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Effect of acidity on growth rate and stroma formation of Monilia fructigena and M. polystroma isolates
63-67.

The effect of acidity (pH) ranges on the mycelial growth and stroma formation of Monilia fructigena Pers: Fr. and of M. polystroma van Leeuwen was determined on agar plates and apple fruits. Four isolates of each of the brown rot fungi and two apple cultivars, `James Grieve' and 'Cox's Orange Pippin', were used for the study. For the agar plate study, a range of the initial pH was prepared from 2.5 to 6.5. The dishes were inoculated with a 4 mm plug of each isolate and incubated at 23 °C in darkness. The mycelial growth was measured after 1.5, 4, 7, 10 and 20 days of incubation. After a 30-day incubation, stroma formation was determined by image analysis and weighing of mature stroma. In the fruit experiment, both cultivars were inoculated with one isolate of M. fructigena and of M. polystroma. The pH changes were determined after 7, 14, 28 and 35 days of incubation in both healthy and inoculated fruits. The fastest mycelial growth was at pH 4.5 for M. polystroma and at pH 3.5 for M. fructigena. After a 30-day incubation, M. polystroma isolates produced twice or three times more stroma compared to M. fructigena isolates. For both brown rot fungi, the amount of mature stroma increased from pH 3.5 to 5.5, and then decreased at pH 6.5. Results of the.fruit experiment showed that healthy fruits were quite acidic (pH < 3.5), but pH rapidly increased in the inoculated fruits for both cultivars, reaching pH 4.6-5.4 depending on cultivar and fungus isolate. On both cultivars, the stroma developed at a significantly higher pH for M. polystroma than for M. fructigena. Biological and practical implications of the results are discussed.

132
205
Structural differences arise between fruit cuticles of two apple cultivars during long term cold storage
26-29

Apple fruits are covered by hydrophobic cuticle that provides protection against desiccation, pathogens, excessive water absorption and radiation. The features of cuticle affect the quality and storability of the fruits. It was aimed to evaluate the correlation between peel ultrastructure and weight loss in fruits covered by waxy bloom (cv. Florina) and without bloom (cv. Red Rome van Well) during 4-month cold storage. SEM (scanning electron microscopy) was used for visualization of the fruit surface and fruit weight was also measured. Several studies have revealed that there may be correlation between the ultrastructure of cuticle and its water permeability. Our results confirmed this phenomenon in case of two cultivars. The weight loss per fruit surface area unit of ‘Florina’ was found significantly higher than that of ‘Red Rome van Well’. At the same time the cuticular surface of the fruits contained more micro-cracks in case of the former cultivar. These data confirmed the relationship between the density of cuticular micro-cracks and the water vapour permeability. We concluded that this feature is more significant than the amount of natural waxy bloom on fruit surface.

201
225
Relations of phenometrical indices of apple fruits with weather variation in the assortment of varieties of an apple gene bank
115-120.

The purpose of phenometry is to examine the measurable parameters of the plants in order to follow up the consequences of weather processes. We should fi nd the reasons, why the diameter of fruits grows larger in one season and smaller in the next. Variation may occur as a response to insuffi cient provision of water or nutrients, but also because of pathological effects and of extremely high or low temperatures, moreover, of extraordinary heavy fruit load. There are phenometrical characteristics, which consider the fi nal consequences (density of fl owers, fruits set, drop of fruits), whereas other parameters could be followed up (size, length and width of fruits) as the dynamic components of growth. The quantitative parameters of growth are functionally related to each other, where the weather conditions, soil humidity and nutrients are on the input side, thus it is possible to model the growth of fruits as a function of the environment. Initially, the relations between the main weather variables and the phenometrical data have to be cleared. In the present study, the interactions between the mentioned phenomena are presented and numerically defi ned.

157
165
Microclimatic studies on different aged apple plantations
7-11.

