The effect of modified bacterial virulence to host-pathogen relationship (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola)

The Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola is one of the most expressive biogen stressors of the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Hungary. The chemical and agrotechnological defence is inefficient, so breeding is the only workable way. The conventional cultivars are susceptible to PS while most of the new industrial varieties have genetic resistance to the pathogen. The genetic background of resistance is, however, a complex system in the bean. Leaf resistance is a monogenic system, but this gene is not expressed in juvenile stage of the host. The pathogen species can be divided into different races. After inoculation with virulent strains, typical symptoms appeared on the leaves. To understand the details of host-pathogen relationships, there were carried out experiments using bacterial strains with altered virulence. Six transposon mutants of the PS were tested. Our main objective was to test these modified bacterial strains on bean cultivars of known genetic background. First we analysed the symptoms, and then the correlation between the symptoms and the multiplication of mutant bacteria. Three cultivars (Cherokee, Inka and Főnix) were tested.

The infection by the virulent PS isolate produced typical symptoms on the three cultivars tested. Mutant bacteria (except strain 756) did not cause any significant symptoms on the hosts. The mutant 756 induced visible symptoms on the cultivars Cherokee and Inka. On Cherokee there were small watersoaked lesions, and HR (hypersensitivity reaction) was detected on Inka, but this was restricted to some cells only (mikro HR). The rate of multiplication of the wild type strain was much higher than the multiplication of the mutants. Bacteria were detected in the cotyledons and primordial leaf, but there is not any substantial number of bacteria in leaves, except for strains 757, 1212 and 1213. The rate of multiplication of strain 756 was intermediate. These, and other experiments can help to understand the genetic background of resistance and the host-pathogen relationship in the Pseudomonas-bean pathosystem.


Importance of orchard floor management in organic fruit growing (nutritional aspects)

Worldwide research goals and concerns are to soil conservation and improve. This conception is mostly actual in horticulture where the numbers of high-density plantings are continuously increasing. High-density orchards cause more intensive nutrient and water uptake. So that the preservation of soil moisture and nutrient level are key factors in qualified fruit growing. On the other hand due to the climatic changes the water supply of trees will be satisfied among worse conditions than some decades ago. Appearance of water supply problems and water stress is increased in organic growing, where the number of corrections is limited anyway. Furthermore, floor management is a successful tool in weed management which causes many problems for organic growers due to the prohibition of synthetic herbicides. This paper will mainly focus on the nutritional aspects of methods of orchard floor management for growers adopting organic fruit management to make their production profitable.

Alternate bearing of 'Golden Reinders' and 'Summered' apples

The aim of the present study was to study the effect of biennial bearing (irregular yields) on the generative production of apple cultivars 'Golden Reinders' and 'Summerred' on M.9 rootstock. The observations were made at Nagykutas in West-Hungary for four years. The authors have studied the flowering time, flower density, fruit density, fruit drop, seed content, yielding and fruit quality in the on-year and off-year. Based on the results, it can be stated that the alternation does not cause a significant change in the flowering time of cvs. 'Golden Reinders' and `Summerred': the difference between the flowering time of trees in the on-year and off-year period was 0-1 day. However, there were significant differences in the flower density. 'Golden Reinders' proved to have a weaker tendency to alternation similarly to the statements of the literature. Alternation (off-year) was observed only in three years from the studied four years. While in the case of `Summerred', strong alternation was observed in all four years. In fruit density, there were differences among the cultivars and among the different cycles of biennial bearing. Fruit density (and its opposite, fruit drop) changed inconsistently in the period between flowering and harvest. In the case of 'Golden Reinders' and 'Summerred' 2 and 4 fruit drop periods were detected, respectively. In the off-year, the different periods were less distinct, in most cases they were overlapping each other. The dynamics of fruit drop was related to seed content per fruit. The lower the seed number was, the higher the degree of fruit drop was. In both the high- and off-year cycles, the number of seeds in fruits on the tree and on the ground increased with time. In the yield parameters (fruit number, fruit load, yield efficiency), the differences were greater among the yields of trees in the high- and off-year cycles for 'Summerred'. The fruit quality parameters were greatly influenced by the fruit load of the trees in the different alternation cycles. In general, it can be stated that fruit mass, diameter and height were lower on trees in the on-year. A similar trend could be observed in flesh firmness, cover colour and dry matter content, but the differences were smaller. 'Summerred' was more sensitive to the differences in fruit load.

