Plant protection, and especially the efficiency of protection against mycosis, is a very important production technological element concerning sunflower. The efficiency of production can be increased on the basis of a thorough pathological survey and its results carried out in a wide variety of hybrids, as the features of hybrids, the reactions... of genetic bases to pathogens can be found out under domestic conditions.
The tests were carried out at variety-test lots of OMMI for hybrids used for food or oil and other sunflower varieties admitted by the state at the Experimental Site DTTI Látókép, Centre of Agricultural Sciences, University of Debrecen between 1998 and 2002. The number of the tested hybrids was 49 in 1998, 45 in 1999, 49 in 2000, 55 in 2001, and 44 in 2002.
Due to the infection source of high amounts remained from 1997 and the favourable weather conditions for the pathogens, an infection of high degree was experienced in the tested stands. The lowest infection index in the hybrids with a very short vegetative period was experienced with Beni hybrids. Comparing to the average of the hybridgroup with short vegetative period, a low infection index characterised the Baleno, Trident, IBH-166, Hysun 321, Resia, Alexandra, Cergold and Pixel hybrids. In 1999, among hybrids with medium vegetative period, Zoltán, Zsuzsa and Util hybrids could be highlighted because of their low infection index. In 1998, among confentionary hybrids, Marica-2 hybrid had the most favourable index values (2,55).
During our trials, the experienced infection dynamics were compared in the event of hybrids with higher and lower susceptibility under different sowing technological elements. The results call for the fact that when a hybrid with higher susceptibility is produced, production technological elements, such as the time of sowing, influence considerably the damage caused by the pathogen, therefore it must not be ignored when its determination takes place. In the event of hybrids with lower susceptibility the change of the tested production technological elements within the biological optimum does not lead to the increased risk of the damage caused by Diaporthe helianthi.
The authors of this study seek the answer to the question how to develop, in the first decade or decades of the 21st century, the university-level
horticultural scientific training, the horticultural innovation and the scientific co-operation between companies and universities in Debrecen and
in the North Great Plain Region and – in a w
of the prospects of past, present and future, they drew the following conclusions. The reconstruction of agriculture, horticulture and food industry
is a part of reforming Hungary's countryside. Horticulture, producing high added value, will be able to decisively contribute to the plan whereas
the value presently produced in an agriculturally cultivated area of 1,000 euros/hectare can reach 2,000 to 3,000 euros in the next two decades.
A necessary and indispensable precondition to achieving this is the strengthening of the innovation output of the Hungarian horticultural sector.
Despite the numerous technical criticisms formulated in connection with the serious problems of Hungarian agricultural and horticultural
scientific innovation, no progress has been made in this field for the past one and a half decade. The scientific research of this topic hardly
continued or did not continue at all, the up-to-date surveys and in-depth analyses were missing. The objective, basic principles and tasks of the
Act CXXXIV of 2004 (TTI) enacted concerning research-development and technological innovation are clear and progressive. The co-operation
between the National Research Technology Office and the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the setting up of the Innovation Fund are heartening
opportunities. These – along with the new Higher Education Bill to be passed – may as well be suitable for restarting the Hungarian agricultural
and horticultural scientific innovation. In our opinion, this requires a new, well-considered national agricultural programme, which can be
conceived in the framework of the "Ferenc Entz National Horticultural Plan" proposed by us for horticulture. In the most eastern Hungarian
university knowledge centre, at the University of Debrecen, the continuing of the horticultural scientific innovation strategy started in the last
decade may be the focal point and generator of the development of the so-called "Hungarian Horticultural Triangle”, or "Hungarian
Horticultural Cluster". This region comprises the Northern and Southern Great Plain Regions and the area between the Danube and Tisza
Rivers. Here, about 70 to 75% of the total Hungarian horticultural commodity stock is produced. The objective of the HORT-INNOTECH
DEBRECEN programme planned in 2004 by the University of Debrecen, Centre of Agricultural Science is to establish the horticultural scientific
research-development and technological innovation structure and knowledge base of the Hungarian Horticultural Triangle / Hungarian
Horticultural Cluster. In harmony with this, the objectives are to bring about competitive, new horticultural products, to improve the conditions
of utilising them, to enhance the competitiveness of enterprises based on technological innovation, to make use of the research-development and
innovation opportunities available in the regions in an efficient manner, to as full extent as possible, to encourage the creation of places of
employment producing high added value in the field of horticulture, to improve the technical skills of those employed in horticultural researchdevelopment and to promote their enhanced recognition by the society.
