consumption in the White Riesling B 7 plantation was more intensive. Mobility and availability of N, P, K in the soil was restricted by water exclusion (i.e. plastic soil cover) at flowering. Nitrogen was slightly affected, whereas P and K were in a higher extent. Comparing the transport of nutrient elements in the two varieties, leaf blades of Kövidinka K 8 contained less N and more P and K than White Riesling B 7 at flowering and more N and P and less K at ripening. Water deficiency inhibited K accumulation in the berries of White Riesling B 7, while this effect did not appear in Kövidinka K 8.Water exclusion decreased the yield of White Riesling B 7 already at lower bud loading, the yield of Kövidinka K 8 was affected only at higher bud loading. The higher yields of the treatments in Kövidinka K 8 plantation support the superior performance of this variety under the hot and dry climate of the Hungarian Great Plain.

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Old Hungarian grapevine cultivars and their relations characterized with microsatellite markers
Published December 8, 2008
27-31.

Thirty-one old Hungarian grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars were investigated on 7 microsatellite loci to characterize them, to separate the cultivars from synonym names, and to confirm parent-offspring connections. Conculta (group of cultivars or bud sports) members, such as `Goher' and Tajor' representatives, we...re studied to find a suitable locus for the separation. Synonyms, conculta members, subcultivars and clones of Turmine, which was the most important cultivar of Tokaj, were also analyzed to separate the members of the different taxonomic levels. Pedigree of 'Kiralyleanyka' was examined to find the missing ancestor, because the parent-offspring connection between the natural hybrid and `Koverszolo' is questionable.

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Certification programme for production of virus-free propagating material of grapevine and its results in Hungary
Published October 16, 2002
39-43.

In Hungary, detection of virus and virus-like diseases of grapevine began in 1960's at the Research Institute for Viticulture and Enology by János Lehoczky and his colleagues. At present, sixteen virus and virus-like diseases of Vitis vinifera are known to occur in Hungary.

Regular virological screening of grapevine varieties ...started in 1972. The present system of screening (visual selection, indexing, ELISA) has been established using methods with continuous improvement according to recommendations of international organizations.

In the first year symptomless grapevine plants are selected and marked during surveys carried out twice in the vegetation period: at about flowering and in the second half of September. At the first selection time plants are sampled for ELISA.

In the spring of the second year, overwintered canes are checked by woody indexing on 8 indicator species in the field.

In the third and fourth years the nursery is evaluated twice again. At the end, the marked grapevine plants, giving negative results on all indicators in every case, are considered virus-free.

In autumn of the fourth year, the virus-free material is planted out under screenhouse and also in a special mother block (nuclear stock) for maintenance and propagation.

Mother blocks of virus-free scion varieties have been established on 2 ha and those of rootstock varieties on 0.5 ha planted with the following number of varieties included in the national list: 71 European scion — and 12 rootstock varieties or variety candidates/clones. It is necessary to increase the area of Pre-base, Base and Certified stocks exclusively with tested virus-free (clean) material.

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Conventional PCR primers for the detection of grapevine pathogens disseminated by propagating material
Published September 7, 2014
69-80.

Polymerase chain reaction driven by sequence specific primers has become the most widely used diagnostic method to detect and identify plant pathogens. The sensitive and cost-effective pathogen detection is exceptionally important in the production of propagating material. In this paper we have collected primer sequence data from the literature... for the detection of the most important grapevine pathogens disseminated by propagating stocks by conventional polymerase chain reaction. Basic protocols to obtain template nucleic acids have also been briefly rewieved.

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Investigation of the cultivation value of old grapevine cultivars in Tokaj in 2004-2006
Published May 15, 2007
23-27.