Studies on the insect pollination of fruit tree species and on closely related topics in Hungary: a bibliography of research publications

In the past decades fruit production has become more and more intensive and so the interest towards the bee pollination of fruit trees has increased in Hungary. Thus insect pollination research has become more intensive in the eighties and in the nineties. Recently, high density fruit orchards are planted of dwarf trees at more and more farms in Hungary and these need highly controlled growing practices involving insect pollination, too. This is a new challenge of insect pollination research in Hungary. So it seems to be worth to compile a list on research publications having been appeared so far to create a basis to the ongoing new research. Besides papers strictly on the insect pollination of fruit trees publications on some closely related topics, first of all on the nectar production and on other flower characteristics of fruit tree cultivars that directly influence bee activity have also been included on the list.


Effects of Foliar Nutrition on Onion Seed Storage under Modified Atmosphere Packages

Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and controlled atmosphere storage techniques to reduce the oxygen around the food are largely used for the preservation of fresh produce. There have been great technological advances in this area of preservation, particularly as it refers to improving the quality and shelf-stability of highly perishable food products, such as produce. Two successive winter seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 were conducted under sandy soil conditions to study the effect of spraying with 12 commercial compounds on onion seeds storage under modified atmosphere packages. Germination percent of seeds decreased in 5°C than storage in room temperature. Germination percent of seeds was gradually decreased with increasing the storage period. Packaging treatments had a significant effect on germination percent of seeds. All the packaging treatments had the higher germination percent than the paper package (control). The highest germination percent after 12 months of storage was recorded for the treatment with non perforated polypropylene in room temperature and polyethylene and non perforated polypropylene in 5°C. Catalase activity decreased with the prolongation of storage period. The non perforated polypropylene package had the highest catalase activity. The treatment with non perforated polypropylene had the highest catalase activity after 12 months of storage in both room and 5°C temperatures. Peroxidase activity of seeds was gradually decreased with increasing the storage period. The highest peroxidase activity after 12 months of storage was recorded in non perforated polypropylene in both storage temperatures.

The effect of storage to optical properties in case of two apple fruit varieties

The keeping quality of fruits is a very important factor in storage point of view, since it could be elongated the consumption time of fruits. In many cases the storage may be necessary, e.g. in short time it is not able to market due to the rich harvest, or all fruits could sell in markets throughout the year. The keeping quality of various fruit species is greatly different; moreover it could be observed some differences between the varieties as well. In our research, we have investigated the spectral properties of the external surface and fl esh of two ripe apple varieties – Jonagored and Granny Smith – before and after storage (about 3°C and about three weeks). The hyperspectral investigation was carried out with AvaSpec-2048 Fiber Optic Spectrometer. The experimental results represented the differences between healthy and chilling injured apple fruits. Furthermore, some indices were created to given countenance to the spectral differences.

Evaluation of some Achillea L. accessions based on morphological, cytological and chemical characteristics

Taxonomical evaluation of six taxa of the Achillea aggregate was carried out to determine their potential for breeding and cultivation. We used complex morphological, cytological and chemical aspects of characterisation. Three taxa of tetraploid genom and high chamazulene contents (33-40% ess.oil) proved to be A. collina Becker. A strain of wild origin had also high -bisabolol content and high oil level, comparable with the selected cultivars. A population was identified as new chemotype of A. pannonica Scheele with typical morphological and cytological traits, a wide sesquiterpene spectrum but lacking of 1.8 cineole and -pinene. We found a mixed population which consisted of both A. collina and A. pannonica plants. A tetraploid, azuleneless taxon could be concluded as A. pratensis Saukel and Langer not described before in Hungary. The diverse performance of the populations calls the attention to the significance of controlled plant raw in phytopharmaceutical products.

Carotenoid composition and content in products of sea buckthorn and peach as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography

A study was conducted to analyse the carotenoids by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using reversed-phase cross linked end-capping and to study the pigment content and composition in sea buckthorn products as well as in freshly harvested fruits from peach thees grown under organic and integrated farming conditions. It was found that carotenoids in fruits of both crops occur mainly esterified with fatty acids in form of mono- and di-esters. The major carotenoids were esters of zeaxanthin, lutein, β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene. The major carotenoids showed different response to processing of sea buckthorn being highly sensitive to thermal treatments such as blanching, cooking and drying. Significant differences were found between peach varieties in their carotenoid content, whereas the impact of organic farming on carotenoids formation was found to be variety-dependent. Two of the three varieties examined in this work, when cultivated under organic farming conditions contained lower carotenoid level as compared to that found in the fruits of the same varieties but produced in integrated farms.

