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Floral analysis can be use as an early plant analytical tool to diagnose nutritional status of fruit trees?
Published March 25, 2009
23-27.

A field experiment was conducted in an integrated apple orchard (Malus domestica Borkh.) established on a lowland chernozem soil in East-Hungary, to investigate if flower analysis could be used to diagnose the nutritional status of the trees. In April 2008, during full bloom, flowers and leaves were collected. Leaves were collected aga...in in August, at the standard sampling time from the same trees. The content of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium magnesium and boron were measured in flowers and in leaves. Correlation analyses were carried out to establish the relation s between nutrient contents in same and different plant part s. In flowers the following ratio was found between nutrients: N:P: K:Ca:Mg:B -10: l.35:7: 1.7: I :0,02. From result s it was evident that flower as organ contain significant and comparable amount of nutrients like as leaf. The N, K and Ca content were higher in leaves than in flowers at full bloom. The opposite was true for B. The P and Mg content of flower were quite equal with leaf P and Mg at full bloom . All examined nutrients were significantly affected by cultivars both in flowers and leaves. Significant correlation, was found between flower P and leaf P, flower B and leaf B (P=O.O 1) and flower K and leaf K at blooming time (P=0.05). Significant, but weaker correlation was also found between flower K and leaf K and between flower Mg and leaf Mg al JOO days after full bloom (P=0.05). Moreover, strong, but negative correlation was observed between flower B and leaf B at 100 clays after full bloom (P=O.O 1). Within flowers, the strongest positive correlation was found between Mg and B content (P=O.O 1). Strong positive correlations were also recognised between flower K and flower N, Ca and Mg and between N and Ca in the flowers (P=0.01). The strongest correlation was found between K and P in leaves at full bloom (P=O.O 1 ). Strong significant correlation was observed between N and B in the leaves collected at standard sampling time (100 DAFB) (P=0.01). Strong, but negative correlations were found bet ween leaf Mg and leaf P, K and between leaf N and leaf P at 100 days after full bloom (P=O.O 1).

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Cracking susceptibility evaluation of some stone fruit species (Sour cherries – Prunus cerasus L.; Sweet cherries – Prunus avium and European plums – Prunus domestica L.) grown in Hungary
Published April 22, 2014
45-54.

The rain induced fruit cracking is a big, serious problem especially for sweet cherry growers but in some year growers of other stone fruit species had also problem with fruit cracking caused by too much and heavy rainfalls in the ripening and harvesting season. Cracked stone fruits can be easily infected by different diseases like Monillinia s...p. Cracked and infected fruits can not be transported for long distance and using for preservation, they lost their market value by the destroyed fruit quality. It was decided to make a research work to determine the rain fruit cracking susceptibility of few stone fruit species (sour cherries, sweet cherries and European plums). Fruit cracking tests were occurred under laboratory conditions on the most common cultivars grown in Hungary. Furthermore we tried to find correlation between the fruit cracking and some fruit quality parameters (fruit size; total sugar content, fruit flesh firmness).

Our conclusions are the followings:
Sour cherries: There were found differences in the cracking ratio and the cracking dynamics of the tested sour cherry varieties when they were immersed in distillated water for 24 hours. Based on cracking test results under laboratory condition (immersing in distillated water) we made the grouping by cracking susceptibility of sour cherry varieties. Tested cultivars were divided three groups: very susceptible; susceptible; moderately susceptible (tolerant). Groups with varieties are: Very susceptible - ’Maliga emléke’, ’Piramis’, ’Érdi jubileum’,’Érdi nagygyümölcsû’ and ’Meteor korai; Susceptible (Sensitive) – ’Érdi bôtermô’, ’Pándy’ and Cigány 59. Moderately susceptible (tolerant) – ‘Éva’ and ‘Petri’as new rereleases. The most of tested sour cherry varieties are in agreement with the literature (Apostol, 2003) and four of them (’Maliga emléke’, ’Pándy 279’, ‘Éva’ and ‘Petri’) had higher average fruit weight than was mentioned in the literature (Apostol, 2003). Our fruit cracking results are in agreement with Zelinski’s (1964) and Christensen’s (1975) conclusions that there is no close relationship between fruit size and rain induced fruit cracking tendency. We found significant differences between the sugar content of tested cultivars. In contrast of Verner & Blodget (1931) our results confirm Tucker’s opinion that the sugar content is not correlation with the cracking tendency of cherry fruits (Tucker, 1934). Fruits firmness (elasticity) was measured by destructive method when juice was coming out from fruits. There were found big differences of fruit firmness and skin strength of observed cultivars. Our results are only partly agreement with Christensen’s (1996) opinion that cherry cultivars with firmer fruits are more prone to fruit cracking than softer ones. By this was seemingly we did not found close relationship between the fruit firmness and the cracking tendency of sour cherry fruits. We found that during fruits immersing in distillated water the fruit weight was increasing due to the absorbed water. Our opinion is that there is no close relationship between the scale of fruit cracking and the quantity of absorbed water. By results presented above we our opinion is that no very close relationship between the fruit cracking of sour cherries and the observed parameters (fruit size, fruit firmness, sugar content, amount of absorbed water) maybe other varietal effects and physiological characters (fruit skin structural parameters) play more important role in the fruit cracking mechanism of cherries.

