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  • In vitro rooting and anatomical study of leaves and roots of in vitro and ex vitro plants of Prunus x davidopersica 'Piroska'

    The process of in vitro rooting and the anatomical characters of in vitro and ex vitro leaves and roots of Prunus x davidopersica 'Piroska' were studied. Best rooting percentage (50%) and highest root number (5.0) was achieved in spring on a medium containing 0.1 mg/I NAA + 30 g/1 glucose. At the end of rooting the parenchyma of the in vitro leaves was more loose and spongy, than during the proliferation period. In the first newly developed leaf of an acclimatised plant, the parenchyma was much more developed, contained less row of cells and less air space too, compared to the leaves developed in the field. The in vitro developed root had a broad cortex and narrow vascular cylinder with less developed xylem elements, but at the end of the acclimatisation the vascular system became dominant in the root.

  • The effect of different carbohydrates on the multiplication of Hosta cultivars

    The effect of seven concentrations of two carbohydrate sources were compared to determine the best source and the most suitable source and concentration for micropropagation of some Hosta cultivars: H. 'Gold Haze', H. 'Gold Drop' and H. 'Dew Drop'. 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g/1 sucrose or glucose were added to a MS basic medium supplemented with 3 mg/1 kinetin and 0.1 mg/1 IAA. For 'Gold Haze' 40 g/1 sucrose proved to be the best source and concentration, the proliferation ratio was 15 shoots per explant. Thirty g/1 sucrose concentration was the optimum for 'Gold Drop', the proliferation rate was 14.6 shoots per explant. In 'Dew Drop,' the best results were obtained with 30 g/1 sucrose but 40 g/l sucrose gave good results too. Both cultivars rooted well on these media. On glucose containing media, very low propagation rates were found in all concentrations and all examined cultivars.

  • Comparison of propagation methods of different moss species used as wall and ground covering ornamental plants

    Mosses are traditionally used as ornamental plants, especially in Japan, USA, England (moss gardens) and Germany, French (green roofs). In shadow areas (where the members of Poaceae usually cannot grow well), mosses are potentially use as “grass”. The stocks of moss colonies maintain optimal microclimate and decrease desiccation of soils (like mulch). Additionally, mosses are evergreen, attractive all year, during winter. In our study, 18 moss species were propagated by fragments (as mixture, with the use of 16 species) and transplantation of carpets (with Brachythecium rivulare and Calliergonella cuspidata) in Szentendre. The aim was to find the most durable species and the best way of propagation. In an outdoor, irrigated garden, propagation by fragments was effective (with 63% coveration) and higher values (93% and 76%) were obtained in the cases of non-irrigated stocks of Amblystegium serpens (in trays) and moss carpets. In vertical structures (moss picture-frames with the use of mixtures), protonema of 2 species (Hypnum cupressiforme and Eurhynchium hyans) covered 24 and 33% of the 0.5 x 0.5 m sized area.

  • The in vitro and in vivo anatomical structure of leaves of Prunus x Davidopersica ‘Piroska' and Sorbus rotundifolia L. ‘Bükk szépe'

    Immature in vitro leaves showed similar structure of the mesophyll tissue to the immature field-grown (in vivo) leaves of Prunus x davidopersica `Piroska'. Mature leaf anatomical characteristics of in vitro plantlets differ from the field-grown plants. The mesophyll tissue of in vitro plantlets were thinner than the in vivo plants and consisted of only one layer palisade parenchyma, the shape of the cells and the structure of spongy parenchyma basically differed from the field-grown plants. In the case of Sorbus rotundifolia similar anatomical differences were found both in vitro and in vivo as in the case of Prunus x davidopersica `Piroska'.

