Anatomical relations of the leaves in strawberry81-84.Views:147
In the present study histology of the leaves of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) variety Elsanta was the objective, which has been performed with the beginning of seedling stage, cotyledons, primary leaves and later true leaves, first cataphyll of the runner shoot as well as the bracteoles of the inflorescence. Structures of the leaf blade, the upper and lower epidermis, the petiole have been also observed. The leaf blade of cotyledons already contains a typical palisade as well as spongy parenchyma tissues, i.e. being bifacial showing a structure similar to that of the true leaf. However, the petiole displays differences from the true leaf. There are a narrow (4-5 layer) primary cortex and a tiny central cylinder. Primary leaves bear already hairs on the adaxial surface and the transporting tissue-bundles are recognised in cross sections having a "V" shape. The first true leaf composed by three leaflets is of a simple structure showing characters reminding of cotyledons and primary leaves. Leaves of intermediate size continue to grow, whereas their inner anatomy changes dramatically. In the central region of the leaflets, near to the main vein, a second palisade parenchyma appears, further on, transporting tissue bundles are branching in the petiole. Collenchyma tissues enhance the stiffness and elasticity of the petiole. Older true leaves develop thick collenchyma tissues around the transporting bundles being represented by increasing numbers. The doubled palisade parenchyma layers of the leaf blades are generally observed. The cataphylls of the runners have a more simple structure, their mesophyll is homogenous, no palisade parenchyma appears. It is evident that leaves grown at successive developmental stages are different not only in their morphological but also anatomical structure. There is a gradual change according to the developmental stage of the leaves.
Influence of strawberry and raspberry consumption on the antioxidant status of human body109-113.Views:135
Several parameters influencing the antioxidant capacity were measured in our experiments to compare strawberry and raspberry cultivars. The analysed cultivars were: 'Honeoye', 'Elsanta', 'Onebor (strawberries) and 'Glen Ample', Fertődi zamatos', 'Mailing Expoit' (raspberries). Besides the determination of dry matter content the content of glucose, fructose, total phenol and anthocyanine, the reducing power, H-donating activity and total scavenger capacity were measured as well as the compound of mineral nutrients. Among the species and the cultivars, differences were obtained. These results call the attention to the features of cultivars and to count on the antioxidant-capacity describing values in case of consuming these fruits. In early spring and summer the consumption of strawberry and raspberry has a beneficial contribution to the antioxidant status of our body. In this respect these are more valuable than the year-long consumable apple. Accordingly, our measurements showed higher amount of sucrose, phenolic compounds and anthocyanine in raspberries, but strawberries contained more glucose and fructose and had stronger H-donating activity. It is worth to keep in mind that e.g. which cultivar contains more of certain compounds because of the strictly determined allowable dose in some diseases (e.g. diabetes).
Evaluation of the quality of Sorbus fruits belonging to different species37-41.Views:146
The interest in wild growing fruits was increased considerably by the pharmaceutical industry, the cosmetics as well as by the food industry. (Stefanovits-Bányai et al., 2004). Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L), sand thorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.), cornet (Cornus mas L.), dog rose (Rosa canina L. bearing hips) and the Sorbus species (Sorhus ssp.) have been well known medicinal and/or ornamental plants since long. Recently, precious substances have been detected in their fruits, which are indispensable in healthy foods. Several species and micro-species of the genus Sorbus are components of the native flora of Hungary, and the fruit of some of them have been consumed traditionally, however, they are preferably considered as ornamentals. The nursery of Alsótekeres (Balatonvilágos) maintained some 16 clones of Sorbus species, which are mainly apomictic "micro species" of. the collection. In 2003, a comprehensive analysis of sorb fruits born on apomictic micro species was initiated in order to find those, which will be suitable to establish plantations. It turned out that considerable differences exist between the fruits of individual taxa, however, it is largely influenced by seasonal effects. According to physical measurements, a scale of mean fruit masses could be established. As for chemical ingredients of the fruits, those are of special interest, which are involved mainly in anti-oxidant activities of the organisms (calcium, potash, phosphorus, copper, magnesium).