The purpose of measuring parallel canopy and out of canopy microclimates was to find out in what extent climatic parameters measured in different aged canopis differ from each other and from the values characteristic to out-of-canopi areas. The importance of phytoclimatic researches seems to lie in the fact that if the reactions of fruit trees towards meteorological elements are continuously followed, we have the possibility to provide growers with information. These pieces of information are like defining the optimum time of phitotechnical interventions (summer pruning, sorting sprouts, thinning fruits, etc.), the necessity of applying mulching, defining the method and time of irrigation and applying plant protection activities. By means of phytoclimatic researches, it is possible to react to unfavourable meteorological impacts within a certain extent. It is also possible to successfully reduce the risks of late spring and early autumn frost damage, as well as the risks, content and measure of experienced heat and water stress conditions by finding out about the physical characteristics of the canopis' internal area.

169
150
Effects of crop load on tree water use in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.)
29-31.

Sap flow rate measurements were carried out during two consecutive ('on' and 'off') years in an apple orchard cv. 'Florina' M.26 to analyse the effects of various crop load on tree water use. Sap flow rate was measured by thermal dissipation method in trunks of nine trees from June to the harvest. Crop load was between 0.2-9.0 fruits • cm -2 of trunk cross section area (equal to 0.5-35.0 fruits•m-2 of leaf area), trunk diameter varied between 4.7-8.7 cm.

Total leaf area was estimated by leaf counting or using shoot girth and leaf area relationship. In both years, fruit growth rate was determined by measuring diameter of 280 marked fruits with 7 days frequency. Fruit volume calculated as a function of fruit diameter based on a previously determined relationship.

Total leaf area of trees ranged from 4.4 to 19.5 m2 and it was closely related to trunk cross section area. At high crop load the fruit growth rate peaked in August with 0.51.tree-l.day-1 and the leaf area specific total fruit volume reached 61 m2 before the harvest.

There was a linear relationship between total leaf area and daily water use, while the leaf area specific water use was influenced by crop load rate. The relationship was described by piecewise linear regression with the breakpoint at crop load rate of 12 fruits•m2 of leaf area. At low crop load the slope of the fitted regression line was less than at high crop load rate.

100
152
Effects of meteorological factors on fruit qualities of 'Fuji' apple in Korea
20-23.

'Fuji' apples from five different growing regions in Korea were analyzed for internal and external quality attributes which included fruit shape, color and sugar. Significant relationships were observed between final fruit color (a*) and air temperature in August. Red color was poorly developed where the average temperature in August was over 25 oC. The sugar composition was significantly different depending on region. The sucrose content decreased with increasing temperature above 16 oC during the harvest season. The fruit shape was not affected by agro-climatic conditions in this study.

 

90
135
Drought stress monitoring by laboratory and satellite spectral methods in an apple orchard
7-9.

An orchard can be examined on the basis of spectral data, using such methods with which the reflected radiation can be divided into a large number of (several hundreds) small spectral channel (some nm). Based on the spectral characteristics of the canopy, or the different index numbers calculated from hyperspectral data the water supply conditions of foliage can be well characterized. The research site is an intensive apple orchard, which located in Debrecen University, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, Farm and Regional Research Institute at Pallag. During our experiments the evaluation of spectral, non-invasive measurement method are carried out for detecting stress symptoms caused by drought. Furthermore, MODIS NDVI time series data were analyzed for orchards situated in North-Eastern part of Hungary in drought effected and wet years in order to detect differences. Significant differences in NDVI values were detected after the end of June.

201
179
Comparison of apples from organic and integrated farming
15-18.

Prima’, ‘Gala’, ‘Remo’, ‘Topáz’, ‘Idared’, ‘Releika’, ‘Resi’, ‘Rubinola’, ‘Rajka’, ‘Rewena’ and ‘Florina’ apple cultivars, both from organic and integrated farming, from Pallag and Újfehértó, were compared. Average size, weight, soluble solids, titratable acidity, total polyphenols, free radical scavenging capacity expressed as Trolox equivalent (TEAC), copper and zinc were determined at harvest and after cool storage. Organic apples were more acidic, while integrated fruits had mostly higher copper and zinc content. Total polyphenols and TEAC values did not show a significant difference as a function of farming technology. A principal component analysis shows the separation of provenances as well as stored and fresh apples. Results are considered as preliminary.