  • Rootstock evaluation in intensive sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) orchard

    During 2000 and 2007, rootstocks of different vigor have been tested in a high density sweet cherry orchard with 'Vera '® and 'Axel'® cultivars at 4 x 2 meter row and plant distance. Trees are trained to Hungarian Spindle with permanent basal branches; in the alley way naturally grown grass is managed by mowing. The first considerable fruiting was in 2004. Every year we measured trunk and canopy parameters of the trees, productivity and fruit size. Our conclusion is that the rootstocks considerably affected the growth, precocity, as well as tree and orchard productivity, fruit weight of sweet cherry cultivars, but these rootstock effects are modified by cultivars, except for growth vigor. According to our results Cema, SL 64, and Bogdany are vigorous rootstocks, moderate vigorous are MaxMa 97, Pi-Ku I , and Tabel® Edabriz, Gisela® 5 and Prob are dwarfing rootstocks. Besides the precocious Gisela® 5 also mahaleb rootstocks CEMA, Bogdany and SL 64 showed considerable precocity, which can be explained by the larger bearing surface to the time of turning to bearing, and a similar or relative large density of burse shoots on fruiting branches. Cumulative yield of 'Axel'® was the highest on Bogdany and on Cerna, contrary to Gisela® 5, which produced only 50% of the previous ones. Cumulative yield of 'Vera'® was the highest on SL 64, and no significant difference was found, compared to trees on rootstocks Cema, Bogdany and Pi-Ku I . Cumulative yield production of trees was smaller on Gisela® 5, Prob, Max Ma 97 and Tabel® Edabriz rootstocks. Corresponding to the literature data of yield efficiency calculated on TCSA basis was highest on Gisela® 5 rootstock. but the efficiency calculated on canopy volume of 'Axel•® trees was similarly high on CEMA and Bogdany, and that of 'Vera'® trees relatively high on CEMA, Bogdany, SL 64 and PiKu I rootstocks. When calculating orchard efficiency al spacing 4 x 2 meters (1250 tree/ha), we received highest yield values on Bogdany, CEMA, SL 64, and PiKu I rootstocks, with large fruit weight. Rootstocks also affect fruit weight. We measured the largest fruit weight on trees on Bogdany.

  • The selection and cultivation of Tilia clones tolerating polluted urban environment

    Two urban stress tolerant Tilia clones were selected by the Department of Floriculture and Dendrology. The mother trees of the Observed clones were found in an alley of linden trees, settled on a traffic island of a busy two-lane road.

    Tilia hybrid 'Saint Stephen' has a beautiful cone-shaped crown, the leaves are bright green and they keep their green colour for much longer time than the leaves on the other trees in the alley. In the nursery the Tilia hybrid 'Saint Stephen' was budded on T. cordata, T. platyphyllos and T. argentea and it had good compatibility with every rootstock. The average height of the one year old buddings was 200 cm and the buddings kept their good growing capacity in the following years as well. They had an outstanding growing capability comparing with the other Tilia cultivars.

    Tilia platyphyllos 'K3' clone has similar cone-shaped crown. The growing vigor and urban stress tolerance seems to be better than Tilia hybrid 'Saint Stephen'.


  • Extending the vase life of Solidago canadensis cut flowers by using different chemical treatments

    In order to increase the vase life as well as quality of leaves of goldenrod (Solidago canadesis), the effect of 8-hydroxyquinoline sulphate (8-HQS), silver thiosulphate (STS) and l-methylcyclopropene (l-MCP) were investigated. 8-HQS was used as a continuous treatment at 400 ppm with or without sucrose at 50 g/l. The treatment of STS was used by putting the flower bases at 0.4 mM for 6h with or without sucrose at 50 g/l. l -MCP was used at 0.5 g/m3 for 6h dry or in water. Except the treatment of l -MCP in water, the chemical treatments, which were used, led to the increase vase of life of leaves as well as to the inflorescence of cut solidago spikes compared to the control. The best treatment in this concern was 8-HQS at 400 ppm without sucrose, which resulted in longest vase life of leaves as well as inflorescences and lowest percent loss of fresh weight of initial.

  • Testing the virulence of some Hungarian Erwinia amylovora strains on in vitro cultured apple rootstocks

    A useful method was improved to test and to evaluate the susceptibility of plants to fire blight and the virulence of E. amylovora strains. Six Hungarian strains from different host plants were tested on in vitro cultured apple rootstocks. Disease rating was used for the characterization of the process of disease development. The different strains had different capacity to cause disease, mainly in the first period of incubation. There were significant differences between the virulence of the strains.

  • Improving the postproduction quality of Rose cut flowers

    In order to improve the post production quality of cut flowers of Rosa hybrida L. cv. Baroness, the effect of 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate (8-HQS), silver thiosulfate (STS) and 1-methylcyclopropene ( I-MCP) were investigated. 8-HQS was used at 200 and 400 ppm with or without sucrose at 50 g LI. STS was used at 0.2, and 0.4 mM with or without sucrose at 50 g 1-I. l-MCP was used at 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 g in-3 for 6h.