Sweet cherries: Similarly to sour cherries in the case of sweet cherries we also did not find close relationship between observed fruit parameters and cracking index. It was differences in the cracking ratio and the cracking dynamics of the tested sweet cherry cultivars when they were immersed in distillated water for 24 hours. It was found that the cracking ratio of very cracking susceptible sour cherry varieties had the same or higher cracking index than observed sweet cherries. It is in contrast with the general opinion (Chistensen, 1996) that sour cherries are less prone to rain induced fruit cracking than sweet cherries. We found differences between the cracking ration and cracking dynamic of the same cultivar in different years (2006 and 2013). It is in agreement Christensen’s (1996) opinion that the year effect cause big differences in the fruit cracking of cherries.
European plums: We found differences in the cracking ratio and the cracking dynamics of the tested plum varieties when they were immersed in distillated water for 24 hours. A shorter term (6 hours) immersing in water caused three groups by their cracking susceptibility: „Very susceptible”: ’Révfülöpi’ and ’Szarvasi’; „Susceptible”: ’Besztercei’; „Less sensitive”: ’Bluefre’ and ’Cacanska rodna’. A longer term (24 hours) immersing in water resulted only two groups with significant differences: „Susceptible group”: ’Révfülöpi’, ’Szarvasi’ and ’Besztercei’; „Less sensitive”: ’Bluefre’ and ’Cacanska rodna’ Similarly the cherries we did not find correlation between the fruit size and cracking susceptibility of European plum cultivars. It was based on: the big fruit sized ‘Bluefre’ and middle sized ‘Cacanska rodna’ cracked in the lowest scale, during the small sized ’Révfülöpi’, ’Szarvasi’ and ’Besztercei’ cultivars cracked in higher scale We found positive correlations between the cracking susceptibility and total sugar content of tested plum cultivars. Cultivars with significantly lower sugar content (‘Bluefre’ and ‘C. rodna’) showed lower fruit cracking susceptibility than cultivars (’Révfülöpi’, ’Szarvasi’ and ’Besztercei’) with higher sugar content). We found close relationship between the relative (%) absorbed water amount and the fruit cracking susceptibility. Cultivars with higher absorbed water amount (’Szarvasi’-’Révfülöpi’-’Besztercei’) had higher cracking susceptibility.

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The role of meteorological variables of blossoming and ripening within the tendency of qualitative indexes of sour cherry
Published January 3, 2010
7-10.

We analyzed the relationship to sour cherry quality parameters of average temperature, maximum temperature, minimum
temperature, night and day-time temperature, precipitation and climatic water balance variables. Three cultivars of sour cherry were included
in the selection: “Debreceni bôtermô”, “Kántorjánosi”, and “Újfehé...rtói fürtös”.We conducted regression analyzes on the three varieties, but
present only those that proved to be the best fit.We couldn’t find any significant differences in the weather tolerance of the varieties. The data
base of sour cherry quality parameters covers the 1998 to 2008 intervals. The researched parameters were the following: dry matter content
(%), sugar content (%), C-vitamin (mg), total acid content (%). Maximum temperature, the difference of night and day-time temperature and
minimum temperature all have a significant correlation with the investigated quality parameters of sour cherry. Minimum temperature shows
a quadratic relationship with sugar content, while night and day-time temperature differences show the same with dry matter content. The
other weather parameters had a linear correlation with the quality parameters of sour cherry. The research results show that an increasing
amount of precipitation causes decreasing tendency in total acid content of sour cherry, so that increasing temperature has a positive influence
on total acid content. Big differences in night and day-time temperature also has positive effects on the dry matter and sugar content of sour
cherry while the amount of precipitation has a negative effect. High minimum temperatures cause decreasing sugar content respiratory energy
losses are significant if dawn temperatures do not drop considerably.A more favourable climatic water balance has a positive effect on vitamin
C content in cases of a large negative water balance, vitamin C content is generally low.

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Variability and differences of growth vigour in the set of 36 genotypes of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).
Published March 21, 2001
30-34.