Most of the cultivars grown before the disaster of phylloxera in Tokaj can be found only in grapevine collections. The aim of our study was to determinate the cultivation values of six old grapevine cultivars of the wine-region, namely 'Balafánt', 'Budai gohér', 'Purcsin', 'Török gohér, 'Piros (red) furmint' and 'Változó (altering) furmi...nt'. Based on the results of the investigations from 2004 to 2006 it can be concluded that among from the examined cultivars of Tokaj `Budai gohér', Turcsin' and 'Változó furmint' match the best with the technological and consumer requirements of recent days. However the yield of 'Budai gohér' in certain vintages is not acceptable and red wine cultivars are not permitted at this time in the wine-region, but in qualitative responses these presented steadily good data. On the other hand the lowest sugar content was measured and development of noble rot was not registered at all in case of Piros furmint' and `Balafánt'. Their spread in Tokaj is not probable.

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Water consumption of the wine grape varieties Kövidinka K.8 and White Riesling B.7
Published August 23, 2000
25-30.

In the Carpathian Basin Kövidinka and White Riesling are promising wine grape varieties. As in the region continental climate dominates and dry years are not uncommon it was natural to study the water requirement and consumption of the two varieties. Morphological characters affecting transpiration were observed including lea...f area, hairiness, number and type of stomata. The amount of water transpired per unit leaf area and time and rate of water consumption were measured in a model trial in cuttings with known water supply.

The water consumption of vine cuttings depends on varieties and is determined by the genotype but it is also affected by environment. Kövidinka requires little water and uses it to its advantage White Riesling requires more water and uses it rather lavishly. The results of our model trial could be introduced directly into viticulture practice.

 

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The effect of bud density on the composition of colour in red wines
Published September 11, 2001
63-68.

Authors investigated the effect of fruit load on the composition of colour substances and of reservatrol in red wines of some grape varieties grown in Hungary. The content of both, anthocyanin compounds and reservatrol showed practically the same responses to fruit load and the same profile in all the varieties studied. Determination o...f these compounds solely is not sufficient to identify the respective grape variety.

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Two new registered table grape varieties
Published September 11, 2001
51-53.

Two table grape varieties — Kósa and Narancsízű — were registered of the hybrids bred in the Research Institute for Viticulture and Enology in I lungary. Both varieties ripe early and are much in demand for the attractive clusters and flavours. As they are hybrids of Vitis vinifera they require similar growing conditions. In the same tim...e with their qualification the two varieties are included in the variety list and allowed to be propagated.

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Virus and virus-like diseases of grapevine in Hungary
Published June 25, 2011
25-36.

Viruses and viroids are submicroscopic infectious particles which can cause disease symptoms on grapevine. These parasites are depending completely on the energy metabolism of the plant cell. To enter the host cell plant viruses depend on injuries or on transmission via invertebrates (insects, nematodes, etc.). Viruses are classified by many ch...aracters including particle morphology, host range and information content of the genome. At present about 70 viruses including 7 viroids infecting grapevine are known. In single or mixed infections they are potentially detrimental to the quality and quantity of grape production in any growing area of the world. Some viruses can cause severe economic damage in vineyards. In Hungary many important viruses and viroids have been detected in grape. This review summarises characteristics of viruses and the results of detection and characterization of virus and virus like diseases of grapevine in Hungary. The identification of the causal agent, its transmission, geographical distribution and the development of the diagnostic methods are also discussed.

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Grapevine and apple replant disease in Hungary
Published November 15, 2004
57-61.

Field experiment was conducted to study the replant problems of grapevine and apple. Plantings were in three different fields: on virgin soil, on apple replant soil and on vine replant soil. Each field was planted with 60 pieces of grafted vine (variety Bianca on rootstock Berl. X Rip. T.K. 5BB) and 60 pieces of grafted apple (variety Gloster o...n rootstock MM. 106). Fungicide (BUVICID K with 50 % captan agent, 0.5 g/1 1 soil) and nematocide (VYDATE 10 G with 10 % oxamil agent, 0.03 g/1 I soil) treatments were used in the soil in order to identify the causal factor of the problem.

Biological soil test was conducted to test 17 soil samples of II wine districts and vine growing fields in plastic pots, under shading net. No root pieces were left in the soil. Two bud-cuttings of the Bed. X Rip. T 5C rootstock varieties were used as test plants. In each case, samples were taken from the vineyard and from the virgin soil. One fourth of the soil from the vineyard was left untreated and the other three part was treated with nematocide, fungicide or heat.