    The postproduction quality was improved as a result of using any chemical treatment comparing with untreated control. All the treatments of 8-HQS increased the vase life and minimized the percentage of weight loss of rose cut flowers compared to the control. The vase life was lorger when 8-HQS was combined with sucrose. The best treatment of 8-HQS was 400 ppm 8-HQS + 50 g 1-1 sucrose. STS treatment led to prolong the vase life and minimized the percentage of weight loss compared to the control. In addition, the effect was better when sucrose was added to STS. The treatment of STS at 0.4 mM + 50 g 1-1 sucrose was the best one. l -MCP treatment prolonged the vase life and lowered the percentage of weight loss at any level compared with untreated control. The best treatment in this concern was l -MCP at 0.5 g m-3 for 6h. The chlorophyll content (chl.a and chid)) of the leaves for the best treatment of each chemical was higher than the control. The treatment of STS at 0.4 mM + 50 g 1-1 sucrose gave the best results in this respect.

  • In vitro propagation of 'Echo' cultivars of Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn.

    Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn. 'Echo' Fl cultivars ('Echo White', 'Echo Rose', 'Echo Blue', 'Echo Blue Picotee') were used and multiplication of shoots was evaluated on Murashige and Skoog (1962) basal medium with 11 g/1 agar-agar and 20 g/1 sucrose. To test the effect of BA different concentrations were added: 0.10, 0.25 mg/1 and a culture medium without BA. Differentiation of roots was examined on Jámbor-Benczúr and Marta (1990) basal medium with the same concentration of agar-agar and sucrose. To examine the effect on rooting, various concentrations of NAA were used: 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 mg/l. The pH was adjusted to 5.6 in every case using KOH. We studied the after-effect of different concentrations of BA during the acclimatisation. During the multiplication, the cultivar 'Echo White' formed the most shoots and the smallest leaves on the medium with 0.10 mg/1 BA. Fortunately, in the case of this cultivar, the number of shoots was reduced and the length of leaves was increased succesfully on the medium without BA. The other three cultivars developed the longest leaves on the medium containing 0.10 mg/1 BA. Sometimes not only shoot regeneration but spontaneous rooting was observed during the multiplication. Examining the rooting, the highest percent of roots was found on the medium with 1.0 mg/1 NAA, and the cultivar 'Echo Rose' formed the most roots on this medium. Higher concentration (2.0 and 3.0 mg/1) of NAA already reduced the number of roots in all of the cultivars. During the acclimatisation, the percentage of survival was 76.3% and the tallest plants with the longest leaves were found on the multiplication medium with 0.25 mg/1 BA. 'Echo Blue Picotee' gave the best results with the tallest pieces and longest leaves on this medium.

  • Results with the establishment of in vitro culture of Leucojum aestivum

    Leucojum aestivum is a native, protected ornamental and medicinal plant in Hungary and in Ukraine too. The aim of our work was to establish in vitro cultures of this bulbous plant. Prior to surface sterilisation the old leaves and roots were dissected from the bulbs and they were stored in a refrigerator (2-3°C) for different periods (1 week for the first starting experiment and 5 weeks for the second one). After sterilisation, bulbs, bulb scales and leaves of the bulbs were placed on Murashige and Skoog's (1962) medium with 1 mg/1 benzyl-adenine (BA) and 0,1 mg/1 naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). At the first starting experiment 81,3%, and at the second one 92,3% of the explants turned to be sterile. Bulblets and roots were developed on the explants in the case of using bulb plates together with bulb scales and leaves as inoculua. The best result was achieved after 5 weeks chilling and it was possible to gain little bulbs from the bulb leaves too.

  • Histological studies on small bulb flower crops

    Investigations were done in order to obtain more information on the histological structure of bulbs of Allium moly, Allium sphaerocephalon, Muscari armeniacum and corms of Crocus sativus. While starch grain were found in the bulb of Muscari armeniacum, fluid nutrient content were shown in Allium species. Narrow and fleshy scales were found in the bulbs of Muscari. Histological characteristics of Allium moly and Allium sphaerocephalon showed a closer relationship with corms than with the bulbs. To clarify this question, further investigations are needed (Bailey, 1942; Larson, 1980).