Growth vigour of 36 apricot cultivars and new hybrids grafted on apricot seedling rootstock (Prunus armeniaca L.) was evaluated on the base of measurements of stem girth from the 411' to the 10th year after planting. There were differences in growth vigour of genotypes under study. In the evaluated set of genotypes the contr...ol cultivar 'Veecor may be classified as a genotype with below-average growth vigour. Only four genotypes (-Reale d'Imola-, Sanagian -Moldavskii krupnoplodnyl and 'LE-2385') were found with significantly higher growth vigour than that of control cultivar 'Veecot' in years of the end of experimental period. Two genotypes (Farmingdale', -LE-SE0-24') were found with significantly higher growth vigour only at the beginning of experimental period and one cultivar ('Vivagold-) with significantly lower growth vigour in the first four years. Genotypes with different growth vigour can be used in further breeding programmes and/or as components inhibiting or supporting the growth in indirect vegetative propagation. Within the whole experimental period, the rank of growth vigour of genotypes practically did not change. This was demonstrated by highly significant or significant coefficients of correlation existing between individual pairs of years (r=0.32+ to r=0.96++). As far as the time difference between years in individual pairs of years was higher, the correlation coefficients were lower. In individual years, variability of growth vigour was relatively low and ranged from 9.83 to 13.64%.

 

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Sensorial appraisal of sour cherries grown by environmental technology
Published December 4, 2011
27-30.

Sour cherry samples have been tested by a panel of potential consumers, and the judgments expressed by points given for each attribute. The correlation of individual traits with “general impression” has been explored. Primary raising of data was aimed to evaluate the effect of environmental growing technology upon sensorial impression of fr...uits for fresh consumption. Organoleptic tests consist of tasting and filling out of forms with numerical data as ratings them regarding taste, flavour and flesh firmness. The values of coefficients of correlation showed that a couple of other attributes as appearance, juiciness and sugar/acids perceived were irrelevant from the point of view of acceptance, i. e. the general impression.

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Bud-, flower- and fruit-density in stone fruits
Published October 20, 2003
59-69.

In 164 varieties of five stone fruit species, counts of flower buds, flowers and fruits set have been performed, regularly, between 1982 and 2002. The critical number and sample size has been determined for the purpose to estimate the yielding potential of peach plantations. For a rapid test, 10 shoots per variety are recommended. In sour cherr...y and peach varieties, the number and ratio of leaf and flower buds has been assessed on bearing shoots of different length.

The typical flower bud density of 129 peach varieties varies, as a rule, between 0.13 and 1.10 bud/cm. Three groups of flower-bud-densities could be distinguished: low (0-0.40 bud/cm), intermediate (0.41-0.60 bud/cm), high (more than 0.60 bud/cm). About 62% of varieties belong to the intermediate group. Negative correlation has been found between flower density and relative fruit set, whereas positive correlation between flower density and fruit yield.

The results are utilised in the description and choice of varieties, moreover, in choosing of optimal pruning policies. Varieties of high flower bud densities are recommended to be preferred for growing sites with frequent late frosts. Abundantly yielding varieties of low vegetative vigour are to be pruned more severely than those characterised by low yields, vigorous growth and low flower density. Sour cherry varieties, which are inclined to grow "whips" ought to be stimulated to grow longer shoots (40-50 cm per year), than varieties woid of that tendency (30-40 cm).

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Effect of intensity of bee visitation and the foraging behaviour of honeybees on the fruit set and yield of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.)
Published March 14, 2005
31-39.

Based on the results of our experiments, both the relative and the effective intensity of bee visitation were rather different depending on the cultivars as well as the time of the day. While it varied between relatively extreme values (40-80%) in the morning for the varieties examined, there were much smaller differences between the intensity ...of bee visitation at the afternoon, because the relative bee visitation attained 70-90% at each cultivar. These results showed that the differences arising from intensity of bee visitation of different cultivars should be taken into consideration more carefully in the morning in orchard planning and in estimating the number of honeybee colonies required.

The results showed that the greatest percentage of fruit set and the highest number of viable seeds per fruit were measured on branches of those cultivars that were most frequently visited by pure pollen gatherer bees as well as by bees collecting both nectar and pollen (mixed behaviour). The effect of pure pollen gatherers and of bees with mixed behaviour was highly significant from the statistical point of view on the fruit set and the number of viable seeds per fruit.

Those bees that were sucking nectar only from apple flowers did not proved to be effective pollinators at all. Relationship between their number and the fruit set as well as the number of viable seed per fruit were not significant because the coefficient of correlation was close to nil.

The ratio of side worker nectar gatherers was negatively correlated with the fruit set and the seed content of fruits of apple cultivars examined at both of our experimental sites, at Mosonmagyaróvár and Feketeerdő as well. The presence of side worker nectar gatherers resulted in higher decrease of fruit set and seed content of fruits at Feketeerd6 than at Mosonmagyaróvár, especially in the morning.

The effect of flower visiting intensity by other pollinating insects was found to be fairly variable according to the time of the day. In the morning they had no effect on the fruit set as well as on the seed content of fruits either at Mosonmagyaróvár or at Feketeerdo. However, at the afternoon, when their intensity was greater, the correlation was a bit stronger.

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Effect of nitrogen dressings to Jonathan apple trees in a long-term experiment
Published February 23, 2000
128-130.

