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Antioxidant characterization of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivars and hybrids
Published October 11, 2005
47-51.

This report forms a part in our long-term study dedicated to reveal the antioxidant properties of apricot fruits through several years. Nineteen apricot cultivars and 8 hybrids were comparatively analysed. Total phenol content and antioxidant activity showed a good correlation. The tested cultivars and hybrids could be arranged in three groups ...representing different antioxidant activities, 12 entries were involved in the group with relatively low antioxidant capacity (FRAP value < 1500 mmol/L); 10 accessions were classified in the group with medium antioxidant capacity (1500 mmol/L < FRAP value < 3000 mmol/L); and 5 genotypes were grouped to the category of high antioxidant value (FRAP > 3000 mmol/L). `Morden 604' produced a surpassingly outstanding antioxidant character. H-donating ability has further supported our results. Phenolic substances were accumulated and ferric reducing ability was increased in the ripe fruits compared to the unripe ones. High levels of variations in the total phenol content and antioxidant capacity in of apricot fruits were revealed in this study. Environment, year or rootstocks may also influence the antioxidant properties of fruits. however it seems to be convincing that crossing parents with outstanding antioxidant character can produce hybrids with higher antioxidant capacity. Hungarian apricots are widely appreciated for their premium flavour and — as it was evidenced in this study — for their relatively good antioxidant properties. However, delicious fruits should be made functional foods having beneficial health effects through accumulating large amounts of antioxidant molecules in the fruit flesh.

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Antioxidant capacity and total polyphenolic content in quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) fruit
Published July 25, 2013
33-35.

Fruits of twelve quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) commercial cultivars and selections were compared in the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total phenolic content (TPC) of intact and peeled fruits. The antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content ranged between 5.99 and 63.10 mmol AA/100 g FW, and 3.92 and 12.83 g GA/100 g FW, resp...ectively. These ranges cover an almost 8-times variation among the tested genotypes in case of antioxidant capacity and also declares two-times variation for total polyphenolic content. Cultivars ‘Aromate’ and ‘Bereczki’ possessed the lowest antioxidant capacity and ‘Román portugál’ and ‘Bereczki’ had the lowest polyphenolic contents. In contrast, cultivars ‘Champion’ and ‘Konstantinápolyi’ possessed the highest antioxidant capacity and ‘Mezôtúri’ and ‘De Husi’ had the highest polyphenolic contents. The Pearson’s coeffi cient was relatively moderate but signifi cant (r=0.51) indicating a weak interdependence between FRAP and TPC values of quince fruits. Our results led us to the conclusion that quince might be considered as a valuable source of antioxidants and polyphenolics.

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The antioxidant capacity of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) berries depends on the genotype and harvest time
Published September 7, 2014
27-29.

Berries of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) are characterized by increasing popularity due to their presumable healtheffects. The aim of this study was to compare the antioxidant capacity and total polyphenolic content in the berries of six Hungarian grown sea buckthorn genotypes and characterize the genetic variability in this trait. Th...e harvest time of sea buckthorn berries affects the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents in berries of three popular cultivars of German origin. Berries harvested in October had higher antioxidant capacity compared with those harvested one month later. The extent of the difference was genotype-specific. Our analysis revealed a nearly 3-fold difference between the lowest and highest antioxidant capacities of the 6 tested genotypes with ‘Leikora’ showing the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power and total phenolic content. The TEAC values ranged between 1.76 and 3.13 mmol Trolox/100g fresh weight with Pető 1 and ‘Frugana’ having the highest values. The results presented in this study demonstrated that Hippophae rhamnoides berries possess in vitro antioxidant activity strongly determined by genotype but also influenced by harvest time.

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Large variations in antioxidant capacity and contents of Hungarian sour and sweet cherry cultivars
Published May 10, 2010
25-28.

Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) cultivars grown in Hungary are of local origin while most sweet cherry cultivars in Hungary are introduced from other countries.A great phenotypic variability is displayed by both species. In the present study, we analyzed 10 sour and 9 sweet cherry cultivars for their antioxidant capacity, total polyphenolics (T...PC) and total anthocyanin (TMAC) contents. In general, sour cherries showed higher levels of antioxidant capacity, TPC and TMAC. The anthocyanin contents varied from 0.16 to 6.85 and 1.41 to 127.56 mg/100 g for sweet and sour cherries, respectively. However, TMAC generally seems to have a limited influence on the antioxidant capacity of cherries.An amarelletype sour cherry, ‘Pipacs 1’ showed the highest antioxidant capacity (21.21mmolAA/l) and TPC (44.07mgGA/l) in contrast to its lowanthocyanin content. The detected diversity presents a choice that can satisfy different consumer preferences, and meet specific nutritional requirements.

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Antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content of Lavandula cultivars at different growing areas in Hungary
Published July 29, 2020
65-69.

Lavandula species are worldwide grown essential oil producing medicinal plants with considerable economic value. Beside volatile oil, lavender also contains different phenolic compounds which have been less widely studied till now. Cultivation of lavender has become widespread in Hungary in the recent years, however, growers have limit...ed knowledge on the productivity of cultivars available. In our research we were aimed to studying the antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content of samples collected in two growing areas (Dörgicse and Szomód) from flowers of two L. angustifolia (‘Hidcote’, ‘Munstead’) and two L. × intermedia (‘Grosso’, Grappenhall’) varieties, during the full blooming period of 2017. Antioxidant capacity of the samples was determined by FRAP assay (Benzie and Strain, 1996), while total polyphenol content (TPC) was measured by a modified method of Singleton and Rossi (1965). According to our results, varieties of L. × intermedia showed higher values of antioxidant capacity and of total polyphenol content, than those of L. angustifolia cultivars. Among them, both the antioxidant capacity (179.6 mg AAE/g DW) and total polyphenol content values (152.4 mg GAE/g DW) of ’Grosso’ from Dörgicse were the highest. Concerning FRAP values of all the cultivars investigated, larger variability were found in Dörgicse, than in Szomód. Regarding the effect of growing area, each cultivar represented similar FRAP values in Dörgicse and in Szomód, except for ’Grosso’. However, in the case of TPC values, higher variability was observed between the growing areas, especially in the case of ’Grosso’. In the future our studies on lavender polyphenols will be completed with qualitative evaluation of the values obtained by HPLC analysis.

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Factors affecting apricot fruit antioxidant capacity and mineral element contents
Published March 25, 2009
95-99.

Several epidemiological studies revealed that the consumption of antioxidant compounds and the risk of atherosclerosis, increased blood pressure or cancer are inversely proportional. The individual amounts and relative proportions of macro- and micro elements present in food is also of great consideration since these are involved in a wide rang...e of physiological processes including the influence of the redox homeostasis. The antioxidant power and mineral nutrient content of fruits might be affected by several factors including genotype, ripening stage, year-effects or a wide range of environmental conditions. This study was carried out to survey the antioxidant power and mineral element content in fresh fruits of apricot and analyse some genetic and environmental factors that may have important contribution to the inner content of apricot fruits. In addition, the influencing effect of the extraction procedure used for antioxidant analyses was also tested. Our analyses indicate that a considerable fraction of antioxidant capacity is attributable to the hydrophilic antioxidants. The genetic background has crucial importance in determining apricot fruit antioxidant capacity and mineral nutrient content; however, the growing season and the ripening time of fruits may have also important effects.

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Antioxidant capacity, total phenolics and mineral element contents in fruits of Hungarian sour cherry cultivars
Published February 19, 2008
59-64.