The results of the field experiment suggest that there was no problem growing grapevine after apple and apple after grapevine, but both species had been inhibited growing after itself. The fungicide and nematocide treatments did not succeed in determining the casual factor of the problem. Heat treatment of replant soil (in pot test) was useful in AS and VNS soils.

Results of biological soil test suggest, that grapevine replant problem do not occur in every vineyard. In fifty percent of soils, no significant differences between the treatments for shoot length, weight of cane, length, diameter and wood:ratio of the fourth internode were observed. In one case, difference was not found in any of the measured characters. However, fruiting bodies of Roesleria pallida (Pers.)Sacc. and the mycelium of Rosellinia necatrix Prill. were observed in this sample. In other samples, there was no significant difference between the treatments, but nematode and fungus infection appeared to be involved in increased shoot growth in nematocide and fungicide treated plants (mycelium of Rosellinia necatrix was detected). In other samples, the fungus infection caused significant difference between the virgin, untreated and fungicide treated soils and infection of Rosellinia necatrix was observed.

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Improvement of the grapevine variety ‘Kadarka’ by the selection of new clones
Published March 3, 2013
57-63.

Red wine culture in Hungary was developed due to the grapevine variety ‘Kadarka’, originated from the Balkans, from the 16th and 17th centuries. ‘Kadarka’ was the first grapevine variety cultivated on the largest area in Hungary until the 1950’s, but its production area has been reduced significantly in the past decades. In the period... of Hungarian grapevine reconstruction (from the 1960’s), the selection of the grapevine varieties and clones was determined by the system of cultivation (large growing space, large load and mechanized technology) that was based on the aspects of quantity. It did not promote the majority of the autochton and regional grapevine varieties to remain competitive. ‘Kadarka’ is a grapevine variety having an extraordinary variability in forms; however, a considerable part of its old stocks has disappeared. Nowadays, only two of its high yield clones are cultivated. ‘Kadarka’ becomes more differentiated from other, red wine producing, grapevine varieties, more preferred and newly requested by the fine aroma, spice, unique harmony of its wine less rich in tannin. The new market and environmental challenges in the field of wine production necessitate the preservation and improvement of the biological basis. In 2001 the Institute of Viticulture and Enology Pécs analyzed an old stock having a variability in forms in order to preserve the development and variability of the biological basis of ‘Kadarka’. Clones of great biological value were selected from it, with which the quality and yield security of ‘Kadarka’ can be increased. In 2010 and in 2012, six clones were submitted for state approval.

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Mulching in grape plantations
Published September 26, 2006
25-31.

In continuous studies regarding the conservation of the advantageous condition of the soil structure, the highland plantations that are surrounded by living waters have major importance where the erosion of the soil, nutrients and chemicals endangers the quality of the water and the living world of the waters. At the same time the extreme weath...er and dry summers of the past years have made it important to look for soil cultivation solutions and technologies that are capable of decreasing the evaporation of the soil, for enhanced conservation of soil moisture and to improve the soil structure that is required for the growth of healthy roots. In our experiment we have studied soil mulching with organic plant residue, by sods and the effect of the mechanical cultivation on the soil and on the grape through two growing seasons. From the studied treatments, the mulching with organic plant wastage showed the most efficient results from the point of view of the nutrient distribution in the grape and yield. It also had a positive effect on the soil structure and humidity.

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Influence of environment in electro-chemical quality of tomato
Published September 6, 2010
17-20.