Some aspects of reduced disease management against Monilinia spp. in sour cherry production

The aim of this study was first to test the in vitro effeicacy of some fungicides against brown rot of sour cherry, and secondly to evaulate the effectiveness of reduced spray programmes against brown rot in integrated and organic sour cherry orchards. In vitro efficacy of 7 fungicides (Champion 50 WP, Kocide 2000, Nordox 75 WG, Olajos rézkén, Kumulus S, Rézkén, Rézoxiklorid) and another 6 fungicides (Score 25 EC, Efuzin 500 SC, Systane, Folicur Solo, Zato Plusz, Rovral) approved in organic and integrated production systems, respectively, were tested against brown rot of sour cherry. Altogether four spray programmes were performed i) standard integrated: sprays followed by forecasting systems during the season, ii) reduced integrated: sprays followed by forecasting systems but only 75% of the spray numbers used during the season-long spray programme, iii) standard oragnic: sprays applied every 7–14 days during the season and iv) reduced organic: 60% of the spray numbers used during the season-long spray programme. In vitro results showed that fungicides (with active ingredients of copper and sulphur) applied in organic production showed relatively high percent growth capacity of Monilinia fungus. Rézkén showed the highest and Kumilus S the lowest efficacy against brown rot. Fungicides applied in integrated production showed relatively low percent growth capacity of Monilinia fungus. Score 25 EC showed the highest and Rovral the lowest efficacy against brown rot. Field study showed that reduced spray programmes did not increase significantly brown rot incidence in the integrated field. However, brown rot incidence increased significanly (above 30%) in the reduced spray programme for the organic orchard.

Total anthocyanine content and antioxidant density of some Hungarian sour cherry varieties

Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Recent research has proven that sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is a valuable natural source of some bioactive compounds important in human health preservation. In our work, we identified the total antioxidant activity, anthocyanine content and "antioxidant density" of sour cherry varieties named "Újfehértói fürtös", "Debreceni bőtermő", "Kántorjánosi" and "Érdi bőtermő" and those of the "Bosnyák" sour cherry clones. "Antioxidant density" is a biological value indicator obtained in a synthetic way, which indicates the antioxidant capacity of the particular food, e. g. fruit and vegetable, related to 1 Calorie.

Precision geoinformatical system of the pear gene-collection orchard

The principle task of the sustainable development is the preservation of the genetic variety, which is similar challenge in the horticulture regarding the sublimation of fruit species. The breeders of the traditional fruit strains give stock to the sustenance diversity of the agro-environment on the species and landscape level. In 2009, hyperspectral images have been taken by AISA Dual sensors from the pear gene pool in Újfehértó, Hungary. The hyperspectral data cube (in the wavelength range of 400-2500 nm, with 1.5 m ground resolution) ensured possibility to make the spectral library of pear species. In the course of the simultaneously field work the spatial position and individual extent of all pear trees was defined to set up a detailed GIS data base. The water stress sensitivity of single species and the descriptive spectral curves were determined with common evaluation of the spectral and spatial data. Based on the unique methodology processing and the hyperspectral data base suitable strains can be chosen for agro-environment and let take adaptive stocks regarding climate change into the genetic grafting work. Furthermore we could determine and map the sparsely species in the region with the help of the hyperspectral data.

Influence of aromatic cytokinins on shoot multiplication and their after-effects on rooting of apple cv. Húsvéti rozmaring

Different aromatic cytokinins (BA, BAR, TOP and KIN) were tested alone or in combination for the shoot proliferation response of ‘Húsvéti rozmaring' apple scion. The best multiplication rate was achieved by dual cytokinin application (1 mg 1-1 BA + 1.5 mg 1-1 KIN). The rooting capacity was affected considerably by the position of shoots: transfer of the three-week-old shoots to the same or other proliferation medium in vertical position inhibited the following rooting totally. Post-effects of different cytokinins (BA and TOP) on subsequent rooting could be detected: BA increased the number of roots markedly, while TOP resulted in significantly longer roots.