Several epidemiological studies revealed that the consumption of antioxidant compounds and the risk of atherosclerosis, increased blood pressure or cancer are inversely proportional. Fruits of sour cherry contain a wide range of antioxidant compounds including melatonin, perillyl alcohol, ellagic acid, several flavonoids, polyphenolics, and ant...hocyanins. This study was carried out to survey the antioxidant power and mineral element content of seven commercial sour cherry cultivars and three cultivar candidates and to assess the influence of some external conditions on fruits' functional properties. Our analysis revealed nearly 5- and 2-fold differences between the lowest and highest antioxidant capacities and total phenolics content, respectively. Some cultivars (`Kántorjánosi' and ‘Újfehértói fürtös') and cultivar candidates (D, 'Petri' and 'Éva') showed outstanding antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content; in addition, mineral element content in fruits of the ‘Újfehértói fürtös' cultivar was also favourable. Redox parameters of fruits were influenced by the cultivation plot or fruit positions within the canopy in about half of the cultivars tested. Genetic background of cultivars forms the decisive factor in determining fruits' antioxidant capacity, although external factors may have also sizeable modifying effects. Enhanced functional properties of the fruit may also be further increased through breeding programs since considerable variation exists within the tested germplasm.

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Antioxidant capacity, C-vitamin and anthocyanils content in the fruits of elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) types
Published August 13, 2004
77-79.

: Elderberry used to be a common medicinal plant since long. Its ripe fruit and inflorescence has been collected. Cultivation however, started in Hungary recently, with the early 90-es. Initially, has been planted, the 'Haschberg' cultivar. Our Department started first with the selection of favourable genotypes in the Hungarian spontan...eous populations of the species, we aimed to find clones, which are earlier ripening than 'Haschberg', moreover, superior in any of the agronomical or quality traits. Present study deals with 19 new selected clones by their content of vitamin-C, anthocyanins and their antioxidant capacity. Environmental stresses are inducing, increased, accumulation of free radicals in living organisms. To evoid the harmful effects of the free radicals, we need to consume antioxidant compounds (flavonoids, anthocyanins, vitamins, etc.) In the literature there are quite a few references related to the anthocyanins and antioxidants of the elderberry. Measurements prove that substantial differences exist among the population of the species as for the content and quality of those compounds. In anthocyanin content, the difference between the highest and lowest values was 3000 mg/I, whereas in antioxidant content this value was 6001.1M. Those types, which contained less anthocyanin (<5000 mg/I), produced lower antioxidant capacity, whereas the highest anthocyanin content was associated with the strongest antioxidant activity. C-vitamin content varied between 36.5 and 96.4 mg/100g. These values provide daily human requirements by their consumption. Summing up all parameters, examined the best type was Cinkota 1.

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Preliminary evaluation of selected Prunus spinosa and P. insititia genotypes for their nutraceutical properties
Published December 4, 2011
19-22.

Fruits of nine Prunus spinosa and P. insititia selections were compared in their ferric reducing antioxidant power and total phenolic content. The antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content ranged between 6.36 and 29.26 mmol AA/L, and 5.04 and 29.71 mmol GA/L, respectively. These ranges cover an almost 5-times variation among the tested ge...notypes. The Pearson’s coefficient was very high (0.92) indicating a major contribution of polyphenolics to the antioxidant capacity of the tested Prunus fruits. Conserving resulted in an approximate 20 % loss of antioxidant power and slightly increased phenolic contents. Our results led us to the conclusion that fruit of Prunus spinosa and P. insititia might be considered as rich sources of antioxidants. In addition, procession with heat treatment caused only a slight decrease in the antioxidant capacity without loss in the total polyphenolic content.

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The effect of different berries in human nutrition
Published September 19, 2007
147-151.

The aims of this study were on the one hand to compare of examined compounds according to their importance in nutrition and human-health, and on the other hand we made preexperiments to investigate the relationships among antioxidant capacity and the endogenous substances which contribute the antioxidant status of the plants. The following spec...ies were involved in the experiment: raspberry, blackberry, black currant, elderberry and sour cherry. These fruits have potent health-promoting antioxidant power. Glucose, fructose, total phenol, formaldehyde and anthocyanin contents were determined in addition to ferric reducing ability. Our results reflected considerable differences in the measured parameters of the analysed species. In blackberries and elderberries the high antioxidant capacity is coupled with low carbohydrate content. Besides the formerly proven correlations between total phenol content, anthocyanin concentration and antioxidant capacity, these parameters also correlated with the measured formaldehyde concentrations, hereby we can follow the methylation /demethylation status of the plant.

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Comparative study of three rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) clones during the growing season
Published May 18, 2005
67-72.