Technological potential of wheat bread depends on the variety, manner and type of fertilizer, irrigation conditions and climatic conditions in their absence. This study was done on two varieties of wheat grown in Bihor county in a place with identical fertilization conditions, for two different years: year 2014 can be characterized by a greater... quantity of rainfall during the wheat vegetation period and the year 2015 can be characterized by a drought during the growing wheat on the subject of the study. In the study was examined whether climatic conditions have any influence on the technological potential of wheat, not taking into account the data on quantity produced per hectare in the years studied.
It is one of the main topical objective to establish the conditions of sustainable farming. The sustainable development in crop production also calls for the harmony of satisfying human needs and providing the protection of environmental and natural resources; therefore, the maximum consideratio of production site endowments, the common impleme...ntation of production needs and environmental protection aims, the minimum load on the environment and economicalness. Precision farmin encompasses the farming method which is adjusted to the given production site, the changing technology in a given plot, the integrated crop protection, cutting edge technologies, remote sensing, GIS, geostatistics, the change
of the mechanisation of crop production, and the application of information technology novelties in crop production. Modern technology increases efficiency and reduces costs. The efficiency of crop production increases by reducing losses and the farmer has access to a better decision support information technology system. In addition, we consider it necessary to examine the two currently most important economic issues: “is it worth it?” and “how much does it cost?”. During the analysis of agricultural technologies, we used the precision crop production experiment database of KITE Zrt. and the Institute for Land Utilisation, Regional Development and Technology of the Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences of the University of Debrecen.
During our analytical work, we examined three technological alternatives on two soil types (chernozem and meadow). The first technology is the currently used autumn ploughing cultivation. We extended our analyses to the economic evaluation of satellite navigationassisted ploughing and strip till systems which prefer moisture saving. On chernozem soil, of the satellite-based technological alternatives, the autumn ploughing cultivation provided higher income than strip till. In years with average precipitation supply, we recommend the precision autumn ploughing technological alternative on chernozem soils in the future. On meadow soil, the strip till cultivation technology has more favourable economical results than the autumn ploughing. On soils with high plasticity – considering the high time and energy demand of cultivation and the short amoung of time available for cultivation – we recommend to use strip till technologies.
The common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) is the most important fish species in Hungary, it is more than 70% of the total Hungarian fish production. The common carp production is important not only just in Hungary but in Middle-East Europe, as well as Southeast Asia. Majority of the production comes from fishpond culture. If the production secto...r wants to meet the increasing customer demands, there is need to intensify research on the intensive fish production opportunities for example all-female common carp technologies. The all-female technology is one of a genom-manipulation technology. Its production showed better growth rate than mixed-sex population in pond culture. Our experiment combined the recirculation aquaculture system (RAS) and the all-female common carp stocks intensification technologies. The reason for the experiment, is that there are no result about the growth of all-female common carp growth in RAS.
The experiment used the „Tatai grey scale type” common carp stocks. We propagated two all-female stocks (T2 and T3) and a control group (TK). Due to technological characteristics of RAS, the water quality parameters were the same for all treatments and corresponded to the technological tolerance of common carp.
The experimental period was from July 10, 2019 – November 20, 2019. Result of growth performance showed that the growth of mixed-sex stock was significantly higher than all-female stocks; (Control=3692.0±590.5g, T2=3438.8±415.4g, T3=3294.1±659.1g). Feed conversation ratio (Control=1.3±0.1 T2=1.5±0.2 T3=1.6±0.5) and SGR% (Control=0.8±0.0 T2=0.7±0.1 T3=0.7±0.1) were similar.
By the results it can be said the all-female common carp technology has neither advantages nor disadvantages compared to the mixed-sex stock. The all-female technology can be beneficial if the consumers need female common carps. It is worth continuing the experiment and examine how the stocks will perform above 3kg body weight.
There are several extended studies in sweet cherry production in Hungary and all over the world i.e. for creation and maintainence of smaller tree crown and high density orchards. The use of suitable dwarf rootstocks for this fruit species are very limited. On one hand, most of the draf rootstocks do not cause enough growth reduction and on the... other hand these rootstocks are get old very quikcly and their fruits become small, and therefore, they not serve the requirements for intensification. In summary, there is a need for those rootstock which are vital, regeneration enhanching and delay ageing. Due to ensuring above features, Prunus mahaleb is still an obvious solution for intesive production. Increasing intensification can be obtained by use of modernisation of technological elements and suitable cultivar choice.