During the last three decades, diverse effects of nitrogen application on the performance of apple trees were studied in field and pot experiments at the Experimental Station of University of Horticulture and Food Industry. The basic experiment, using different rates of nitrogen in kg/ha (check, N-50; N-100; N-200; N-400; and N-800), was carrie...d out for a period of 13 years, thus including almost the whole bearing period of Jonathan apple trees on M.9 rootstocks.

The need of nitrogen in apple orchards on M.9 rootstock and soils with moderate humus content can be decreased considerably. Nitrogen application significantly increased leaf nitrogen and magnesium, but depressed leaf phosphorus and potassium content. With increasing doses of nitrogen fruit nitrogen content significantly increased and parallelly phosphorus and potassium content decreased. Even the lowest rate of nitrogen application decreased the red colouration of fruits. A direct negative correlation between nitrogen fertilzation and fruit firmness was not proved. No close and significant correlation between fruit quality parameters and the nitrogen content in leaves, sampled at different dates, was revealed.

 

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Relationship beetwen the phenological features of pear cultivars and the main meteorological parameters in a gene bank with 555 pear
Published March 25, 2009
59-63.

The trees observed are grown at Ujfehert6, Eastern Hungary in a gene bank with 555 pear cultivars. Each of the cultivars was monitored for its dates of: the beginning of bloom, main bloom and the end of bloom and ripe phenophasis separately between I 984 and 2002. We analyzed the statistical features, frequency, distribution of these phenophasi...s and its' correlation the meteorological variables bet ween the interval. During this period the meteorological database recorded the following variables: daily mean temperature (°C), daily maximum temperature (0C), daily mini m um temperature (0C), daily precipitation (mm), daily hours of bright sunshine, daily means or the differences between the day-time and night-time temperatures (0C). For the analysis of data the cultivars have been grouped according to dates of maturity, blooming period as well as types of the seasons. Groups of maturity dates: summer ripe, autumnal ripening, winter ripe cultivars. Groups of blooming dates: early blooming, intermediate blooming, late blooming cultivars. At all the separated groups we analyzed the relationship between phenophasis and meteorological variables. During the 18 years of observation , the early blooming cultivars started blooming on 10-21 April, those of intermediate bloom date started flowering bet ween 20 April and 3 May, whereas the late blooming group started on 2- 10 May. Among the meteorological variables of the former autumn and winter periods, the winter maxima were the most active factor influencing the start dates of bloom in the subsequent spring. For the research of fruit growing-weather relationships we used simple, well known statistical methods, correlation and regression analysis. We used the SPSS 1 1.0 software for the linear regression fitting and for calculation of dispersions as well. The 1ables made by Excel programme.

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81
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The effect of the limitation of insect pollination period on the fruit set and yield of quince cultivars (Cydonia oblonga Mill.)
Published June 6, 2000
103-108.

The effect of the partial and/or complete limitation of the insect (bee) pollination period was studied in three consecutive years at 6 quince cultivars. Quince is greatly sensitive to the limitation. Complete limitation of insect pollination resulted in no yield and also a partial limitation of the insect pollination period (exclusion of the b...ees at the first or at the second half of the blooming) depressed the final set and the yield by 60-70% at least or more, sometimes down to no yield. No real correlation was found between the mean mass of fruits and the fruit set. The mass of fruit seems to be rather a character of the cultivars. A loose but significant correlation was established between the intensity of honeybee visitation and the consequent yield of quince. As much as some 4-5 and 8-10 honeybee visits are needed a day on one flower to achieve the required optimal fruit set that has been declared to be 20-25% for quince in the literature. These are extremely high bee visitation figures, accordingly, no doubt the commercial quince plantations require much higher number of honeybee colonies than other temperate zone fruit tree species to supplementary pollination

 

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Correlation between pigment contents and FRAP values in beet root (Beta vulgaris ssp. esculents var. rubra)
Published November 15, 2004
85-89.

It is well known that beetroot quality is determined mainly by the red pigment content (betacyanins) and its uniformity of the root. The effect of the most important red pigment components (betanin). the total polyphenol content and antioxidants were studied in 20 beet root varieties. Antioxidants were expressed in FRAP (ferric reducing ability... of plasma) values in pM/I.

Our results indicated a close correlation (r = 0.7799 and r = 0.7435. respectively) between betanin and total polyphenol contents of the root as well as between FRAP values.

Our measurements showed more than threefold differences in total antioxidant activity among varieties. the lowest value being 196.4 13M/1 and highest 702.57 pM/I. The corresponding betanin (16.3 and 57.8 mg/100 ml) and total polyphenol (37.5 and 85.5 mg/100 ml respectively) contents show similar differences. Based on our results it can be stated that varieties of higher betanin and poliphenol contents have higher antioxidant values as well.

Accordingly, the two compounds must have a role in the evolution of antioxidant effects.

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Evaluation of sour cherry varieties grown with environmental technology
Published May 10, 2010
39-41.