167
172
Down-regulation of ethylene production in carnation (Dianthus Caryphyllus L.) by an apple derived ACC-cDNA
101-104.

Transgenic carnations were produced with an apple derived antisense ACC-synthase cDNA. Transgenic carnation regenerants were potted in glasshouse. All transformed plants showed normal growth and were true-to-type. Ethylene production — measured at full opening stage — lowered by 30-60 %, no plant with 100 % decrease was identified. The vase-life has been observed for 5 years. 38 % of the transformant carnations showed a higher a relative value in days by more than 2 days to 6 days. Twenty six plants were found exhibiting the most marked alterations in the tested trait. In these plants ethylene production decreased by 37-67 %, they have longer vase-life (by 4 days or more). Since the fragrance variety 'Bíbor' was the plant material for genetic modification of vase-life, this trait has been conserved after transformation in spite of the fact that the position of transgene integration cannot be directed.

106
156
Comparison of frost damages in apple plantations cultivated with environmental friendly growing technology
21-24.

The global changes in climate and meteorological conditions have many negative consequences, which may diminished with adequate measures. In our continental climate, the winter frosts but also the late spring frosts are always threatening. There are technologies to avoid late frost damages (with spray irrigation or with smoking), but against winter minima, we are nearly helpless. The different damages experienced recently called our attention on the question of optimal condition, which is a delicate balance between the vegetative activity and the provision of nutrients. The excesses on both ends are increasing the danger of damages (Zatykó, 1980). Our examination was performed in the plantation, which was cultivated according to ecological and integrated technologies. The variable condition of the trees gave opportunity to evaluate the effects of cold temperatures as frost damages. Our results will represent not only the differences between varieties but also the effects of the growing technologies – which influence the condition of the plants – consequently, the measure of frost damages.

147
169
Evaluation of fruit tree waterstress condition and transpiration with heat fl ux sensors
leaf area index, evapotranspiration, water stress

In this study the transpiration properties and response to heat stress of Granny Smith and Jonagold apple species were measured. The examinations were set at an orchard near to Debrecen. The chosen trees were two years old, without fruits, in 20l container, placed in the mixture of mulch matrix, wood chips and sawdust and grown at the same climatic conditions. One of the most important goals was to determine the leaf area of the trees which is a basic data for transpiration modeling. Leaf area was larger (signifi cance level p<0.05) in the upper part of the canopy to achieve larger photosynthetic surface. Jonagold species with less leaf number (–18% compared to Granny Smith) reached almost the same canopy area, than Granny Smith, due to larger leaf area of Jonagold. Another aim was to measure the transpiration rate of the apple trees. The transpiration measurements were carried out by sap fl ow meter. Only a small transpiration difference can be found between species. During the investigation time there were wet and cool as well as dry and extremely hot periods. In the case of dry and extreme hot periods the transpiration is decreased, which causes decrease in transpiration and enhanced the water stress of trees.

157
175
Post-effects of cytokinins and auxin levels of proliferation media on rooting ability of in vitro apple shoots (Malus domestica Borkh.) 'Red Fuji'
26-29.

Rooting ability of in vitro apple shoots of 'Red Fuji' grown on proliferation media with different hormone content were tested at three IBA levels in root induction media. Rooting percentage could be slightly increased with an increase in IBA concentration in proliferation media. The highest IBA concentration (3.0 mg 1-1) in root induction media showed strong inhibitory effect on rooting capacity of in vitro shoots. The highest rooting percentage (95%) could be achieved by shoots grown on proliferation media containing TOP or BA+KIN as cytokinins before rooting.

 

169
195
The quality and storage efficiency of some apple varieties as a function of picking date, area of production and duration of storage
99-103.

Numerous apple varieties have been tested parallel with traditional Jonathan varieties during four years, 1990-1994 on three different geographical areas of Hungary. The picking time took place at three different times in a year: ten days before the probably optimal picking time, at close-to-optimal picking time, and ten days after the optimal picking time. The effect of storage on quality of fruits have been tested in February, March, and April under circumstances of a semi-industrial storage experiment.