The aim of the research was to investigate the impact of different cultivation environments of tomato cultivars, the electro-chemical and the qualitative traits of the tomato fruits. The quality of tomato fruit harvesting was evaluated at the Laboratory of Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture University of Natural Resources and Applied Lif...e Sciences, Vienna. Two hybrids of tomatoes were tested Belle-F1 and AmaF1, in two locations and two different treatments (open field and plastic tunnels). Model of experimental fields was based on random method and included three replications. Following parameters were analyzed and tested: pH, Rh, P-Value, Nitrates and the content of vitamin C. The values of pH for treatment in the open field and indoor production system were not significant (4.47 to 5.05). For P-Value derived from the two treatments the maximal values were without significant differences, while minimal values were significant. Study has shown also that the highest values of nitrate content (16.34 mg, open field) compared to average value differences were + 0.384 mg or 43.83% higher. In indoor production the nitrate content was lower in compared with plants cultivated in open fields, so these differences were +3.81 mg or 26.4 0%, and highly significant for both levels. In relation to vitamin C content, the highest value was identified in the indoor systemof 298.6mg, with variations from the overall average of 16.43% or + 42.15 mg. The coefficient of variation values for both levels was of 29.96 respectively 27.31%.

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Does foliar nutrition influence the pear fruit quality?
Published June 24, 2003
25-28.

The influence of the foliar nutrition on the pear fruit quality (Pyrus communis L.) cv. 'Williams' was studied in years 1997 and 1998. We determined the contents of individual sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose and sorbitol) and organic acids (malic, citric, fumaric and shikimic) by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography). The si...zes of the fruits (diameter, length, weight) were measured as well as the amounts of soluble solids and titrable acids. The experiment comprised two treatments: the foliar nutrition and the control. In the treatment of foliar nutrition the trees were sprayed five times (from May 22 to July 7) with a foliar fertilizer, which contained 15% of P205, 20% of K20, 0.1% of Mn, 0.1% of B and 0.1% of Mo. The foliar nutrition influenced higher quantities of sugars (glucose, sorbitol, soluble solids) and organic acids (malic, citric) but had no effect on the contents of shikimic acid, pH juice and titrable acids. At the treatment of foliar nutrition a trend of decrease in the contents of fructose, sucrose, fumaric acid, boron, and zinc was noticed.

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Influence of foliar nutrition on apple production
Published June 24, 2003
15-18.

On the basis of different experiments the technology of intensive foliar nutrition was studied in apple orchards in the period from 1996 until 2000. Yearly apple nutrition programs based on soil analyses. The foliar nutrition program was prepared in accordance with the soil, fruit analyses and climatic conditions. If needed, certain improvement...s were made according to the analyses of leaves and precipitation in the current year. The richness of the soil and ratios between individual nutrients gradually improved. The foliar nutrition influenced the yield quantity, quality and flower bud differentiation. The yield was doubled and the mean of five years reached 70 tons per hectare. In spite of high yields there were no problems with alternative bearing. The analyses of soluble solids, firmness, fructose, glucose, sucrose, malic acid, citric acid in the fruits and mineral soil composition indicated that the produced fruits were of high quality despite greater yields.

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Grapevine - and apple - replant disease in Hungary
Published April 14, 2003
29-33.

Field experiment was conducted to study the replant problems of grapevine and apple. Plantings were in three different fields: on virgin soil, on apple replant soil and on vine replant soil. Each field was planted with 60 pieces of grafted vine (variety Bianca on rootstock Berl. X Rip. T.K. 5BB) and 60 pieces of grafted apple (variety Gloster o...n rootstock MM. 106). Fungicide (BUVICID K with 50% captan agent, 0.5 g/1 1 soil) and nematocide (VYDATE 10 G with 10% oxamil agent, 0.03 g/1 1 soil) treatments were used in the soil in order to identify the causal factor of the problem.

Biological soil test was conducted to test 17 soil samples of 11 wine districts and vine growing fields in plastic pots, under shading net. No root pieces were left in the soil. Two bud-cuttings of the Berl. X Rip. T 5C rootstock varieties were used as test plants. In each case, samples were taken from the vineyard and from the virgin soil. One fourth of the soil from the vineyard was left untreated and the other three part was treated with nematocide, fungicide or heat.

The results of the field experiment suggest that there was no problem growing grapevine after apple and apple after grapevine, but both species had been inhibited growing after itself. The fungicide and nematocide treatments did not succeed in determining the casual factor of the problem. Heat treatment of replant soil (in pot test) was useful in AS and VNS soils.