  • The after-effect of paclobutrazol on morphological characteristics of in vitro Narcissus poeticus ssp. radiiflorus plants

    After different pre-culturing period (12, 23 or 34 days) on ½ MS medium with 1 mg l-1 paclobutrazol, 1 mg l-1 N6-benzyladenine and 0.1 mg l-1 1- naphthaleneacetic acid , 3 groups of Narcissus poeticus ssp. radiiflorus bulb scales were kept on the same medium without hormones. The results were evaluated monthly and the final one happened after 7 month. The best results were achieved due to the shortest pre-culturing period (12 days;  Group 1), with 4.9 bulblets and 4.54% hyperhydricity. The result of the second treatment (pre-culturing period of 23 days; Group 2) was not different significantly but the number of bigger bulblet were higher (4.54 bulblets). After the longest pre-culturing period (34 days; Group 3), the number of bulblets was low (3.68) and more hyperhydricity (18.18%) was detected. The highest number of roots (13.91) was observed in this group
    very likely due to the strong after-effect of paclobutrazol.

  • Histological studies on some native perennials

    Growing of native perennial species became more and more popular in the last ten years. In order to obtain more information on their histological structure, investigations were done on Aster linosyris, Inula ensifolia and Prunella grandiflora. The histological features are usually relating to the plants' ecological demands which is an important aspect in their growing. Differences were found in the structure of the stem of Asteraceae and Lamiaceae members. While separated vessels were formed in the stem of Aster linosyris and Inula ensifolia, continuous vessel-system forms in the stem of Prunella. Alternating segments of collenchyma and chlorenchyma are found in the stem of Aster linosyris, while palisade parenchyma is situated both on the abaxial and adaxial surface of the leaves. Vessel-system of the root is tetrarch. Histological structure of the stem of Inula ensifolia differs from Aster linosyris in the broader cortical parenchyma which is composed of approx. 8-12 cell layers. It contains neither collenchyma nor chlorenchyma. In the stem of Prunella grandiflora a nearly continuous vessel-ring is formed from the four primary vessels. Long, multi-celled hairs were observed in the district of angles of the stem.

  • Effect of 1-MCP and chemicals on the vase life of Rosa hybrida L. cv. 'Bordeaux'

    The effect of 1-MCP on rose cultivar 'Bordeaux ' was studied in combination with different preservative solutions. The flowers were treated with 1-MCP for 6 hours at 17 °C and for 18 hours at 4 °C. As for the diameter of flowers the best resu lts was achieved, when applying 20 gL- 1 sucrose + Clorox (2 ml L- 1), as well as preservative "Spring" ( I 0 gL-1) + 1-MCP ( 18 hours). Similar results were measured in the case of Spring + Clorox + 20 gL-1 sucrose with 1-MCP (6 and  18 hours). The longer MCP treatm ent gave better results as compared to the shorter ones, because the flowers were much more open.The condition of flowers was the best in the solution of Clorox + 20 gL-1 sucrose and Spring solution combined with the longer MCP treatment. and Clorox + 20 gL- 1, on the IQ1h day. The longest vase life ( 10,3 day) was observed in the case of Spring application combined with 18 hours of MCP treatment. ln this treatment the vase life was prolonged by 3,3 days. As regards the calculated ornamental values, the following sequence could be established :"Spring" + l-MCP ( 18hrs) 134 points, Clorox + 20 gL-1 sucrose + 1-MCP (l8h) with 129 point, and the third was the Clorox + 20 gL-1 sucrose with 1 19 point.

  • The effects of growth regulators in proliferation of Sorbus redliana 'Burokvölgy'

