Increasing the vitamin D level of oyster mushrooms by UV light119-123.Views:358
Vitamin D is essential for the human body and mushrooms are one of the natural sources of it. Many research works are aimed at enhancing the vitamin D2 content of mushrooms with UV irradiation in order to increase their vitamin D2 level, by transforming their natural ergosterol content into vitamin D2. The subjects of most of these studies are different kind of post-harvest cultivated mushrooms. In our experiment biologically active, pre-harvest oyster mushrooms were treated in the growing room with UVB and UVC light. UVB and UVC lamps (operating on 312 and 254 nm) and 6 time periods of irradiation (15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 min) were used. After three consecutive days of treatments the yield were measured and samples were taken for vitamin D2 and ergosterol analysis. Data showed considerable increase (from 0,67 μg/g to 3,68 μg/g, f.w.) in vitamin D2 levels at every time period in case of both wavelengths.
Mushrooms as functional foods7-12.Views:291
In this study I compared the nutritional composition of the commonly consumed fruits and vegetables with three of the most important cultivated mushrooms: white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus LANGE/IMBACH), oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp. JACQ. P. KUMM.) and shiitake (Lentinula edodes BERKELY/PEGLER). I compared the energy content and some mineral values (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and selenium), as these play a major role in the nutritional value of mushrooms. The focus was on the vitamin B group and the vitamin D content in mushrooms, which is especially important due to the fact that fruits and vegetables do not contain this vitamin. Nowadays one of the main research and experimental topic is finding possible ways for enhancing the vitamin D content in cultivated mushrooms by UV-light. The Corvinus University of Budapest is running a project in this research area as well. Based on the data presented in this study we can say that mushrooms and therefore the cultivated mushrooms have an honourable place within the group of functional foods.
Actual state of research concerning vitamin C as reflected in the literature (Review article)7-15.Views:161
Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) being essential for many living organisms, including man, became once more into the focus of interests because of its numerous physiological effects. Its anti-scurvy and anti-oxidant properties have already been recognised since long in the human body, but it turned out gradually that it has many other functions. In plants, its primary importance is defense against the photo-oxidative stress.
The present review is intended to reveal some details of the artificial synthesis of vitamin C. Emphasis is put on the metabolism of L-ascorbic acid in higher plants. Biosynthetic processes, translocation and accumulation are discussed in detail on the basis of recent results published in the scientific literature.
Evaluation of fruit quality parameters of Rosa taxa from the Carpathian basin81-87.Views:141
From the wide range of genetic sources available in Hungary, we have chosen as objective the evaluation of those rose taxa, which — on the base of their quality and morphologic features — are suitable for selecting fruit production varieties or parent varieties for further breeding. We examined physical and inner parameters of fruits of Rosa taxa, and evaluated the correlations by mathematical statistic methods. Namely, if a correlation can be found between physical and inner parameters, fruit production value can be determined by less examinations in the future. According to our results, there is a large variability in some physical parameters (weight, diameter of fruits; weight, number of achenes) as well as in inner content values (vitamin C, glucose, fructose, K, Ca, Fe, Zn and Cu content) of rosehip, regarding production year, habitat and even the individual of examination. Twice as much ascorbic acid can be found in achene-free fruits, and nearly five times as much in their dry product as in fresh whole fruits. It was established repeatedly, that vitamin C concentrates in fruit flesh, and ascorbic acid content can be preserved better in achene-free flesh. There is no essential difference in citric acid and carbo-hydrate content of whole and achene-free rosehips. However, macro- and microelement content of whole fruits is 30-40% higher than that of achene-free fruit flesh. The connection between fresh weight and diameter, as well as achene number and seed weight of fruits can be described by the function y=axb. A significant relationship can be found in case of K-Fe, Ca-Mg, Ca-B, Ca-Mn and Zn-Cu, between fresh weight and B content of fruits. According to our examinations, fresh weight of rose species with a higher citric acid content is usually higher, while their Fe content is smaller. Glucose content of fruits of rose species is directly proportional to their Ca and Zn contents. Zn content of rose species with higher fructose content is usually smaller.