The growth rate of three rosemary clones, `Harmat', 'Salem' and `Horvát', their essential oil content and its components as well as the total phenol content and total antioxidant capacity in their aqueous and ethanolic extracts were compaired. Total phenol content (determined by Folin-Ciocalteau reagent) and antioxidant power (FRAP-value) of a...queous and ethanolic rosemary extracts were measured by spectrophotometric method. The essential oil content was determined from drug by water-steam distillation. `Harmat' showed the most intensive growth through the vegetation period. The total antioxidant power of the ethanolic extracts from all the three clones was similar: a decrease was observed at the end of the season. In most cases more antioxidant compounds were dissolved in the aqueous extracts. The total quantity of phenolic compounds shows a good correlation with the potential extent of stress effects. The difference among the phenol contents of the various clones can be derived from the difference in their tolerance, because phenols have antioxidant effects contributing to protection against harmful impacts. Difference between the two extraction methods (aqueous and ethanolic) is due to the distinct solubility of compounds. Some other components, like essential oil compounds also possess antioxidant effect and in this way they may influence the antioxidant power of extracts.

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Composition and sensory properties of sour cherry cultivars
Published May 10, 2010
19-23.

Fruits of different sour cherry varieties cultivated, in 2008 and 2009, under organic farming and integrated cultivation conditions were analysed for their quality attributes, antioxidant activity and subjected to sensory evaluation.. Average size, weight, soluble solids, titratable acidity, total polyphenols, free radical scavenging capacity e...xpressed as Trolox equivalent (TEAC), copper and zinc were determined in freshly harvested fruits. The obtained results indicated that, the principal component analysis can separate and distinguish the seasons of fruit production. The farming system seemed to have slight effect on quality the fruit as compared to varietal factors (genotypes). However, the total polyphenol content was uniformly less in 2009. Total polyphenols and free radical scavenging activity were significantly higher in Bosnian type sour cherries, and outstanding in Amarelle type cultivar ‘Pipacs’. There was no statistically significant difference between the sensory properties of cultivars tested by panels, except the case of ‘Pipacs’. The organolaptic investigation showed marked preference to the fruits of Eva and Petri cultivars.

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Antioxidant, polyphenol and sensory analysis of cherry tomato varieties and landraces
Published April 25, 2012
75-80.

Among vegetables produced both for raw consumption and processing, tomato is one of the most important one in Europe, by production area and by yield as well. In the past years several study dealt with the investigation of the inner content of tomato, with special regards to antioxidant content. In this paper cherry tomato varieties and landrac...es from conventional and organic production were compared. Besides basic investigations sensory analysis were designed and Antioxidant Capacity (AOC) and Total Phenol Content (TPC) were measured. The aim of the research was to compare varieties and to study the effect of variety and production methods on antioxidant capacity and sensory profiles.

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Total anthocyanine content and antioxidant density of some Hungarian sour cherry varieties
Published May 18, 2005
109-111.

Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Recent research has proven that sour cherry (Pru...nus cerasus L.) is a valuable natural source of some bioactive compounds important in human health preservation. In our work, we identified the total antioxidant activity, anthocyanine content and "antioxidant density" of sour cherry varieties named "Újfehértói fürtös", "Debreceni bőtermő", "Kántorjánosi" and "Érdi bőtermő" and those of the "Bosnyák" sour cherry clones. "Antioxidant density" is a biological value indicator obtained in a synthetic way, which indicates the antioxidant capacity of the particular food, e. g. fruit and vegetable, related to 1 Calorie.

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Influence of strawberry and raspberry consumption on the antioxidant status of human body
Published June 20, 2006
109-113.