Evaluation of foreign apricot cultivars in Hungary

The extension and renewal of cultivar assortment is one of the key elements in the improvement of apricot production. Competitiveness can only be achieved by planting cultivars which meet all market requirements and yield reliably under the environmental conditions of the given production site. Beside breeding programmes, the range of cultivars can also be extended by the domestication of foreign cultivars. Most apricot cultivars have low ecological tolerance, therefore, cultivars improved or developed in other countries should only be involved in production after due consideration. The suitability of such cultivars has to be examined for several years. Foreign apricot cultivars have been tested in our cultivar collection for over 10 years. Hereby, the most important aspects of market value and the adaptability to the environmental conditions of the production site are demonstrated. According to the results of our examinations the production of early ripening 'Orange Red' and `Goldrich' can be promising in Hungary. From cultivars ripening in the peak season only those are expected to be widely produced which differ from Hungarian cultivars or surplus them in some respects. From the cultivars examined 'Harogem' which ripens at the same time as `Gönci magyar kajszi' has remarkably aesthetic fruits with glossy surface, while the large fruits of `Hargrand' has firm pulp. Late ripening cultivars have significant importance in the northern border of production. According to our examinations the cultivars 'Callatis', `Comandor and `Sirena' are applicable in Hungary to extend the harvesting season.

Effect of Foliar Nutrition on Post-Harvest of Onion Seed under Sandy Soil and Saline Irrigation Water Conditions

Foliar application has been determined to be an effective nutrients delivery strategy in vegetable and fruits. The enhancement of vegetable and fruit yields affected by foliar nutrients application has been recognized in previously conducted studies with perennial tree crops. The efficiency of foliar nutrition is dependent on soil, climate, fertilizer and the amount of nitrogen used. There is no sufficient information concerning cooperation of foliar nutrition with all nutrients form as well as the rates of these nutrients fertilization in vegetable
and fruit crops. Two successive winter seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 were conducted under sandy soil conditions to study the effect of spraying with 12 commercial compounds on inflorescences diameter, flower stalk length, number of seed stem /plant, weight of 1000 seed, germination percentage, seed yield, moisture content, catalase , peroxidase activity and malondialdehyde content of onion seeds. The plants
sprayed with union Zn, union Mn, union feer, shams k, elga 600, boron, and amino x had the highest vegetative growth parameter, germination percent and enzyme activity. The plants sprayed with union Zn, union feer, shams K, magnesium, caboron, hummer and amino X had the highest seed yield ha-1. The seeds were stored for one year to study the effect of different commercial compounds and storage temperatures on germination, moisture content and change in antioxidant enzymes activities of onion seeds during the storage period. Storage at cold temperature showed higher germination percent, moisture content and lower malondialdehyde content than storage at room temperature. The treatment with union Zn, union feer, union Mn, boron, elga 600, caboron, amica, hummer and amino x had the highest germination percent.

Colour and water content detection of sweet cherry by portable spectrometer

Based on the most recent data, the average amount of sweet cherry produced in Hungary is around 10-12 thousand tons. Therefore fast and effective method is important for sweet cherry fruit quality analyses. The aim of the study was to examine the applicability of reflectance measurements for sweet cherry fruit quality analyses. In our experiment five cherry species (Vera, Cristalina, Germersdorfi, Noir de Mechet, Canada Giant) were examined in order to measure the spectral differences between species. Further more, spectral alteration was examined between different health and maturity status of the fruits in the case of a specified, the Germesdorfi species. The four new indices are appropriate tools for cherry quality analysis. Thus reflectance measurements can also support more precise and automated fruit selections. The methods for the differentiation of species could also be viable at a concerned habitat; however, the climate, habitat and soil conditions strongly affect the yield quality. Concerning the fast determination of water content, WBI could be a reliable method for the assessment

Conventional PCR primers for the detection of grapevine pathogens disseminated by propagating material

Polymerase chain reaction driven by sequence specific primers has become the most widely used diagnostic method to detect and identify plant pathogens. The sensitive and cost-effective pathogen detection is exceptionally important in the production of propagating material. In this paper we have collected primer sequence data from the literature for the detection of the most important grapevine pathogens disseminated by propagating stocks by conventional polymerase chain reaction. Basic protocols to obtain template nucleic acids have also been briefly rewieved.

The Hungarian pear germplasm as source of genetic variability for breeding programmes

TheHungarian pear collection (Pyrus communis L.) consists of 423 genotypes distributed over seven genebanks inHungary. This is one of themost extensive collections of native and cultivated pears found in Eastern Europe and includes a wide range of genotypes with small size fruit (referred to as “Miniature pears”). Based on the in situ and ex situ measures taken by governmental and other institutions for fruit tree conservation in Hungary, an overview is given on some activities regarding areas of Pyrus collection and genebanks where pears are collected and grown. Descriptions of traits of miniature pears found in Hungarian genebanks for the interest of genetic characterization and breeding are presented.