The evaluation of a produce is an important moment of predicting its success on the market. The general impression, which is decisive, when a consumer chooses to purchase the commodity, should be interpreted in more objective, measurable terms. Primary data have been collected on fresh fruits derived from different growing technologies by organ...oleptic tests and the data filled up in the forms are processed with correlation analysis. The components were: taste, aroma, flesh firmness. The coefficients of correlation showed that the rest of characters as the appearance, juiciness, and the sugar/acid ratio.

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81
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Structural differences arise between fruit cuticles of two apple cultivars during long term cold storage
Published December 4, 2018
26-29

Apple fruits are covered by hydrophobic cuticle that provides protection against desiccation, pathogens, excessive water absorption and radiation. The features of cuticle affect the quality and storability of the fruits. It was aimed to evaluate the correlation between peel ultrastructure and weight loss in fruits covered by waxy bloom (cv. Flo...rina) and without bloom (cv. Red Rome van Well) during 4-month cold storage. SEM (scanning electron microscopy) was used for visualization of the fruit surface and fruit weight was also measured. Several studies have revealed that there may be correlation between the ultrastructure of cuticle and its water permeability. Our results confirmed this phenomenon in case of two cultivars. The weight loss per fruit surface area unit of ‘Florina’ was found significantly higher than that of ‘Red Rome van Well’. At the same time the cuticular surface of the fruits contained more micro-cracks in case of the former cultivar. These data confirmed the relationship between the density of cuticular micro-cracks and the water vapour permeability. We concluded that this feature is more significant than the amount of natural waxy bloom on fruit surface.

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Studies on some seed traits of Iris pumila L., Adonis vernalis L., Primula veris Huds. and Alkanna tinctoria (L.) Tausch.
Published June 6, 2001
36-40.

In this study we summarize the results of a five-years period concerning seed traits examinations on Iris pumila, Adonis vernalis, Primula veris and Alkanna tinctoria, with special attention to seed dimensions, seed mass and other traits concerning plant fitness, to their variability and the relationship among them. We found t...ight correlation between seed weight and seed dimensions in Adonis and Primula, at the same time no correlation exists among the same characters in Alkanna tinctoria. Consequently, the seed weight and seed dimensions can be used as synonyms in the form of „seed size" only after preliminary detection of correlations among them.

The variability of seed traits is higher in natural categories (individuals, morphs) than in seed mass categories as speculative groups. When we need homogeneous plant stand (e.g. for an introduction experiment) it is suggested to use seeds pre-selected in this way. For ex situ conservation, where the central goal is to maintain the genetic variability, seeds originated from different individuals are preferred.

 

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Determination of quality in stored pear fruits by chemical analysis and sensorial judgement
Published July 2, 2016
27-31.

Aim of this research/project to determine the external and internal preferences of pear using descriptive sensory analysis, consumer preference. The research was performed on local consumers. Destructive measurements included fi rmness by puncture tests, soluble solids content (SSC), titrated acidity (TA). While there is a general positive tren...d for increasing preference with fi rmness, some consumers will prefer softer apples, and some will dislike the fi rmest pear. Sensorial judgement is able to classify the attractiveness, preference of properties specifi c for pear. Tests were performed by 13 persons on 4 pear varieties (Bosc kobak, Conference, Packham’s Triumph, Dessertnaia) checking 11 sensorial properties on a scale of 1 to 100 points. Relations of measurements and judgements were processed by correlation analysis. For analysis, the objects were furnished in 2011 from different growing sites (Csenger, Mérk and Nagykanizsa), taking from the store (in January) immediately. Among those the best notes were given to Bosc kobak and Conference coming from Mérk and to Packham’s Triumph grown at Nagykanizsa. It was stated that the success of sensorial judgement depends on the state of maturity, which is diffi cult to guarantee to be synchronous among samples of different varieties. Mature fruits are more praised as a sample of Bosc kobak taken from a chain of department store proved to be of balanced composition regarding its sugar/acid ratio (0.12) and the optimal fi rmness (5.75 N/cm2). Results of the correlation analysis suggest that the thickness of the skin is a decisive component of preference (r= 0.857), the typical pear flavour (r= 0.948), the taste as sweetness and acidity (r= 0.930 and r= 0.813). At the same time, no valuable relation could be detected between the data raised in the laboratory and the preference expressed by the sensorial tests, which should signalise that the opinion of consumers does not depend on any individual parameter obtained in the laboratory (sugar- or acid content, fi rmness) but rather on the complexity of several decisive components together (sweetness, acidity, fl avour, skin, etc.). The consumers’ preference cannot be measured objectively without the aid of adequate expertise and a prosperous surrounding, samples of optimal maturity and a thoughtfully edited judging form.

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Spectral properties of strawberry plants
Published May 15, 2007
17-22.