The role of meteorological variables of blossoming and ripening within the tendency of qualitative indexes of sour cherry7-10.Views:210
We analyzed the relationship to sour cherry quality parameters of average temperature, maximum temperature, minimum
temperature, night and day-time temperature, precipitation and climatic water balance variables. Three cultivars of sour cherry were included
in the selection: “Debreceni bôtermô”, “Kántorjánosi”, and “Újfehértói fürtös”.We conducted regression analyzes on the three varieties, but
present only those that proved to be the best fit.We couldn’t find any significant differences in the weather tolerance of the varieties. The data
base of sour cherry quality parameters covers the 1998 to 2008 intervals. The researched parameters were the following: dry matter content
(%), sugar content (%), C-vitamin (mg), total acid content (%). Maximum temperature, the difference of night and day-time temperature and
minimum temperature all have a significant correlation with the investigated quality parameters of sour cherry. Minimum temperature shows
a quadratic relationship with sugar content, while night and day-time temperature differences show the same with dry matter content. The
other weather parameters had a linear correlation with the quality parameters of sour cherry. The research results show that an increasing
amount of precipitation causes decreasing tendency in total acid content of sour cherry, so that increasing temperature has a positive influence
on total acid content. Big differences in night and day-time temperature also has positive effects on the dry matter and sugar content of sour
cherry while the amount of precipitation has a negative effect. High minimum temperatures cause decreasing sugar content respiratory energy
losses are significant if dawn temperatures do not drop considerably.A more favourable climatic water balance has a positive effect on vitamin
C content in cases of a large negative water balance, vitamin C content is generally low.
Evaluation of crop yield and fruit quality in organic apple production7-10.Views:153
In this study, crop yield and fruit quality parameters (soluble solid concentration, sugar, total acid, and vitamin C content) of 15 apple cultivars including old, resistant and currently grown cultivars. The highest fruit yield among all 15 cultivars was obtained on CV. Jonagold with 15.5 kg/tree, while the lowest yield was measured on the resistant cultivar Reanda with 8.1 kg/tree. There were no significant differences among the cultivars in fruit diameter ranging from 70 mm in the case of cv. Húsvéti rozmaring to 82 mm for cv. Mutsu. Values of soluble solids concentration of the cultivars varied between 15.5% for cv. Téli Banán and 19.2% for cv. Renora. Sugar content values showed a similar tendency to soluble solids content. The highest and lowest total sugar content was observed on cvs. Jonagold and Renora and cv. Retina with 17% and 12.4%, respectively. Total acid content values ranged between 0.18% and 0.53% for cvs. Jonagold and Remo, respectively. Values of vitamin C content for the 15 apple cultivars varied between 2 mg% and 4 mg% for cv. Retina and cv. Mutsu, respectively.
Influence of environment in electro-chemical quality of tomato17-20.Views:173
The aim of the research was to investigate the impact of different cultivation environments of tomato cultivars, the electro-chemical and the qualitative traits of the tomato fruits. The quality of tomato fruit harvesting was evaluated at the Laboratory of Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna. Two hybrids of tomatoes were tested Belle-F1 and AmaF1, in two locations and two different treatments (open field and plastic tunnels). Model of experimental fields was based on random method and included three replications. Following parameters were analyzed and tested: pH, Rh, P-Value, Nitrates and the content of vitamin C. The values of pH for treatment in the open field and indoor production system were not significant (4.47 to 5.05). For P-Value derived from the two treatments the maximal values were without significant differences, while minimal values were significant. Study has shown also that the highest values of nitrate content (16.34 mg, open field) compared to average value differences were + 0.384 mg or 43.83% higher. In indoor production the nitrate content was lower in compared with plants cultivated in open fields, so these differences were +3.81 mg or 26.4 0%, and highly significant for both levels. In relation to vitamin C content, the highest value was identified in the indoor systemof 298.6mg, with variations from the overall average of 16.43% or + 42.15 mg. The coefficient of variation values for both levels was of 29.96 respectively 27.31%.