According to this increasement of intensity through application of novel technological elements (timing, manner and severity of pruning) and selection of the proper cultivar is implement able. Important differences are experienced between sweet cherry cultivars in their growth attributes, light demand and dynamics of fall back in regenerative potencial of different aged wood parts. From this point knowledge of the abow detailed is very important in order to maintain rentability of already established plantations. Our work shows the formation of production part in
9-year old plantation with spike spindle and free spindle crown forms depending on pruning timing (winter, summer) and determining of their various effects.
The purpose of this study is to present economic circumstances of Hungarian broiler sector based on secondary data after brief introduction of international and home situations. Then it analyzes costs, revenues and profit relationships of producers, which has competitive efficiency indicators and high standard production based on a model create...d on the basis of primary data.
The paper confirms the Hungarian poultry sector international competitiveness falling. One important reason of this situation is the low profitability in the sector, which is typical of both farms produce under worse efficiency indicators and high standard producers. Beside lack of technological standards and efficiency, adverse trend of output and input price – mainly feed price – impact low profitability.
Realization of technological developments and improvements according to international tendency, which affect directly or indirectly the efficiency and costs of broiler fattening are determining in point of realizable profit
New varieties and fertilization have significantly increased yields of maize in recent decades. It has to be taken into account however that the interactions and the balanced combination of cropping factors (ecological, biological and agrotechnical) are the main factors which determine yields. Weather conditions were rather unfavourable during...the last decade. Extreme weather conditions occurred due to global warming; 6 of 10 years were plagued by drought. Consequently yields increased from 10-20% to 30-50%. In view of varieties the situation is advantageous, maybe the supply of hybrids is too high, nevertheless those hybrids need to be selected which are particularly well adjusted to the ecological conditions. Many technologies can be applied which vary according to intensity, but the balanced combination of cropping factors should be secured on the basis of the hybrid’s intensity. Among agrotechnical factors the compensation of nutrients and technological conditions were inadequate. These days farmers only use nitrogenous fertilizers consequently they significantly decrease the easily available P and K content of the soil which in long term leads to the deterioration of the soil’s productivity. The technological background is therefore important, because sufficient yields can only be expected if agrotechnical operations are carried out in the right time and quality.
In a sugar factory it is necessary to be able to calculate very quickly the sugar productivity possible to obtain by processing the beet
having a certain technological quality. That is the reason why, in the following lines, it is presented a very quick method used by the Institute of
Alimentary Chemistry, the laboratory for sugar researc
In this paper, I looked at the mobile Internet from technological, economical and sociological aspects and then pointed to several agricultural possibilities for theri usage. Examining the effects and driving forces of mobile communication, I can say that it is a very complex system. The social connections of mobile communication and the arisin...g problems show that it affects several areas of everyday life. By looking at the business processes, all costs, advantages and disadvantages can be seen clearly. Overview the mobile Internet from the technological aspect and I discuss related technology and applicable utilities, as well as two possibilities for using wireless Internet: 3G and WiFi. Among the possible usages, I gave several examples to give an impression of all the diverse possibilities this technology offers. There are some really useful applications in customer service, precision farming, transport, agriculture and food industry. Finally, I talked about the mobile Internet in Hungary and in the other EU countries.
strong educational and scientific knowledge basie is one of Europe's traditional key assets that has made it possible for our continent to become world class in several research fields. Despite these great achievements, the position of the European research and technological development (RTD) potential is currently being challenged by a rapidly... changing global competition, including the two main rivals, the US and Japan. The European Union (EU) is behind these countries as regards research and innovation output. Moreover, European research is faced with the
implications of globalisation of markets and industries, digitalisation and new technologies, as well as a need to address societal issues such as an ageing population or climate change.
At the same time, the European Union (EU) is facing the uneven distribution of RTD capacities and excellence within its own borders, especially the EU12 countries are lagging behind in this
In order to meet this twofold challenge the EU has to step up its efforts for the creation of a legitimate "European Research Area" that will make the EU more competitive on the international scene, and also encourage the less developed EU member states to invest more and better into research and innovation.