Strawberry varieties were studied in 3 different growing areas of different soil- and ecological properties in Hungary. We have measured the optical spectra of the leaves together with their nutrient content and performed sensory examinations on the deep frozen and melted fruit. The 6 varieties were Elsanta, Marianna, Spadeka, Symphony, Camaros...a, and Raurica. The 3 sites were Újfehértó, Pölöske, and Kecskemet. Colour of the leaves was characterised by their lightness and dominant wavelength. Under non-optimal soil and ecological conditions the varieties could be distinguished by their colour — the leaves became lighter and more yellow. The fruits did not produce the genetically determined taste if the plant can not grow in optimal circumstances — we found a negative correlation between the leaf colour in flowering time and the fruit flavour. Leaf colour measurements performed in flowering time make it possible to improve fruit quality by changing the nutrient supply between flowering and ripening.

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Pollen morphology of fruit species
Published June 6, 2000
49-57.

Size and surface morphology of pollen has been studied in 87 twit varieties of 10 fruit species during the period of 1990-1995. No preceding work of that type came to our knowledge, yet.

The samples comprised a wide variety of cultivars included male sterile, self-incompatible, partially self-fertile stone fruits, diploid and hexaploid ...plums, diploid and triploid apples.

The large number of species and varieties facilitated the comparison of items within and between the respective species.

It was stated that the size, shape and surface morphology of pollen is genetically determined and those data, combined with other variety characters, are suitable for the classification and distinction of varieties.

In assessment of pollen size and shape, their moisture content is crucial. The major diameter of the swollen pollen as well as the length and width of the dry grains are characteristic to species and/or to variety.

The width and shape changes largely with moisture content. Large grains are proper to quince, apricot, peach and almond, medium sizes are found in apple, sweet cherry, sour cherry, European plum, whereas small size is typical to Japanese plums.

The low number of varieties studied does not allow conclusions concerning differences within pears, quinces and almonds as species. In the rest of species, valid differences have been registered as between varieties.

Within species, as apple and plum, the effect of ploidy (i.e. number of chromosomes) was expressed in the size of their pollen. In stone fruit species, the correlation between size. of anthers and size of pollen grains was positive.

Genetic relations between the self-fertile sour cherry varieties of the Pándy type (Debreceni bőtermő, Kántorjánosi, Újfehértói fürtös) as well as the self-incompatible apricots of "giant" fruit size are supposed to be analysed by pollen studies but there did not turn out any decisive conclusion, yet. Other characters also should be considered.

The assembly of pollen characters is decisive in the determination of the variety. The ratio of empty pollen grains, the grain size and the density as well as the size of the pits on the surface are best suited to distinguish pollen lots.

 

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Evaluation of morphological parameters and bioactive compounds in different varieties of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. esculenta GURKE var. rubra L.)
Published September 20, 2015
31-35.

Beetroot consumption based on pickled beets generally in Hungary which is due to the higher yield from second crop harvested in autumn and processed by manufacturing industry. Researches of the past years confirmed its favourable nutritional-physiological effects on human body so demands, as for fresh salad, also increased. The trial aimed at t...esting the interaction of varieties on quality parameters and in the same time suggestions are made how to use different varieties of beetroot according to its quality. Morphological and sensory evaluations were examined on 10 varieties of beetroot harvested in autumn. The regular spherical shape can reduce the refining loss during the processing of beetroot which is beneficial for the manufacturing industry. In our trial the root shape of Libero, Mona Lisa and Rubin varieties approached most the regular spherical shape (diameter/length – 1.0) which is favoured by not only processing industry but also fresh market. The highest red pigment content (betanin) was observed in Mona Lisa, Akela and Cylindra (34.58–47.66 mg/100 g). A similar trend could be observed in yellow pigments (vulgaxanthins) which proves the close correlation between the quantities of the two pigments (r=0.898). Highest total polyphenol (77.13–83.37 mg GAE/100g) and flavonoid (21.73–22.73 mg CE/100g) contents were detected in Akela, Mona Lisa and Bonel. These varieties are favourable for fresh salad and they can satisfy processing requirements also. Highest water soluble solids content was found in Akela (7.15%). In our conditions nitrate (NO3-N) values below 900 mg/kg were examined in all of the varieties which is favourable in the case of beetroot.

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Prediction infection risk on the basis of weather-related factors and Erwinia amylovora colonization in apple and pear flowers
Published May 10, 2004
39-54.

Current infection risk prediction models utilize environmental parameters and field records, but do not take into account the estimated inoculum potential within the orchard. The object of this study was to survey the accuracy of three simple prediction methods under Hungarian climatic conditions, which could easily be used by the farmers. We a...lso tested whether the accuracy of infection risk predictions can be improved by taking into consideration the incidence and/or rate of flower colonization by Erwinia amylovora.