Comparative evaluation of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) populations from different origin

In our research project under cultivation we examined 4 cultivars ('Soroksári 40', 'Lutea , 'Goral', 'Bona') and 28 wild populations of chamomile assuring all of them the same environmental conditions. Plant height, flower-diameter, essential-oil content, and the main terpenoid and flavonoid composition were analysed. The aim of our study was to establish the genetic background of breeding a new cultivar as well as encircle those natural habitats that give chamomile drug with the best quality.

In the case of plant height populations from the Great Hungarian Plain were lower than plants from Transdanubia and the control cultivars. Between the wild and the standard individuals we found significant differences with relevance to the flower-diameter. With regard to the essential oil content the populations were very heterogeneous even those, which came from the same habitat. Populations form Transdanubia and Nagyiván reached the essential oil level of the cultivars (0.721-0.931 gi100g), and 75% of the examined plants exceeded the minimum requirement of the PhHg VIII.

According to the essential oil composition our previous statement was confirmed that in the populations of Transdanubia and Northern part of Danube—Tisza Mid Region the main component is bisabolol-oxide A (30-41.2%), while plants native to the territory cast of the river Tisza are mainly characterised by a-bisabolol (32.3-48.4). In some samples the ratio of bisabolol-oxide B was more than 10%. The chamazulene content was higher in the cultivars selected to this component (above 20%), than in the wild populations (varied between 1.22 and 17.2%). Populations originated from the central part of Hortobágy region had extremely high apigenin content (10-13 mg/g), but in the case of chlorogenic acid, hyperoside and quercitrin we did not find any differences affected by the origin.

Characterization of quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) cultivars using SSR markers developed for apple

Quince (Cydonia oblongaMill.) is a minor fruit crop, which is primarily used for marmalade, jam and sauce.Very few quince cultivars are known all over the world and in many cases similar names are used for presumably different cultivars. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and characterize the genetic diversity of 36 quince cultivars and selections with SSR markers. Seven out of 8 SSR markers designed from apple sequences could successfully yield amplification also in quince cultivars. Number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 3 alleles. These allele numbers are quite low when compared to apple. It is supposed to be the consequence of a genetic bottleneck. In spite of the low allele number per locus, the 36 quince cultivars formed 30 different genotypes. The ratio of homozygosity was low, which might be coupled with the self-(in)compatibility phenotype of quinces. SSR markers proved unable to differentiate putatively closely related cultivars (e.g. ‘Bereczki’ and ‘Bereczki bôtermő’). In general, the level of polymorphism among the tested quince genotypes was much restricted due to the low allele number detected. However, it must be considered that the number of analysed SSR loci is not enough high to estimate the overall heterozygosity of the quince genome. Further experiments are needed and the SSR markers proved to be a reliable and useful tool for such analyses.

Colour stability of the flowers in some modern rose varieties in Hungary

A variety trial has been carried out to study the colour changing — colour stability of the flowers of some modern roses, especially of Hungarian varieties. 100 floribundas and polyanthas were observed. Colours of the petal surface were examined at three fenological stages of the flowers: at the bud, at the young open flowers and at the aged open flower stages. The colour difference was described in HLS standard. Our work shows that valuable Hungarian varieties can be found in both studied classes, but more floribundas bred in Hungary had good colour stability than polyanthas. The best Hungarian floribundas were 'Pest' and 'Remenyik Sándor emléke', although 'Regen', `Szent Lász1ó em­léke' and 'Szabó Dezső emléke' were quite good. The best Western-European floribunda rose was 'Perneille Poulsen'. Their colour stability was reliable in different situations. Colour changing of the two best varieties was almost unperceivable from the bud to the young petals and from the young to the aged petals. In the polyantha class there was only one perfect variety: the Czech `Cs1 Cerveny Kriz'. The 'Fairy Damsel' was almost excellent as well. The best Hungarian polyanthas were `Domokos Pál Péter emléke' and 'Savaria'.