The results of experience can contribute to answer numerous current, from point of view of practice important topics:

  • The stochastic relations between various fruit quality parameters at different varieties
  • The change of fruit — quality during storage
  • The effect of different picking date on storage losses
  • The possibilities of storage — loss predicting by the utilization of multiple regression analysis.

The most important results of experiences are as follows :

  1. The starch — degradation test and Streiff — index are well applicable for practical purposes to determine the optimal harvest-date.
  2. On base of analysis of various losses and physiological diseases the high importance of mass loss is obvious. In the variety Jonnee the earlier picking date considerably increased the mass loss. The effect of variety on mass loss is rather limited. In the Jonathan varieties the Jonathan spot was a rather important physiological disease. The late picking time increased the frequency of Jonathan - spot. At optimal date of harvest at Jonnee the frequency of Jonathan -spot was lower, than at Jonathan M 41. In the Jonathan M41 and Jonnee the importance of scald was rather limited, but in the Wellspur Delicious and Smoothee this disease occurred relatively frequently. In the Smoothee the earlier picking time considerably increased the probability of scald.
  3. The multiple regression analysis yielded reliable results, fit for prediction of storage losses and diseases on the base of chemical and physical properties, determined at the time of picking.

 

121
160
Alternate bearing of 'Golden Reinders' and 'Summered' apples
77-85.

The aim of the present study was to study the effect of biennial bearing (irregular yields) on the generative production of apple cultivars 'Golden Reinders' and 'Summerred' on M.9 rootstock. The observations were made at Nagykutas in West-Hungary for four years. The authors have studied the flowering time, flower density, fruit density, fruit drop, seed content, yielding and fruit quality in the on-year and off-year. Based on the results, it can be stated that the alternation does not cause a significant change in the flowering time of cvs. 'Golden Reinders' and `Summerred': the difference between the flowering time of trees in the on-year and off-year period was 0-1 day. However, there were significant differences in the flower density. 'Golden Reinders' proved to have a weaker tendency to alternation similarly to the statements of the literature. Alternation (off-year) was observed only in three years from the studied four years. While in the case of `Summerred', strong alternation was observed in all four years. In fruit density, there were differences among the cultivars and among the different cycles of biennial bearing. Fruit density (and its opposite, fruit drop) changed inconsistently in the period between flowering and harvest. In the case of 'Golden Reinders' and 'Summerred' 2 and 4 fruit drop periods were detected, respectively. In the off-year, the different periods were less distinct, in most cases they were overlapping each other. The dynamics of fruit drop was related to seed content per fruit. The lower the seed number was, the higher the degree of fruit drop was. In both the high- and off-year cycles, the number of seeds in fruits on the tree and on the ground increased with time. In the yield parameters (fruit number, fruit load, yield efficiency), the differences were greater among the yields of trees in the high- and off-year cycles for 'Summerred'. The fruit quality parameters were greatly influenced by the fruit load of the trees in the different alternation cycles. In general, it can be stated that fruit mass, diameter and height were lower on trees in the on-year. A similar trend could be observed in flesh firmness, cover colour and dry matter content, but the differences were smaller. 'Summerred' was more sensitive to the differences in fruit load.

173
173
Traditional farming within the Carpathian basin - pomaceous fruits
15-18.

In the Carpathian basin there are still maintained the main historical fruit varieties and traces of traditional farming. The Department of Fruit Science considered the utilisation of obsolete varieties in breeding as source of resistance to local adversities, moreover, the practice of traditional .farming using those varieties should be also explored. In the present study, the farming methods and variety structure of two substantially different growing sites are described. One is an alluvial plain along a river were an ancient form of farming based on the control of sluices. The second is practised by clearing the forest on the slopes of the central range and of the Carpathian chain. During the course of our research we succeeded to find 8 pear, 29 apple and a few quince as well as medlar varieties. Further endeavour would be the conservation of those varieties, preferably on the spot together with their growing techniques as relicts, also as aesthetic components of that particular landscape. Our committed partners in this work are the National Parks.