Organic versus integrated apple growing: II. differences in fruit quality parameters61-63.Views:217
The aim our study was to establish whether significant differences in nutrients uptake and quality of fruit exist
between organic and integrated grown apples. The study was performed at the orchard Fruit Research Station, University of Debrecen, at Debrecen-Pallag during 2002–2004. Diameter (mm), weight (g), firmness (N/cm2), dry matter (%) and Vitamin C in fruit were determined. Diameter data showed that the size of apples strongly depended on cultivars and organic apples were larger than integrated ones. Moreover, the effect of year and species strongly affected the apple diameter, size and weight. Measured data of firmness were good agreement in data of diameter and weight. Larger fruits have lower values of firmness due to the structure of fruit flesh. Dry matter content of apples varied between 14.66 and 18.07 in integrated, and 12.87 and 17.29 in organic apples according to cultivars. Values were affected by years and cultivars. From results it was evident that the dry matter content of apples affected by production system. It was lower in organic samples than integrated ones.Vitamin C content of apples was stronger affected by species and years than production system.
Tree growth and inner characteristics of fruits in pear cultivars29-32.Views:106
Summary The aim of study was to investigate growth (crown growth and trunk diameter) and fruit characteristics [dry matter content (%), pectin (%), total acid (%) contents] of 10 pear cultivars ('Móri császár', 'Nyári Kálmán', 'Mogyoródi óriás', 'Fehérvári körte', 'Szegfa körte', 'Piroska', 'Mézes körte'). The crown development of the cv. 'Fehérvári körte' can be regarded as outstanding among the examined cultivars. The growth of the cv. 'Mogyoródi óriás' was low, this cultivar showed the poorest growth vigour. The width of the crown in several cultivars developed at a similar rate as the height of the crown. Outstanding values were shown by cvs. 'Fehervári körte' and 'Móri császár'. The development of trunk diameter was the highest for cvs. 'Piroska' and 'Hóka', and large growth of trunk diameter can be seen on cv. 'Fehervári körte'. Cvs. 'Mogyoródi óriás' and 'Mezes körte'showed weak growth. Outstanding dry matter content of fruits was measured on cvs. 'Fehervári körte' and 'Mézes körte'. The total acid content of fruits of cvs. 'Mézes körte' and 'Fehérvári körte'' was significantly different from the total acid content of cv. 'Mogyoródi óriás'. Pectin content was low in fruits of cvs. 'Mogyoródi óriás' and 'Fehérvári körte', while cv. 'Mézes körte' contained significantly more pectin. Vitamin C content we found was rather high in cvs. 'Mézes körte' and 'Fehérvári körte'.
Chemical characteristics of nectarine genitors used for breeding program in Romania41-43.Views:116
The geographic location of Bucharest area, the nature of its soil and its climate offer remarkably favourable conditions for nectarine growing, with juicy and well flavoured fruit, good for fresh consumption and processing.
The five years' investigation (1996-2000) has helped to identify some nectarine cultivars and hybrids (NJN 58, ARK 165, ARK 139, Morton, ARK 107, Romamer I, ARK 125, Firebrite) with exceptional fruit quality (dry matter content, titratable acidity, vitamin C content, overall sugar, and amount of pectic substances).
Dry matter content varied over the three years from 8.3 to 18.5% (NJN 68), meanwhile titratable acidity varied between 0.26 and 1.08% (Romamer I). Sugar / acidity ratio was within the limits of 8.6 and 36.5 (Nectared 7). Nectarines have high vitamin C content, over 10 mg/100g (Fairlane, NJN 67, Regina, Harko), glucides were found in Firebrite, Romamer I varieties and NJN 21, CIR1T127, HFSR3P4, HNA hybrids.
Some cultivars have been recommended for planting in this southern area of Romania (Crimsongold, ARK 125, Harko, Hardyred, ARK 134), others used as quality genitors (ARK 85, Nectared 7, NJN 21, ARK 21, ARK 134, Fantasia) in breeding projects.
Evaluation of elder (Sambucus nigra) varieties and candidates for the canning industry. Results of the composition studies102-107.Views:141
Sambucus nigra is a very common elder species in Europe. Due to its excellent composition, natural dye content and healing power it can be considered as a biological active plant. In Hungary the cultivation of Sambucus nigra started in the nineties and since that time there is a growing demand for this plant. Sambucus nigra is a special fruit due to its sole.-application for processing industry. Partly fruit products are made of it, partly it is used as a natural dye. In both cases the first step is the knowledge and evaluation of the composition of the various elder varieties and candidates. For that reason composition studies of different elder types were performed in several years at the Department of the Canning Technology of the Szent Istvan University.