After preliminary investigations in 1999-2001, data concerning the weather-related infection risk were recorded in 5 apple and 1 pear orchards in 2002, and in 12 apple and I pear orchards in 2003. The weather data were processed by the easy-to-use risk assessment models of the mean temperature prediction line (MTL), Smith's Cougarblight 98C and Billing's integrated system (BIS), and by the MaryblytTM 4.3 computer-assisted model for reference. The population size of E. amylovora in the flower samples was estimated within an order of magnitude by PCR.

For all years and orchards tested, Maryblyt indicated 35 days on which there was an acute infection risk. The same days were indicated by all 3 methods in 23 cases (66%), 8 days were indicated by 2 methods (23%) and 4 days were indicated by 1 method only. A similarly good correlation was found for prediction of the date of the first massive infection risk: in 2003, for instance, there was a perfectly consistent prediction by all 4 models in 9 of the 13 participating orchards. A coincidental forecast was provided by 3 of the 4 models in the other 4 orchards.

The results indicate that any of the risk assessment models could provide an increased accuracy of the actual infection risk prediction if combined with an estimation of the incidence of Erwinia amylovora colonization in the open flowers. We found no convincing differences in the size of the epiphytic population in flowers of cultivars possessing high or low susceptibility to Erwinia amylovora.

We conclude that the easy-to-use methods tested could be used by the fanners to recognize weather-related risks, especially when coupled with an estimation of the proportion of the pathogen-infested flowers. This local prediction would provide rapid information (faster than the regional forecast systems) specifically for a given orchard.

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Effects of aromatic cytokinins on structural characteristics of leaves and their post- effects on subsequent shoot regeneration from in vitro apple leaves of 'Royal Gala'
Published March 14, 2005
41-46.

The effects of different aromatic cytokinins applied in different concentrations and combinations were investigated on the histology of in vitro apple leaves and their post-effects on subsequent shoot regeneration from these leaves were studied. Great differences in the anatomical structure of leaves could be detected originating from ...media containing different types and concentrations of aromatic cytokinins. The number of regenerated shoots per explant and the organogenetic index were used for the evaluation of the post-effect of aromatic cytokinins on shoot regeneration. The histological structure of leaves used for regeneration and their regeneration response showed a good correlation. When the pre-treatment caused a juvenile-like or less-differentiated structure, the number of regenerated shoots per explant increased and often vitrification also decreased and consequently the organogenetic index also increased. A strong interaction between cytokinin-content (type and concentration) of the pre-treatment medium and that of the regeneration medium could also be detected.

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Comparative study of different fertile groups in plums
Published June 20, 2006
71-76.

The plum traditional fruit species in Hungary, several local cultivars was born in the different grower's districts. The author that investigated, that are morphological differences between an odds find self-fertile, self sterile (with functional stamens) and male sterile plum cultivars. For it thought about main questions of a scientific debat...e sown up and the study this way gave reactions totalize. There were in three fertile groups 8-8 type of feature plum cultivars in periods of 1992-2001, respectively 1993-1999. It was founded by author big odds found the troops on the basis of 9 traits between. Pistil length of self sterile cultivars very typical, such as sesquipedalian flower peduncle of the self-fertile plums and the hypoandry of male sterile cultivars. The relative stamen number and the pollen viability as well significant odds gave.

The average fruit mass and sharka infection of self-fertile plums this troops extreme work. According to cultivar's averages the shark symptoms standard the right correlation the singular traits, but those one part of her with each other not shown connection.

The annuity potencies underdeveloped the troops behind and the troops within cultivar's differences had case significance. The results usable the male sterile cultivars and progeny further its investments.

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The morphology of stigmata in stone fruit species
Published June 6, 2000
45-48.

The morphology of the stigma has been studied in 50 varieties belonging to 6 stone fruit species. The majority of samples had elliptical stigmata with some exceptions with circular form (Duane, Tuleu gras). The surface of the stigma is papillary, flattened in side view (sweet cherry) or bulging (apricot, peach). The suture of the stigm...a is clearly visible as a depression and the varieties may differ in this respect.

The size of the stigma depends highly from the season, although the varietal differences are maintained. The dimension of stigmatic surface is characteristic for the species expressed in square millimetres: sweet cherry 0.92 to 2.91; sour cherry 1.64 to 2.48; plum 0.83 to 1.80; oriental plum 0.53 to 1.15; apricot 0.57 to 1.69 mm2.

The size and morphology of the stigma changes according to varieties too, and it may used in description and identification of varieties. No correlation has been found between the size of stigma and the fertility relations (self-fertility or self-incompatibility) of the respective varieties.

 

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The effect of different cytokinins on chlorophyll content and morphological features of in vitro Nidularium ’Kertész Jubileum’
Published April 12, 2015
47-51.