Several parameters influencing the antioxidant capacity were measured in our experiments to compare strawberry and raspberry cultivars. The analysed cultivars were: 'Honeoye', 'Elsanta', 'Onebor (strawberries) and 'Glen Ample', Fertődi zamatos', 'Mailing Expoit' (raspberries). Besides the determination of dry matter content the content of gluc...ose, fructose, total phenol and anthocyanine, the reducing power, H-donating activity and total scavenger capacity were measured as well as the compound of mineral nutrients. Among the species and the cultivars, differences were obtained. These results call the attention to the features of cultivars and to count on the antioxidant-capacity describing values in case of consuming these fruits. In early spring and summer the consumption of strawberry and raspberry has a beneficial contribution to the antioxidant status of our body. In this respect these are more valuable than the year-long consumable apple. Accordingly, our measurements showed higher amount of sucrose, phenolic compounds and anthocyanine in raspberries, but strawberries contained more glucose and fructose and had stronger H-donating activity. It is worth to keep in mind that e.g. which cultivar contains more of certain compounds because of the strictly determined allowable dose in some diseases (e.g. diabetes).

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High antioxidant - and anthocyanin contents of sour cherry cultivars may benefit the human health: international and Hungarian achievements on phytochemicals
Published June 20, 2006
45-47.

Evidence suggests that a diet with high fruit and vegetable consumption may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Recent research has proved that sour ch...erry (Prunus cerasus L.) is a valuable natural source of some bioactive compounds important in human health preservation. According to the published data, the most important biological effects of sour cherry are connected — directly or indirectly — to their endogenous antioxidant behaviour as well as to their specific pattern of anthocyanin components. In the present work, we measured the total antioxidant capacity of some Hungarian sour cherry varieties in combination with their anthocyanin-, and vitamin-C content. In 2003, twelve clones were selected and grafted from a local sour cherry population called "Bosnyák" sour cherry grown in small home gardens and farms of the village Csengod (Great-Plain Region, South Hungary). Other Hungarian sour cherry varieties, i.e. cv. Újfehértói fürtos, cv. Érdi bőterrnő, cv. Debreceni bőterrnő, cv. Csengődi and cv. Kántorjánosi served as a control.

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Effect of organic and integrated farming on carotenoid and tocopherol content of apricot fruits
Published December 4, 2011
15-18.

In modern and healthy diets antioxidants play an important role providing natural defence against serious diseases. Therefore it is recommended to include fruits and vegetables having high antioxidant capacity in daily diet in a due course. Apricot is one of the fruits receiving an increasing attention in this field. This study was conducted to... investigate the composition and content of fat-soluble carotenoids and tocopherols in different varieties of apricot using recently developed liquid chromatographic methods. Also it was aimed to compare organic and integrated farming in their effect on carotenoid and tocopherol content of the fruits. The results showed that apricot fruit are rich in vital carotenoids and bioactive tocopherols with significant variation between different varieties. The organic farming had favourable effect on the level of the major carotenoids and depending on variety this technology either increases or does not have significant influence on vitamin E content.

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Comparative study of some nutritionally important components on different cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) genotypes
Published November 15, 2004
81-84.

Vegetables of Brassicaceae are especially important because of their inner values, which play a provably positive role in curing and preventing diseases. Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. convar. capitata provar. capitata) is still today one of the most frequently consumed green vegetables, which is known to brak...e the absorption of carcinogenous substances and to obstruct cell mutation. Different cabbage cultivars were compared growing under the same circumstance. The level of different carbohydrate fractions and some biologically active quaternary ammonium compounds were determined. In all cases we analyzed the antioxidant capacity of samples characterizing the free radical scavenging capacity.

Clearly detectable significant differences were found between the varieties tested, which appeared suitable for selecting the most precious varieties for human nutrition.

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Preliminary evaluation of breeding perspectives of Ukrainian sweet cherry cultivars: nutraceutical properties and self-incompatibility
Published March 15, 2011
7-11.

Some traditional sweet cherry cultivars of Ukrainian origin may represent perspective material for Hungarian cherry breeding. A total of eight cultivars analysed represent great diversity in several phenotypic traits including fruit ripening time or fruit flesh colour. Considerable differences in the anthocyanin content may result in different ...antioxidant capacity of fruits. In the present study, we used ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total phenolic content (TPC) assays to characterize fruits’ nutraceutical properties. These values were compared with the respective values measured for eight commercial cultivars grown in Hungary. The average of FRAP and TPC values was higher for the Ukrainian cherries compared with commercial cultivars suggesting they might be included in functional breeding programs. Since, cherry is a self-incompatible species, the determination of S-genotype is required for both breeding and successful cultivar association in commercial orchards. Complete or partial S-genotypes were determined for 5 and 3 cultivars, respectively.