The most important sample was the Haschberg variety, which is the sole elder type accepted and allowed for propagation by the government. This plant is grown in the Pilot Plant of the Szent István University in Szigetcsép. Among the studied samples there were some varieties cultivated in the Fertőd Research Station. They were the following types: No. 33, 480 and 481. Besides elder collected wild in Szigetcsep and the very promising early-ripened SZ-CS 21-23 variety originated also from Szigetcsép were investigated. One year it was possible to study the Sambu variety, too. Department of the Fruit Culture of the Szent István University helped to obtain the various elder types and candidates. Along our experimental activities, the following components and parameters were studied: the content of pectin, organic acid, carbohydrate, mineral, vitamin C, total acid, aquesoluble dry material, anthocyanin and the pH.
After having obtained a juice, a concentrate from the species has been made and — after freezing — the aquesoluble dry substance and the acid content, as well as the colour parameters were monitored. Studies were performed in two years (1997-98). On the basis of these results classes were established for all compounds, from which an overall ranking was derived.
It was found that in both years the Haschberg variety proved to have the best composition. Therefore regarding to the overall series of order the experiments performed in the second year supported the results obtained in the previous year. Results have shown that Sambucus nigra has excellent composition beside its curative effect. Its mineral content has surpassed that of the other fruits and it had advantageous acid-and carbohydrate composition. The ascorbic acid content of the Haschberg variety is striking. It can be concluded from the experiments that the Haschberg type has the most advantageous composition, therefore it is suitable for making special curative and exclusive products.
Selenium enriched vegetables as biofortification alternative for alleviating micronutrient malnutrition75-81.Views:460
There is a very difficult equation for malnutrition and over-consumption. That means malnutrition even of vitamins and/or minerals (Ca, Cu, Fe, I, Mg, Se and Zn, vitamin A) affects more than two billion people worldwide, largely due to low concentrations or poor bioavailability of the nutrients in the diet. In some developed countries in contrast, over-consumption, particularly of over-refined cerealbased foods, has contributed to the development of an epidemic of metabolic diseases. So, producing nutritious and safe foods sufficiently and sustainably is important target at the same time challenge of modern agriculture. In the past, great efforts have focused only on increasing crop yields, but enhancing the concentrations of mineral micronutrients has become an urgent task. The main daily food source is the staple crops specially in developing countries of the world, i.e., wheat, rice, cassava, beans, sweet potato or maize. These kind of plants are often deficient in some of mineral elements. Thus, the increasing of bioavailable concentration of micronutrients in edible crop tissues (via biofortification) has become a promising strategy in modern agriculture, providing more nutritious foods, to more people, with the use of fewer lands. Biofortification of these trace elements can be achieved application with agronomic process such as soil or foliar fertilization or crop breeding even conventional technic and/or genetic engineering. This review highlight progress to date and identify challenges faced in delivering biofortified vegetable crops as well as the agronomic approaches and tools to improve crop yield and micronutrient content of food crops.
Eicosapentaenoic acid production by Phaeodactylum tricornutum under different culture condition133-136.Views:115
Phaeodactylum tricornutum UTEX 640 strain of microalgae was screened under different culture conditions for their capacity to produce eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). In our experiments, the effect of sodium chlorid, nitrogen source, phosphate, initial pH, as well as the CO2 content of the medium on production of the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by P. tricornutum were investigated. The EPA content of biomass was enhanced by the low pH of the medium, with increased concentrations of B17 vitamin and nitrate, and also with decreasing concentrations of sodium chlorid. The EPA is most likely associated with polar (membran) lipids and the role of EPA appears to be involved with membran permeability in microalge. The synthesis of phospholipids, enhances the EPA content of the cells, as expected. The maximum EPA yields were observed under optimum culture condition 43 — 48 mg/g of dry cell weight.