    The Hungarian cultivar Sorbus redliana 'Burokvölgy' was proliferated on Murashige and Skoog (MS, 1962) medium with half-strength macroelements and 100 mg/1 meso-inositol, 20 g/1 sucrose, 11 g/1 agar-agar. Different combinations of kinetin (KIN), metatopolin (mT), benzyladenine (BA), benzyladenine-ribosid (BAR) and indolebutiric acid (IBA) were tested, and pH was adjusted to 5.6 every case using KOH. The cultures were incubated at 20-24 °C in 8/16 hours dark/light photoperiod for 50-52 days. The main aim of our research was to find the optimal growth regulator and its optimum concentration. Purthermore, to determine the chlorophyll contents of the in vitro propagated plants' leaves. During the proliferation, the highest number of shoots were observed in the case of using BA + IBA, and on the medium containing 0.75 mg/I BA + 0.05 mg/1 IBA 8.93 shoots were found. The addition of KIN + IBA decreased the number of shoots and increased the sizes of leaves — the widest (11.2 mm) and longest (17.8 mm) leaves were obtained on the medium containing 1.00 mg/I KIN + 0.05 mg/1 IBA. The longest shoots (36.46 mm) were found in the case of applying 0.75 mg/1 BAR + 0.05 mg/I IBA. The BA + KIN + IBA combination resulted the shortest shoots. Sometimes not only shoot regeneration but spontaneous rooting was observed during the multiplication. The highest chlorophyll content (1.569 mg/g total chlorophyll, 1.132 mg/g chlorophyll-a, 0.437 mg/g chlorophyll-b) was obtained in the presence of 1.0 mg/I KIN + 0.05 mg/1 IBA.

  • Results in the vitro propagation acclimatization of Pontederia lanceolata

    This paper gives an outline of micropropagation of Pontederia lanceolata. Pontederia l. is a widely used aquatic plant, therefore there is an increasing demand for them, which can be satisfied only by in vitro culture. Research was carried out to find the best nutrient media conditions for micropropagation and acclimatisation of Pontederia lanceolata.


  • 1-MCP and STS as ethylene inhibitors for prolonging the vase life of carnation and rose cut flowers

    The effect of STS and 1-MCP on the postharvest quality of carnation and rose cut flowers was studied. Cut flowers of Dianthus c..aryophyllus L. cv. Asso and Rosa hybritia cv. Baroness were treated with silver thiosulfate (STS) at 0.4 mM with sucrose at 50 g 1-t and 1-methylcyclopropene ( I -MCP) at 0.5 g m-3 for 611.

    Pretreatment with STS and 1-MCP significantly extended the vase life and minimized the % loss of initial weight of carnation and rose cut flowers comparing to the untreated control. The two chemicals applied inhibited the chlorophyll degradation and carbohydrate loss and hence, significantly improved the postharvest quality of carnation and rose cut flowers comparing to the control. Ethylene production by cut flowers was inhibited as a result of using these chemicals. In general, there were no differences between STS and (-MCP but the later does not have the heavy metal implications of STS treatment, and hence, using 1-MCP pretreatment for extending the vase life of carnation and rose cut flowers was recommended.

  • Knot formation by Pseudomonas syringae subsp. savastanoi on the in vitro shoots of Sorbus redliana

    Two strains of Pseudomonas syringae subsp. savastanoi were isolated from Forsythia sp. and Nerium oleander in Hungary in 1997. The effects of growth regulators produced by the bacteria were studied in different experiments. The strains were co-cultured with Sorbus redliana in vitro shoots without being in contact with the plant on solid media. Further culture filtrates in different concentrations were added to the culture medium. The growth regulators presented in the agar caused knot formation on the shoots and on the leaves in both kinds of culture. There were significant differences in the cultural and physiological characters, auxin and cytokinin activity of the strains of different origin.


  • Postharvest features of chrysanthemum cut flowers as affected by different chemicals

    Cut flowers of Chrysanthemum morifolium RAM cv. Suny Reagan were treated with different concentrations of 8- hydroxyquinoline sulfate (8-HQS), silver thiosulfate (STS) and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) in order to improve the post production quality. 8-HQS was used at 200 and 400 ppm with or without sucrose at 50 O. STS was used at 0.2, and 0.4 mM with or without sucrose at 50 g/1 1-MCP was used at 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 g/m3 for 6h.

    All the treatments of 8-HQS prolonged the vase life and minimized the percentage of weight loss of chrysanthemum cut flowers compared to the control. The vase life was larger when sucrose not combined with 8-HQS. The best treatment of 8-1-IQS was 400 ppm 8-HQS without sucrose. STS treatment led to prolong the vase life and minimized the percentage of weight loss comparing to the control. In addition, the effect was better when sucroseas was added to STS. The treatment of STS at 0.4 mM + 50 g/I sucrose was the best one. 1-MCP treatment increased the vase life and lowered the percentage of weight loss at any level comparing with untreated control. The best treatment in this concern was 1-MCP at 0.5 g/m3 for 6h. The chlorophyll content (chl.a and chl.b) of the leaves for the best treatment of each chemical was higher than that of the control. The treatment of 1-MCP at 0.5 g/m3 6h gave the best results in this respect.