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Optimization of sample preparation for determination of antioxidant parameters from one grape berry
Published September 7, 2014
93-97.

Berry quality is an important issue in wineprocessing, however evaluating characteristics in a single berry level is very complex. The Phenolic compound analysis is more challenging because of the limited amount of material and a mixture of skin, pulp and seed. No clear protocol exists for evaluating these compounds from single berries. The aim... of our investigation was to develop such a protocol. Single whole grape berries samples were homogenized in 20 replicates by 5 different methods. The most effective method was when berry was placed in a mortar and was crushed with a pestle under liquid nitrogen until seeds were clearly visible. Seeds were then taken from the mortar and crushed between two stainless steel plates with a hammer, and returned to the mortar without residues. Homogenization continued until the sample had a powdery appearance. The homogenized samples were taken for further analysis such as total polyphenols, total anthocyanin contents and total antioxidant capacity. Our results demonstrate that single berries could be processed and that the homogenates were suitable for taking chemically uniform subsamples.

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Bioactive phenols in leaves of Forsythia species
Published May 19, 2008
57-59.

Nowadays a number of lignans (arctigenin, matairesinol, pinoresinol and phillygenin) have come to the fore in research due to their various biological activities. In this paper the accumulation of these constituents in leaf extracts of Forsythia plants (F. intermedia, F. ovata 'Robusta’ and `Tetragold', F. suspensa, F. v...iridissima) was quantified using a new isolation method, supercritical CO2 fluid extraction. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents, the antioxidant capacity and the aglycone lignan profile were determined in leaf extracts of Forsythia species. Within the phenols, the flavonoids were only present in small quantities, but the amount of aglycone lignans was extremely high. F. ovata `Robusta' had the highest total lignan content (103.8 mg/g) of all the Forsythia species. The main lignan in this species is arctigenin, which normally makes up about 60% of the total lignan content, but in the case of F. ovata `Robusta' this value was 96.1%. Since this arctigenin content is outstanding compared to that of other Forsythia species, it could be promising to develop a fermentation technology for the production of this natural compound.

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Impact of sodium-selenate on the growth of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings in vitro
Published May 18, 2005
113-115.

Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for animals, microorganisms and some other Eukaryotes. It has become increasingly evident that Se plays a significant role in reducing the incidence of lung, colorectal and prostate cancer in humans. Although it is well known that some species among higher plants are able to accumulate selenium in the...ir tissues, but others are not able to do so, and there is evidence that selenium is needed for the growth of algae, meanwhile the question of essentiality of Se in vascular plants is unresolved. We aimed to study the in vitro growing and to characterise some physiological properties in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings treated with 0 to 200 mg/1 sodium-selenate. The results showed that lower (2 mg/1) concentration sodium-selenate increased the biomass as well as the total antioxidant capacity of seedlings. The seedling's selenium content showed linear correlation with the sodium-selenate content of the medium.

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Changing of inert content values of apricot varieties
Published March 2, 2010
39-41.

The consumers have been exigent increasingly about excellent quality. The speci fie flavour and fragrance of apricot evolve during ripening. We need to be acquainted with changing of inert content during ripening to the choosing of optimal harvest time. The Regional University Knowled ge Centre -Research and Development in Foodstuff Chain proje...ct had presented an opportun ity to study the inner content of apricot. Our aim was to study evaluation of health care attributes of apricot fruit. We investigated different ripeness samples of four apricot varieties ('Mandulakajszi', 'Pann 6nia', 'Gonci magyar kajszi'. 'Harcot') in our study of 2007-2009. Samples were taken the orchard of Sóskútfruct Ltd. Hungary. We had measured the water soluble antioxidant capacity, polyphenol-, f3-carotene content and the dissimilar sugar­ and acid-fractions during ripening. We had experienced significant different in inert content between varieties.

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