Review of nutritional value and putative health-effects of quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) fruit29-32.Views:413
Quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) has been long regarded to be a health-promoting fruit. Although it is mainly consumed in processed form, its relatively heat-stable polyphenolics were confirmed to be responsible for most of the beneficial effects. This review aims to show basic nutritional information on quince fruit such as carbohydrate, fibre, pectin and mineral element contents. In addition, vitamin and polyphenolic contents and composition as well as the physiological effects of quince consumption were also surveyed. Information on presumable protective effects against several diseases including infl ammation, atopic dermatitis, ulcers and cancer is summarized. Potential antibacterial effects of quince polyphenolics were also considered. Polyphenolics are supposed to be responsible for the major part of benefi cial health-effects, and phenolic compounds predominantly accumulate in peel. There exists a considerable extent of genetic variation in phytochemical composition among cultivars, which might be exploited in designing future breeding programs for quince improvement and opening new ways for health-related uses.
Hungarian fruits and vegetables of high anti-oxidant activity as functional foods (Review article)13-21.Views:247
Recently, projects aiming to enhance the consumption of fruits and vegetables are intensified. Experts agree in the principle of fresh vegetable foods being a valid panacea in averting risks of ailments as well as curing immune-insufficiency, inflammations, moreover, certain cancerous processes. It is generally accepted that among substances of biological activity the anti-oxidant compounds such as vitamins C, E and carotenoids, etc. have the major role in this process. Hungarian agriculture has outstanding chances in utilising its natural as well as cultivated plant resources and favourable climatic conditions. It would be, however, necessary to build up a databank of antioxidant substances found in fruits and vegetables and including the modifying effects of technology, growing site, variety, etc. The concept of promoting the trade of Hungarian food-specialities as "Hungaricum" needs, urgently, the aid of a databank of that kind. Some of those excellent products are for instance the sour cherry, pepper and onion. They enjoy high priority as "Hungaricum" in the EU and it should be enhanced by intense and consequent research work, which may prove their role as functional foods. The USA is the leading country in research on the anti-oxidant substances of sour cherries, and up to now more than 17 compounds have been found in Hungarian varieties among others. In pepper fruits used as vegetable and source of vitamin C, the analyses are still lacking because research of the past concentrated on the products of milled spice pepper. Onion and garlic are entirely unexplored in this respect. It should be noted that availability of these fresh products in the moderate climate is restricted to a relatively short season. For that reason, some processing and preservation methods are needed in order to use those fruits and vegetables as functional foods all around the year. The scientifically founded endeavour as a solution of the questions mentioned is stimulated by vigorous commercial interests as well as by the urgent needs of the consumers to improve their health.
Effect of organic and integrated farming on carotenoid and tocopherol content of apricot fruits15-18.Views:194
In modern and healthy diets antioxidants play an important role providing natural defence against serious diseases. Therefore it is recommended to include fruits and vegetables having high antioxidant capacity in daily diet in a due course. Apricot is one of the fruits receiving an increasing attention in this field. This study was conducted to investigate the composition and content of fat-soluble carotenoids and tocopherols in different varieties of apricot using recently developed liquid chromatographic methods. Also it was aimed to compare organic and integrated farming in their effect on carotenoid and tocopherol content of the fruits. The results showed that apricot fruit are rich in vital carotenoids and bioactive tocopherols with significant variation between different varieties. The organic farming had favourable effect on the level of the major carotenoids and depending on variety this technology either increases or does not have significant influence on vitamin E content.
N:K ratio and its effect on paprika yield and quality in hydroculture35-38.Views:144
Earlier results of experiments with paprika grown in soil have shown the high sensitivity of the crop to nutrient supply. According to these findings, yield and also fruit quality are highly affected not only by the nitrogen and potassium level, the concentration of nutrient solution, but also by the nitrogen-potassium ratio. Our preliminary tests have also proved, that the composition of the nutrient solution, first of all, the N/K ratio has a definite effect on the yield quantity and quality. Therefore we have investigated the ratio of the two nutrients with the aim of developing a nutrient solution of optimal composition for white fruited paprika forcing. The most balanced burden of the plants was found when the N/K ratio was 1:1. The highest yield was produced with N/K 1:1.3. Significant yield reduction (30%) was found with the treatment N/K 1:1.9 as compared to the 1:1.3 and 1:1.6.