  • Growing greenhouse cut flower in hydro-culture

    The importance of hydro-cultural growing is significantly increasing.We have been dealing with the hydro-cultural growing of cut flowers at the Department of Ornamental Plant Growing and Maintenance of Gardens at the College Faculty of Horticulture at Kecskemét College since 1988.We started our experiments by growing carnation in growing establishment without soil then we introduced other species of cut flowers and potted ornamental plants into our research work.

  • Results in the valuation of some balcony plants Hungary

    Three varieties of different species of annual bedding and balcony plants were examined in balcony boxes in three different places (Budapest, Solymár-Kerekhegy, Tázlár) in order to determine their tolerance to different climate conditions. The experiment proved that Celosia argentea L. var. plumosa 'Savaria' and Dichondra repens J. R. Forst. et G. Forst 'Silver Falls' tolerate well the Hungarian extremely dry, hot and changing climate. Nemesia Vent. 'Blue Bird' developed and flowered well only in cooler and protected conditions; therefore, this species can be offered to a more balanced climate as the western areas of Hungary and the mountains.

  • The effect of different biostimulators on morphological and biochemical parameters of micropropagated Hosta ’Gold Drop’

    During in vitro multiplication of Hosta ‘Gold Drop’, 20 g l-1 sucrose, 5.5 g l-1 agar and 4 concentrations (0.1-0.8 ml l-1) of Ferbanat L, Kelpak, Pentakeep-V were added to half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium. As compared to the control and other biostimulators, plants with lower peroxidase activity, larger fresh weight, more, longer shoots and roots, larger leaves were developed on medium containing Kelpak. The best concentration was 0.4 ml l-1 for in vitro rooting, shoot formation, plant weight and ex vitro chlorophyll, carotenoid level, peroxidase activity. Pentakeep was the less efficient biostimulator, increasing of its concentration mostly decreased root and shoot values (furthermore, abnormal callus formation was observed, as non-wanted effect), chlorophyll content and sizes (length, width) of leaves, not only during in vitro propagation but also (as after-effect) acclimatization because of the high mortality and weakly developed survivor plants.

  • Development of different herbaceous perennial species on the experimental extensive green roof of Corvinus University Budapest

    During 2003-2004 six "traditional" herbaceous plant species (Sedum reflexum, Sedum acre 'Aureum', Sedun spurium„Sedum floriferum, Festuca glauca) and six "new" plant species (Sedum pulchellum, Prunus tenella, fivericum polyphyllum, CeraiTtignIct plumbaginoides, Dianthus plumarius and Phlox subulala) were tried on four different types of roof insulation on the 100 m large experimental extensive green roof of the Building K of Corvinus University Budapest, at Villányi street, Budapest. According to the results obtained so far, the viability and good decoration values of all the "traditional" plants were proved. From the six "new" plants Ceratostigma plumbaginoides, Dianthus plumarius and Sedum pulchellum (with some restrictions) proved to be suitable. A significantly poorer development was showed by the remaining "new" species (Phlox subulata, 1-1yericum polyphyllum, Prunus tenella) than the "traditional" ones. As for the different types of roof insulation, the best was with the direct order of layers, and drainage layer with water storage capacity.

  • Influence of aromatic cytokinins on shoot multiplication and their after-effects on rooting of apple cv. Húsvéti rozmaring

    Different aromatic cytokinins (BA, BAR, TOP and KIN) were tested alone or in combination for the shoot proliferation response of ‘Húsvéti rozmaring' apple scion. The best multiplication rate was achieved by dual cytokinin application (1 mg 1-1 BA + 1.5 mg 1-1 KIN). The rooting capacity was affected considerably by the position of shoots: transfer of the three-week-old shoots to the same or other proliferation medium in vertical position inhibited the following rooting totally. Post-effects of different cytokinins (BA and TOP) on subsequent rooting could be detected: BA increased the number of roots markedly, while TOP resulted in significantly longer roots.