126
170
Toxicity of fungicides to honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and their effects on bee foraging behavior, pollen viability and fruit set on blooming apples and pears
96-98.

Fungicides fosetyl-AL, triadimefon, dodine, mycobutanil and fenarimol were tested for honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) mortality and effect on bee foraging, pollen viability and fruit set in blooming apple and pear. None of the materials were toxic to honey bees or reduced pollen gemination or fruit set.

 

151
175
Floral analysis can be use as an early plant analytical tool to diagnose nutritional status of fruit trees?
23-27.

A field experiment was conducted in an integrated apple orchard (Malus domestica Borkh.) established on a lowland chernozem soil in East-Hungary, to investigate if flower analysis could be used to diagnose the nutritional status of the trees. In April 2008, during full bloom, flowers and leaves were collected. Leaves were collected again in August, at the standard sampling time from the same trees. The content of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium magnesium and boron were measured in flowers and in leaves. Correlation analyses were carried out to establish the relation s between nutrient contents in same and different plant part s. In flowers the following ratio was found between nutrients: N:P: K:Ca:Mg:B -10: l.35:7: 1.7: I :0,02. From result s it was evident that flower as organ contain significant and comparable amount of nutrients like as leaf. The N, K and Ca content were higher in leaves than in flowers at full bloom. The opposite was true for B. The P and Mg content of flower were quite equal with leaf P and Mg at full bloom . All examined nutrients were significantly affected by cultivars both in flowers and leaves. Significant correlation, was found between flower P and leaf P, flower B and leaf B (P=O.O 1) and flower K and leaf K at blooming time (P=0.05). Significant, but weaker correlation was also found between flower K and leaf K and between flower Mg and leaf Mg al JOO days after full bloom (P=0.05). Moreover, strong, but negative correlation was observed between flower B and leaf B at 100 clays after full bloom (P=O.O 1). Within flowers, the strongest positive correlation was found between Mg and B content (P=O.O 1). Strong positive correlations were also recognised between flower K and flower N, Ca and Mg and between N and Ca in the flowers (P=0.01). The strongest correlation was found between K and P in leaves at full bloom (P=O.O 1 ). Strong significant correlation was observed between N and B in the leaves collected at standard sampling time (100 DAFB) (P=0.01). Strong, but negative correlations were found bet ween leaf Mg and leaf P, K and between leaf N and leaf P at 100 days after full bloom (P=O.O 1).

161
167
Assessment of apple varieties based on consumer judgement in integrated production for fresh consumption
71-74.

In a former paper we treated the same relation comparing varieties frown in the biological or organic system of growing, now the tests have been performed with samples grown by the integrated system. The scores registered properties as taste, skin, colour, consistency and size. In addition, we also explored the relation between general impression and the individual properties.As first purpose, we started with collecting primary data on 15 samples taken from fruits grown by the integrated method and kept over 60–90 days in a store, then offered to the consumers. The test is based on an organoleptic assessment (records are registered in a questionary). The individual judgements are processed and coefficients of correlation between the traits (taste, skin, size, colour) calculated. The validity of the mathematically proved relations is considered to be decisive in judging the preferencial consumption of fruits.

175
177
Effects of excessive weather on the micro-climate of apple plantations under the hail protection nets
81-85.

The general utilisation of hail nets is spreading all over the world and in Hungary too. Hail nets are at present the only tool, which
is able to prevent heavy hail damage in agricultural crops. Besides its numerous advantages, there are also deleterious side effects, e.g. it
changes the microclimate of the crop stand. Our study aimed to observe the differences, which characterise the physical status of crop stands
under the protection of hail nets compared with the stands in open air under various meteorological conditions: high or low temperature, calm
or windy atmosphere and their possible combinations. The results indicated that on hot and calm days the difference may attain 3–4° C. On
cool summer days, the difference was only 1.5 ºC. The hail net influences the relative humidity of the air, which means on ho summer days
often 7-8% differences. Conditions of radiation may also differ conspicuously. Measurements prove the reduced global radiation on sunny
summer days to 70%. This impairs as a rule the development of fruits reducing their quality and also its quantitative traits. Sunburn is, on the
other hand, significantly prevented by shadow.