Effect of boron nutrition on nutrient uptake and fruit quality of tart cherry in Eastern Hungary45-48.Views:244
Effect of the foliar boron (B) application on nutrient uptake and fruit quality of tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) was investigated from 2008 to 2009 on mature four favourite Hungarian tart cherry cultivars like ‘Oblacsinszka’, ‘Érdi bôtermő’, ‘Újfehértói fürtös’ and ‘Petri’. Tart cherry trees grown in Eastern Hungary (Újfehértó) on an acidic sandy soil with low B content. Trees were treated with B by foliar application (0.5% B) at full bloom and untreated with B served as a control. B sprays strongly affected on B content of inflorescences. However, B sprays had no consistent effect on summer leaf B status. In our experiment stronger year effect was observed at leaf B status than flower B status. The effectiveness of early spring boron applications are limited and mostly affected the flower B status only. Moreover, treatments had inconsistent effect on studied fruit inner parameters. Monosaccharides, vitamin C and organic acid contents of sour cherry were stronger affected by cultivars than applied treatments.
Examination of valuable ingredients of some wild fruits71-74.Views:145
A possible way of the development of Hungarian agriculture is the selection and growing of new fruit species and varieties featuring special qualities, with high biological nutritive and health protecting properties due to their natural composition. A reserve for such new fruits is the native dendroflora, e.g. those wild-growing trees and shrubs of Hungary, which bear edible fruits. The publication is giving a summary of chemical analyses done on the fruits of the plants listed below. The research team on the project started the work in 2001 with
woody species (genera) as follows:
- common elder (Sambucus nigra) clone named Szcs-1, Szcs-2, Szcs-3, Szcs-4, Szcs-5, SzcsK-1, SzcsK-2
- dog rose (Rosa canina) types: clones named Sz-1, Sz-2, Sz-3, Sz-4 and Sz-5 .
- native rowans: Sorbus dacica, S.rotundifolia, S. degenu, S.bakonyensis cv. Fánivölgy
- hawthorns: Crataegus monogyna, C. orientalis,C..v lavallei.
- cornel cherry: Cornus mas cv. Császló.
The present paper is reporting on the content of the following compounds in the fruits: dry matter (refractometric values), total acid content, ascorbic acid, 13-carotene, pectin, minerals and carbohydrates. The results have shown that these wild fruits have excellent composition. Besides their curative effects, their content of minerals, ascorbic acid and 13-carotene has surpassed that of the traditional fruits. These fruits are rich in ascorbic acid, 13-carotene and pectin. The high content of the above-listed, biologically active compounds makes the new wild fruits studied suitable for the preparation (and later: mass-production) of special curative and exclusive products.
Antioxidant capacity, C-vitamin and anthocyanils content in the fruits of elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) types77-79.Views:134
: Elderberry used to be a common medicinal plant since long. Its ripe fruit and inflorescence has been collected. Cultivation however, started in Hungary recently, with the early 90-es. Initially, has been planted, the 'Haschberg' cultivar. Our Department started first with the selection of favourable genotypes in the Hungarian spontaneous populations of the species, we aimed to find clones, which are earlier ripening than 'Haschberg', moreover, superior in any of the agronomical or quality traits. Present study deals with 19 new selected clones by their content of vitamin-C, anthocyanins and their antioxidant capacity. Environmental stresses are inducing, increased, accumulation of free radicals in living organisms. To evoid the harmful effects of the free radicals, we need to consume antioxidant compounds (flavonoids, anthocyanins, vitamins, etc.) In the literature there are quite a few references related to the anthocyanins and antioxidants of the elderberry. Measurements prove that substantial differences exist among the population of the species as for the content and quality of those compounds. In anthocyanin content, the difference between the highest and lowest values was 3000 mg/I, whereas in antioxidant content this value was 6001.1M. Those types, which contained less anthocyanin (<5000 mg/I), produced lower antioxidant capacity, whereas the highest anthocyanin content was associated with the strongest antioxidant activity. C-vitamin content varied between 36.5 and 96.4 mg/100g. These values provide daily human requirements by their consumption. Summing up all parameters, examined the best type was Cinkota 1.