Irrigation modeling in a pear orchard75-79.Views:200
The pear has large water requirement, therefore the planting of high density and grass covered pear orchards are needed irrigation
conditions in Hungary. Drip irrigation spread in the orchards is due to the 90–95% of water use efficiency. One of the key role of irrigation is the
proper determination of evapotranspiration and crop coefficients. As there is a considerable lack of information for different crops or fruits the
Penman-Monteith method is used for the estimation of evapotranspiration, using CROPWAT 8.0. The research field was the genetic collection of
pear at Újfehértó, in Hungary, which is situated in Nyírség meso-region. Our aim was to establish drip irrigation at this site. Based on the results
of CROPWAT irrigation model the mean amount of the total gross irrigation is between 230–270 mm, within 3 irrigation interval regarding
climatic and rainfall data of the last 10 years. In 2009, due to heavy drought, the total gross irrigation was 355,4mm/year on sandy soil calculating
with 45% total available water depletion in 5 irrigation interval. The sizing of the irrigation system was set to the maximum 0.55 l/s/ha, which is
6.3 l/tree/h. 6.3 l/tree/h can be carried out with a drip emitter having 16 mm wing lines diameter, 4 l/h water flow at 3 atm pressure.
Vineyards characteristic by using GIS and refl ectance measurements on the Nagy-Eged hill in Hungary57-60.Views:185
Our investigation was carried out in vineyards on Nagy-Eged hill in Hungary. Grapevine growing plays an important role in Eger Vine Regions. In the grapevine cultivation it becomes necessary to know the requirements of vineyards along the best geographical situation using available cultivation and examination technology to achieve better and quality produce. This study reviews applicability of the different spatial analyst techniques in vineyard especially models based on surface relief and the new technology of hyperspectral analysis. The spectral alteration was examined between different health status and leaves infected by Eriophyes vitis to defi ne spectral characteristics. Thus reflectance measurements could also support to evaluate airborne hyperspectral images with the help of the spectral library.
Precision geoinformatical system of the pear gene-collection orchard43-50.Views:189
The principle task of the sustainable development is the preservation of the genetic variety, which is similar challenge in the horticulture regarding the sublimation of fruit species. The breeders of the traditional fruit strains give stock to the sustenance diversity of the agro-environment on the species and landscape level. In 2009, hyperspectral images have been taken by AISA Dual sensors from the pear gene pool in Újfehértó, Hungary. The hyperspectral data cube (in the wavelength range of 400-2500 nm, with 1.5 m ground resolution) ensured possibility to make the spectral library of pear species. In the course of the simultaneously field work the spatial position and individual extent of all pear trees was defined to set up a detailed GIS data base. The water stress sensitivity of single species and the descriptive spectral curves were determined with common evaluation of the spectral and spatial data. Based on the unique methodology processing and the hyperspectral data base suitable strains can be chosen for agro-environment and let take adaptive stocks regarding climate change into the genetic grafting work. Furthermore we could determine and map the sparsely species in the region with the help of the hyperspectral data.
Assessment of soil characteristics in orchard11-14.Views:185
The research field was at Siófok, in Hungary, which is situated in the South East side of Lake Balaton. The physical characteristic of the soil is sandy loam and loam and the peach orchard is irrigated. The detailed goals were mapping and analyzing of physical properties of the soil in water management point of view, mapping the acidity and CaCO3content of soil for precision liming, measurement of humus the element content. Sites with different physical characteristics (from sandy loam to loamy clay) could be distinguished. The reason for this is that besides the possible increase of clayminerals, the increasing rate of colloidal humus content contributes to larger soil plasticity. Statistics also proved positive and strong correlation (r=0.822) between the soil plasticity and humus content. In the case of pH, only a small part of the orchard is has to be limed, since most of the orchard has neutral pH, which is advantageous for nuts and stone fruits. It has to be mentioned, that the CaCO3 supply is also appropriate for the stone fruits. Based on the results hyperspectral imagery can be a good solution for detecting calciferous soils, although these measurements are still need validation.
Monitoring of water regime in an apple orchard29-32.Views:217
Our investigation was carried out at an micro-irrigated intensive apple orchard in Debrecen-Pallag in 2010. The aims of the study were to monitor the effect of a compacted layer on soil water regime by tensiometers and supporting the water management of the orchard. The results suggest that the physical characteristic of the examined soil is sandy soil with low capillarity and total available water content. The soil water tensions were varied between pF 0 and 2.5 due to the extreme precipitation circumstances in 2010. Tensiometers in 40 cm depth resulted fast (few hours) and significant respond to precipitation than in the 70 cm soil layer. Based on daily measurements, the soils possess a daily fluctuation of soil moisture, however the changes become more moderate in deeper layers. In accordance with all of the results, the amount of drainable water regime was about 20.6 V/V% at 40 cm depth and 18.6 V/V% at 70 cm mainly. The harmful surplus water can be infiltrated by loosening of the compacted soil layer in 50–70 cm depth or led off by vertical drainage.
Applied spatial analytic tools in orchards with special regard to agro-ecology17-19.Views:198
Our investigation was carried out in several orchards in Hungary. This study reviews applicability of the different spatial analytical techniques in orchard especially models based on surface relief, such as digital elevation model, digital terrain model, slope and aspect maps. In recent time, the generation of digital elevation model has become a popular examination method. However, the elevation models generated from contour lines or elevation points could be applied to evaluate agro- ecological potential of fruit orchards to some extent. The highest deficiency of these models is the fact that these show the altitude of soil surface only and do not demonstrate landmarks on the surface. Consequently, the calculation of the radiation value results data relating to soil surface. The terrain model generated and applied by our team demonstrates fine surface texture and the landmarks in the orchard, so it is suitable for further examination.
Pilot study for irrigation modelling of a pear plantation81-84.Views:257
Our investigation was carried out in the area of Fruit growing Research and Consultant non-profit company, at Újfehértó. The pear requires large water quantity, but this pear plantation hasn’t irrigation system not yet. This study reviews the drainage conditions of the area based on digital elevation model, and examined the canopy cover of pear trees by evaluating of the hyperspectral image. Our aims were to determine the exact watershed based irrigation modelling and determining of the canopy% of the pear orchard to facilitate a precision irrigation decision support system.