The requirements and objective of cultivation are in constant change. For example, different cultivation systems are developed for the purpose of soil protection, the preservation of its moisture content and on soils with various precipitation supply or production site conditions. Traditionally, one of the most important cultivation aims is cro...p needs. Further cost saving in fertilisation and crop protection can only be achieved by reducing the quality and quantity of production or it cannot be achieved at all. Furthermore, the costs can be significantly reduced by means of the rationalisation of cultivation. Energy and working time demand can also be notably reduced if ploughing is left out from the conventional tillage method. The key requirement of economicalness is to perform the cultivation at the optimal date, moisture level and the lowest possible cost.
Within production costs, the cost of cultivation is between 3–17%, while they are between 8–36% within machinery costs. It is the vital condition the usability of each technological method to progressively reduce costs. Our evaluation work was carried out with the consideration of the yield data obtained from cooperating farms and the experiment database of the Institute for Land Utilisation, Regional Development and Technology of the Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences of the University of Debrecen. Three technological methods (ploughing, heavy cultivator and loosening tillage) were used on several soil types which differ from in terms of cultivability (chernozem, sandy and sandy clay soils) from the economic/economical aspect. We examined the sectoral cost/income relation of maize production as an indicator plant. The maize price during the analytical period was 45 thousand HUF per t. On chernozem soils, the production of maize can be carried out on high income level, while maize production on sandy soils has a huge risk factor. The role of cultivation is the highest on high plasicity soils, since they have a huge energy
demand and the there is a short amount of time available for each procedure in most cases.
The researches are inscribed on line of substantiation of durable agricultural system, having main objective the prominence of
quantitative and qualitative modifications made on agro-system level under the effect of no-tillage system for wheat, maize and soybeans.
The experimental field is placed on a cambium chernozem, with a medium cont
and representative for a large surface in the Banat-Crisana Plain.
The passing to no-till system change the structure of technological elements, through less soil works, so the impact on agro-system is
different comparing with conventional tillage, first less the intervention pressure on agro-system ant secondly appears new interactions, new
equilibriums and disequilibriums.
Considering the evolution of soil humidity, the observations made monthly (by taking soil samples and laboratory determinations) for
the three cultures showed that in the no-till system, there are more uniform values in the soil profile, and in the variants where the deep work
of soil was made it could be observed a low increase of the water volume in the soil.
Fermentation at high temperature with application of thermotolerant microorganisms is a technological advantage in bioethanol production. Among the yeasts, K. marxianus has outstanding thermotolarance. The industrial application of the IMB3 strain occurs usually at 45C. The final aim of our project is the genetic modification of the K. marxianu...s CBS712 strain in order to achieve ethanol production at higher temperature than the currently applied. This requires the characterization of the CBS712 strain, with special attention to the determination of the temperature limit of its growth and the amount of the ethanol produced. The temperature limit of growth was 48C in YPD medium. Elevation of the temperature above 45C led to an exponential drop of the cell viability. Ethanol production was tested in shaking flasks, in MYFM medium, under oxigene limited conditions, applying variable concentrations of glucose (12–20%) and different temperatures (45–47 ºC). Preliminary results have revealed that the elevation of glucose concentration increased the amount of ethanol produced. The amount of ethanol (appr. 5%)+ produced at the highest glucose concentration was not different at the tested temperatures (45, 46 and 47 ºC). The observation indicates the potential in raising the thermotolerance of the strain.
Aquaculture species such as fish, crayfish, molluscs and plats are a wide range of products, with continuously growing demand worldwide. The reasons for this is that they are cheap and easy-toraise protein sources, thus having significance in food supply especially in developing countries in tropic regions, moreover, the premium category foodst...uffs in developed high income countries are also belonging to this category. World annual total production of 164 million tons (2009) are made up of two sources: 1) marine and inland fisheries landings that are stagnating for several years and 2) aquaculture which is growing dynamically with annual 6% rate between 2000–2009. The latter is accounting for nearly 45% of the total supply due to the depleting marine stocks caused by overfishing. Aquaculture is growing continuously also because the production is safe and can
be planned well.
Intensive fish production systems are the representatives of precision animal production, several types exist and widespread worldwide. The modern computerized temperate water recirculation plants with several thousand m3 capacity are widespread also in Europe because they make it possible to produce even the most valuable species whole year round. A key issue in the technical/feeding outlay is to meet the demands of the cultured species the best and the operation of the system is to be safe and cost-effective. One condition for this is intensification: enable to produce more product per unit resource input or effort. The facilities need significant amount of energy, thus renewable energy sources are to be favoured for which Hungary has comparative advantages.