During in vitro multiplication of Nidularium ‘Kertész Jubileum’, 20 g/l sucrose, 5 g/l agar, 100 mg/l inositol, and different concentrations of benzyladenine (BA), benzyladenine-riboside (BAR), kinetin (KIN), meta-topolin (mT) were added to the MKC (Knudson, 1946) basal medium. Furthermore, 0.1 mg/l naphthaleneacetic acid was used to every... medium. Number of shoots, length of leaves, number and length of roots, chlorophyll (a+b) content were examined and evaluated with Ropstat statistical software. As compared to the other cytokinin, significantly most shoots were obtained in the case of applying BA. Increasing of BA-concentration (as far as 2 mg/l) enhanced shoot number (from 10.92 to 19.26) but 4 mg/l BA resulted only 6.63 shoot. The less efficient cytokinin was KIN, in most cases no more than about 2 shoot was achieved. Regarding the length of leaves, the higher level of BA effected averagely the shorter leaves (from 24,46 to 7.31 mm). KIN effected significantly the longest leaves (43.4-61.29) in inverse proportion to the concentration. The same cytokinin resulted the most (and the longest) roots with the highest rooting percentages, but more KIN decreased the number and length of roots (from 7.95 to 4.4 and from 38.49 to 22.73 mm). There were no definite correlation between cytokinin concentration and chlorophyll (a+b) content, but the highest doses resulted decreasing (except of meta-topolin which leads to the lowest values). Summarizing, BAR effected the highest contents (mostly more than 1400 μg/g), particularly in the case of 1 mg/l (1807.3 μg/g).

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Carbohydrate utilization of Erwinia amylovora in vitro
Published May 10, 2004
31-34.

Nectar is a multi-component aqueous solution that promotes bacterial multiplication. The concentration of nectar in plant flowers is not stable since it is under the influence of environmental conditions, especially free moisture and relative humidity. Experiments were conducted with "artificial nectar" and directed along two lines: (1) determi...nation of the optimal concentrations of carbohydrates for the growth of E. amylovora development (2) consumption of different carbohydrates besides basic sugars.

Solutions of "artificial nectar" were prepared in different compositions by changing the dominance of basic sugars (fructose — glucose —sucrose) in proportions of 2:1:1, 1:2:1, 1:1:2 and between concentrations of 10-0.6% (diluted with Basal minimum broth) in order to determine optimal conditions for the development of E. amylovora.

At a basic sugar concentration of 10% bacterial multiplication started and continued until I log degree (from 106 to 107 cfu/ml). At concentrations of 5% and 2,5 % cells developed with nearly the same kinetics (from 106 to 8x107 cfu/ml and from 106 to 9x107 cfu/ml, respectively). Multiplication was more pronounced and nearly the same at concentrations of 1.2 % and 0.6 % (from106 to 2x108 cfu/ml). At a basic sugar concentration 30% total sugars bacterial multiplication did not occur, while at 20 % it was negligible, not measurable photometrically.

At minimal concentrations of F, G, S (between 1-0.1 %) bacterial cells were still able to multiply, producing organic acids from sugars.

Our study showed that E. amylovora requires only a small amount of sugars (0.1%) for multiplication (acid production) while high concentrations inhibit multiplication. There was a negative correlation between sugar content and cell density. The optimal range of sugar concentration was at about 1%.

Effect of "less frequent carbohydrates" to E. amylovora multiplication was also determined using the API 50 CH strip. We could provide information on utilization of 39 carbohydrates by the bacterium at different categories as follows: Not utilized-, Slowly and weakly utilized-, Slowly and completely utilized-, Quickly and completely utilized carbohydrates. We suppose that carbohydrates that belong to the latter two groups could play an important role as nectar components in promoting E. amylovora multiplication in the blossoms of pome fruit trees.

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The application of A HEAT SUM MODEL for the budburst of sour cherry varieties grown at Újfehértó
Published September 2, 2009
105-112.

Experiences of the last decades showed univocally that the climatic changes, especially the warming up, influenced clearly the phenology, i.e. speed of growth and development of plants. To check the effects, the phenological studies became a topic of special interest. Our research has been performed at Újfehértó, the Research Institute of Fr...uit Growing and Extension, where the respective database accumulated observations during the period 1984–2005, where the meteorological data as well as the parallel phenological diary referring to the varieties ’Újfehértói fürtös’, ’Kántorjánosi’ and ’Debreceni bôtermô’ during the period 1984–1991 have been utilised. The method of calculating the sum of daily mean temperatures, “degree days”, is based on the observation that the plants are able to utilise cumulatively – in growth and development – the temperature above a set basic temperature. Our phenology model examined the correlation between the sum of degree days and the date of sprouting (budburst). The basic temperature has been determined by optimization, above which (threshold temperature) the accumulation of daily means was most active, or alternatively, below which the daily means are most sensitively expressed in the phenology. The model has been extended to the calculation of the end of rest period (endodormancy) – by optimization as well. Our phenology model will be suitable for two main purposes: for estimating the time of budburst for the Hungarian region during the next decades calculated on the basis of regionally downscaled climate models; on the other hand, by applying our model, the risk of damage caused by spring frosts could be estimated more exactly than earlier.

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