Results of biological soil test suggest, that grapevine replant problem do not occur in every vineyard. In fifty percent of soils, no significant differences between the treatments for shoot length, weight of cane, length, diameter and wood:ratio of the fourth internode were observed. In one case, difference was not found in any of the measured characters. However, fruiting bodies of Roesleria pallida (Pers.) Sacc. and the mycelium of Rosellinia necatrix Prill. were observed in this sample. In other samples, there was no significant difference between the treatments, but nematode and fungus infection appeared to be involved in increased shoot growth in nematocide and fungicide treated plants (mycelium of Rosellinia necatrix was detected). In other samples, the fungus infection caused significant difference between the virgin, untreated and fungicide treated soils and infection of Rosellinia necatrix was observed.

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Viniculture in the Semi-arid Tropical Region of Brazil
Published August 23, 2000
115-118.

In the semi-arid tropics viticulture was successful according to technologies developed by Hungarian expertise

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Recent developments in biochemical characterization of Vitis vinifera L. varieties in Hungary
Published August 14, 2002
57-61.

Isoelectric focusing is an effective and well reproducible method to provide information for identification of various plant species and clones if breeding or other genetic modification(s) for a given species are reflected in changes of an isozyme pattern. The method has been used for characterization of plant proteins and enzymes and for ident...ification of various species and varieties. Our aim was to continue our several-year-work carried out on a wide variety of grapevine varieties and to reveal whether analyses of esterase and peroxidase isozyme patterns are suitable to distinguish various grapevine varieties. Therefore we compared esterase and peroxidase isozyme patterns of various species. Plant samples were obtained from Szigetcsep, Kecskemet, Tokaj and Eger. The following samples were analyzed: Pinot gris, noir, blanc, Chardonnay, Riesling Theses, Chasselas from Szigetcs6p, Bianca and his parents Eger2 and Bouvier from Kecskemet, Furmint and Hárslevelű from Tokaj, Kékfrankos and Zweigelt from Eger. To identify various species according to their esterase isozyme patterns the after blooming phenological phase while according to their peroxidase isozyme pattern the dormant phenological phase was found as optimal sampling time.

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Comparison of three soil cultivation method in case of grape
Published September 6, 2010
47-50.

Our results show that the different cultivation methods have effect on the yield and the grape quality as well. In 2008 and 2009 the straw mulch proved to be the best solution regarding the yield. The soil compaction was reduced in these plots and the photosintetical activity was also higher. Straw mulch could conserve the moisture content of t...he soil. The less yield was observed in case of barely covered vines and also the vegetative growth of the grape was less intensive in case of these vines, but it seems to be contributed to the conformation of suitable microclimate for Botrytis infection.

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Quality improvement in viticulture and winery
Published April 18, 2000
55-62.

The author determines the development of the grape and wine production branches as a very cogent common task. Because of its importance this sector enables the livelihood of 100-150 thousand families and also of $ 80-100 million export income. A state subsidy is indispensable to the realization of that project. In the author's opinion on round ...100 000 ha plantation area yearly 4-4.5 million hl wine can be produced, therefrom the export may amount to 1-1.3 million hl.

Yearly 3000 ha vineyards should be planted in order to maintain the present production capacity.

 

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Translocation of diquat dibromide
Published March 14, 2005
105-107.

The aims of our work were to answer the following questions: 1. Diquat dibromide at different concentrations is a contact or systemic herbicide? 2. if translocation occurs what is the extent and direction of it. 3. by what concentration it is translocated in hydroponics. It has been stated that diquat dibromide at different dilutions (40-5%) ha...d systemic effect in Robinia pseudo-acacia in the fields. Its translocation has been occurred apically first, and later basipetally. The extent of translocation depended on the concentration. In hydroponics diquat dibromide has crytallized on the leaf surface of Galinsoga parvif lora and all concentrations (40-0.078%) proved lethal. Recognition and application of systemic characteristics of diquat dibromide is reported here for the first time. Improvement of application method is in the focus of our future work.

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