Results of cherry rootstock evaluations in Hungary

The paper gives a review on the results of the latest rootstock evaluation projects in Hungary. Several cherry rootstock evaluation projects were carried out in Hungary during the last two decades. The evaluated rootstocks are partly mahalebs selected in Hungary, but more or less all the most important new rootstocks from different countries are involved. The aim of these evaluation projects was to find appropriate rootstocks in a wide range of vigour for our climate and soil conditions. The conclusion of the last 20 years of research in Hungary proved just the opposite of believes, that high density orchard can only be planted with dwarfing rootstocks. Before choosing the right rootstock the most important is to consider adaptability, precocity and productivity. Dwarfing and semi-dwarfing rootstocks showed proper results only with irrigation or very good site conditions. These rootstocks are very precocious, but branches form easily blindwood. This must be corrected by severe pruning in the first years. The relatively small leaf surface area can also be disadvantageous, but it can be controlled by pruning, fruit-thinning, irrigation and fertilization. After studying different rootstocks semi-vigorous rootstocks seem to be the most adequate for different site conditions in Hungary. Fast initial growing and competent precocity are their favourable characters. From the vigorous group of clonal mahalebs or seedlings are highly recommended first of all for poor site condition (sandy, lime soils with high pH). They turn to bearing early and easy to find them in the Hungarian nurseries. But on vigorous rootstocks trees might need stronger summer pruning.

Sampling experience in a cherry plantation

Experiments in a cherry plantation were performed to find out that samples taken from various parts of the foliage of the tree what extent represent the whole tree. One tree from three different cherry varieties was selected. In the selection, we tried to form a good representation of the foliage of the orchard. 8 sampling locations were designated on each tree, in two different heights and four different directions according to the points of the compass.We measured the main sizes of the fruits in three orthogonal dimensions with a digital slide gauge with an accuracy of 0.01 mm; the mass of each cherry by an analytical balance, with an accuracy of 0.001 g; the mass of the stones with the same analytical balance, and then calculated the stone-pulp ratio. The measured and calculated data are used to characterize the sample in question.

Mulching in grape plantations

In continuous studies regarding the conservation of the advantageous condition of the soil structure, the highland plantations that are surrounded by living waters have major importance where the erosion of the soil, nutrients and chemicals endangers the quality of the water and the living world of the waters. At the same time the extreme weather and dry summers of the past years have made it important to look for soil cultivation solutions and technologies that are capable of decreasing the evaporation of the soil, for enhanced conservation of soil moisture and to improve the soil structure that is required for the growth of healthy roots. In our experiment we have studied soil mulching with organic plant residue, by sods and the effect of the mechanical cultivation on the soil and on the grape through two growing seasons. From the studied treatments, the mulching with organic plant wastage showed the most efficient results from the point of view of the nutrient distribution in the grape and yield. It also had a positive effect on the soil structure and humidity.

Allyl isothiocyanate baited traps to monitor cabbage flea beetles (Phyllotretra spp., Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

A new trapping concept has been proposed based on a volatile compound, allyl isothyocianate, known to be attractant to some of these insects for a long time.

(l) The first question was whether this compound is effectively attractive to all flea beetle species attacking cabbage under our conditions? Field experiments were made at different localities with non-sticky baited traps early and late spring. Eleven Phyllotreta species attacking cabbages were captured at baited traps most of them were first observed at this bait. So the bait has proved to be sufficient for use for trapping purposes effectively.

  • Based on these findings a second question arose whether the captured samples reflected the specific composition of natural flea beetle populations at trapping localities? To reply the question field samples were taken at four different kinds of cabbage crops and at a fallow ground in the close vicinity by a manual sampler device suitable to detect the local composition of flea beetles and trapping was made parallel with baited and unbaited traps from early spring to early autumn. No significant differences were found between the specific structures of Phyllotreta assemblages sampled with the different methods applied. This means baited traps reflected the specific composition of local Phyllotreta populations fairly well.
  • Thirdly, the most effective trap design was searched for. Some sticky and non-sticky trap designs which had been developed to capture other insects were compared. The tested sticky and funnel trap designs baited with allyl isothiocyanate captured large numbers of flea beetles attacking cabbages. Results showed that non-sticky funnel traps were more effective than sticky delta traps. Accordingly, non-sticky funnel trap designs can advantageously be used and could possibly be recommended in plant protection practice to monitor flea beetles attacking cabbages as their catching capacity is considerably greater than that of the delta type and additionally captured beetles are much cleaner, more intact and consequently their identification is much easier.
Molecular analysis of strawberry cultivars using RAPD, AP-PCR and STS markers

Seventeen strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cultivars representing the national list of Hungary, were subjected to RAPD, AP—PCR and STS analysis. Of the 31 decamer and oligomer primers tested 26 primers produced polymorphic patterns. 45 polymorphic fragments were analysed, ranging between 200-2800 by in size. Based on the data, similarity coefficients (Jaccard index and Simple matching coefficient) were calculated, and dendrograms were constructed using the unweighted pair group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA). The dendrograms only partly reflect the known pedigree data. Specific RAPD markers were identified for cultivars F5, Pocahontas and Rabunda.

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