186
181
Influence of aromatic cytokinins on shoot multiplication and their after-effects on rooting of apple cv. Húsvéti rozmaring
84-87.

Different aromatic cytokinins (BA, BAR, TOP and KIN) were tested alone or in combination for the shoot proliferation response of ‘Húsvéti rozmaring' apple scion. The best multiplication rate was achieved by dual cytokinin application (1 mg 1-1 BA + 1.5 mg 1-1 KIN). The rooting capacity was affected considerably by the position of shoots: transfer of the three-week-old shoots to the same or other proliferation medium in vertical position inhibited the following rooting totally. Post-effects of different cytokinins (BA and TOP) on subsequent rooting could be detected: BA increased the number of roots markedly, while TOP resulted in significantly longer roots.

158
190
Sunburn assessment: A critical appraisal of methods and techniques for characterizing the damage to apple fruit
7-14.

Many methods and techniques have been introduced for measuring alterations in the fruit and in its surrounding environment related to sunburn incidence. The research objectives, fruit materials and the environment to be evaluated dictate the methods to follow. These procedures are either non-destructive and involve techniques that allow us to track the course of sunburn development and related environmental parameters, or destructive and involve the removal of fruit from the tree for field/laboratory measurements. Techniques employed can be used for pre-symptomatic monitoring (before symptoms become visible) or characterizing the symptoms already present. The principles behind the measurements and their usefulness for sunburn assessments are discussed and critically evaluated in this review paper. Descriptions and evaluations of the methods and techniques were made in the following groups: 1. Thermal measurements; 2. Visual assessments; 3. Fruit quality measurements; 4. Measurements of physiological and biochemical alterations; and 5. Practical evaluation of sunburn damage. Thermal measurements involve methods tracking the ambient temperature and fruit surface temperature, and their relation to sunburn formation. Visual assessments cover all measuring techniques (skin color, chlorophyll fluorescence, radiation reflection, electron microscopy) that are able to detect changes on/in the fruit skin related to sunburn formation. Fruit quality measurements are used to point out differences in qualities (soluble solids, firmness, titratable acidity, and water content) between unaffected and sunburned areas of the fruit. The measurements of physiological and biochemical alterations (gas exchange, pigment analysis, enzyme activity, gene expression) give us a better insight to the mechanism of sunburn formation. Practical evaluations involve many procedures that are used by scientists to characterize the susceptibility of cultivars, evaluate protection technology, etc. For this purpose, the following methods are in use: expressing the percentage of the total fruit surface area affected by sunburn or the percentage of the total number of fruits damaged on the tree, or even a scale based on the severity of the symptoms occurred. All assessing methods and techniques described here have their pros and cons as well as their specific applicability, therefore any of these cannot be favored to use exclusively for assessing sunburn incidence. The combination of these techniques will be the best choice to meet a given research objective perfectly.

230
234
Differences of pollen and pollenkitt attractiveness of some cultivated and ornamental apples for honeybees
145-150.

Differences in the attractiveness of pollen according to plant families and species for the honeybees had been examined by researchers, but pollen samples of cultivars were not tested yet. This examination attempts to evalu2te the differences in attractiveness of pollen of some cultivated and ornamental apples to honeybees. We applied biotest with equal amounts of hand collected pollen samples and by a nucleus of bees with brood. The evaluation was based on the number of visitation by foraging honeybees on the samples during the time of the experiment which was determined. Pollenkitt samples were also tested in a separate experiment.

The data were analysed by variance analysis and significant differences were found according to the number of bee visitation in the attractiveness of the pollen and pollenkitt samples of apple cultivars.

The visualisation of pollenkitt was done by light microscope and SEM.

 

96
134
The relationship of the plant protection and the applied technology in the integrated apple production
11-14.

The indirect elements of the integrated plant protection can infl uence the effectiveness of the chemical control, however their significance are often extenuated. The characteristic of the plants are almost completely disregarded at the protection decisions. The condition can determinate basically the rate of the damages caused by the pests. The plant in good conditional state has higher tolerance and lower susceptibility against the pests. With the optimal general and annual condition we can establish and maintain the harmony between the growth and the bearing, what is the basis of effective plant protection.

233
172
The effect of the limitation of insect pollination period on the fruit set and yield of temperate-zone fruit tree species
90-95.

The duration of effective bee pollination period was limited by caging flowering branches for shorter or longer time in blooming fruit trees in a number of experiments during the past decades. In the case of self-sterile fruit species and cultivars (apples, pears, quinces, some plums, some sour cherries) even partial limitation of the effective duration of bee pollination period significantly reduced the fruit set and the yield. In the case of self-fertile apricots the effect of the total and also the influence of partial limitation of bee pollination period was the same as in the case of the mentioned self-sterile fruits. On the other hand, in the case of another self-fertile fruits (some plums, some sour cherries), the effect of partial limitation of bee pollination period was usually small, but complete (or incomplete but strong) limitation of be pollination usually resulted in a strong reduction of yield. This means that not only self-sterile but also self-fertile fruits clearly depend on insect (bee) pollination. This is because pollen dehiscence of anthers and the receptive period of stigmas do not overlap in time within the individual flowers. Stigmas in self-fertile trees, therefore, need pollen carried by bees from another flowers of the same tree (or compatible pollen from another trees). Accordingly, additional bee pollination (moving bee colonies to the orchards in flower) is needed to all kinds of temperate-zone fruit tree species when bee visitation of plantations is not abundant enough for some reasons.

104
155
Consumer buying behaviour of fruit and vegetables in the Netherlands
81-90.

The Dutch Households bought in 2010 compared with the year before a little less vegetables and less fruit. However because of a higher price level the supermarket sales of fruits and vegetables increased with 7% to almost €3 billion. A Dutch household bought 72.4 kilo fresh vegetables in 2010. This is 2% less than in 2009. Tomatoes are the most bought vegetable followed by onion and cucumber. Although the Dutch households bought less vegetables, the spending increased with 5%. The average price of vegetables was 7% higher than in 2009. In 2010 a Dutch household bought almost 88 kilo fresh fruit. Compared with 2009 this was 2% less. Apple is far out the most popular, followed by orange and banana. Also the spending on fruit decreased a little, specially on strawberry, kiwi and banana. The sales of vegetables is realized for almost 90% by the supermarket channel. Albert Heijn has a market share of 38%, followed by Superunie and C1000. Also for fruit the supermarket is the most important retail channel. However fruit is also sold for 20% in grocery stores and markets. The total turnover from supermarkets of vegetables was in 2010 over €2 billion, 8% more than in 2009. 85% of this is fresh product (fresh and pre-treated). Canned vegetables become less popular. The turnover was decreasing 2% to just under €200 million. Green beans are the most popular, followed by peas and carrots. However more money was spend on frozen vegetables (+5%) and pickles (+1%). Over 40% of the supermarket turnover of frozen vegetables is spend on spinach. The supermarket turnover of fruit increased in 2010 with 3% to €1,25 billion. From this 93% is fresh unprocessed fruit. The turnover of pre-treated (washed and sliced) is increasing, but still not more than 3%. Although with a modest share, the spending on frozen fruit also increased in 2010 to €5,5 million. The turnover of canned fruit however was decreasing with 6% compared with 2009. The supermarket turnover of pre-treated fruit was €35 million. Albert Heijn is the absolute market leader for pretreated fruit. In 2010 70% of the sales was realized by Albert Heijn. Mixed fresh pre-treated fruit, mainly fruit salads, account for 40% of the total supermarket turnover of processed fruit. Canned pineapple is the most important canned fruit in supermarkets, followed by fruit cocktail and peach. There is a high degree of awareness of consumers regarding the “must” to use enough fruit and vegetables. Despite of this, consumers do not always eat enough healthy products. Reasons for this are the busy life of the modern young people and the perception that vegetables are “not easy” to use. Therefore preparing a meal has to be easy and fast with suitable products Here is an important task for concept and product development.

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