The aim of the research was a development of a featherdegradation technology in industrial circumstances. During the experiments we determined the parameters of the critical environmental and technological limitation factors. Because of the high keratin-content the degradation (and composting) of the feather is difficult. With the developed tec...hnology huge mass of feather can be used fast and easily in biogas production and in the adjustment of the optimal element ratio of biomass. The industrial experiments were implemented in a 6m3 heatable double-walled
tank with stirring-shovels and aeration-system. The degradation process was followed with extinction measurements.
According to the experiments that were done the best results were given at the case which was heat-treated at 70°C, was injected with 1% bacteria concentration, and where 1:3 feather:water ratio was set if we consider the effectiveness of degradation and the hydraulical retention time.
The separate collection of poultry slaughterhouse trimmings and blood is partially solved in Hungary. Only properly prepared animal by-products, protein meals can be utilized as animal feed additive. Howev...er, different protein meals are appropriate for feeding different animal species. That is the reason why it is important to avoid accidental cross contamination of the products. Meat and blood meal produced on the same technological line, therefore mixing of the products can happen in various proportions during the shift of production.
Thus the aim of this study is to develop a spectral method which will allow to estimate the ratio of meat and blood protein meal in the final product. During the test the products were mixed in different proportions and were examined by the spectral method. Measurements were conducted with AvaSpec 2048 spectrometer in visible (VIS) and in near infrared (NIR) wavelength range (400–1000 nm) to define the spectral differentiation of the different meal products. Significant difference can be detected in spectral reflectance between the meat and blood product in the VIS-NIR range. The blood product has a characteristic spectral property: in the range of 600 and 735 nm reflectance values are increasing following a sigmoid curve. This property is not observed in the case of meat meal: close to linear rising is detected. Effective protein rate and purity detection could be made by Blood Product Sensitive Mixing Index (BPSMI – R930/R600), and by the calculation of inflection point in 600–735 nm.
Aim of our two-year study was to evaluate the possibilities of chemical use against key fungal pathogens (apple scab, apple powdery mildew and brown rot) in integrated and organic apple production. Therefore, first, disease incidence was compared in standard and reduced spray programmes and then each technological variation was evaluated from p...ractical point of view. Altogether four spray programmes were compared. Standard and reduced spray programmes were performed in the integrated production. The same pesticides were used in the reduced spray
programme compared to standard one but numbers of spray were reduced by 25% at the second half of the season. Standard and reduced spray programmes were also performed in the organic production and the numbers of spray were reduced by 40% in the reduced spray programme. Incidence of diseases was low in both standard and reduced spray programmes in integrated production. Diseases level was high in the organic production and disease increased significantly in the reduced spray programmes compared to standard programmes. Results showed that reduction in spray numbers at the second half of the season can be used practically in integrated production. Omission of sprays in organic
production resulted in serious disease management risk; therefore, it is not recommended for practical use.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">This study deals with the evaluation of an especially important area, since the Tisza river is the basis of the spatial organisation of the Great Plain, the main spatial structural axis of Eastern Hungary and also its ecologic corridor of continental significance. The Tisza is a river which connects five countries to each other and it has an enormous catchment area. Its longest section can be found in Hungary. Two million people live directly in the spatial environment of the river. The safety and favourable quality of life of these people have to be provided. This is a great challenge from the aspect of regional development, economic, technological improvement, the acceleration of innovation processes, as well as the establishment of natural and environmental harmony.
The effects of crop rotation, nutrien supply and crop protection technologies, as well as the appearance of the main ear- and leafdiseases
(powdery mildew, helminthosporium leaf spot, leaf rust, fusarium) were studied on the crop yields of winter wheat variety MV
Pálma during the 2009/2010 crop year. The experiments were conducted in tri
five nutrition levels, with the use of three crop protection technologies (extensive, conventional and intensive) at the Látókép Research Site of
the University of Debrecen, Centre of Agricultural Sciences. Our results proved that the appearance of leaf- and ear-diseases were
significant in the wheat cultures during the 2009/2010 crop year, because of the rainy, warmer than usual weather, the lodging, and the huge
vegetative mass developed. The most severe infections by the four examined diseases after pea and corn pre-crops were observed at
extensive crop protection levels, when fertilizers were used at the highest dose.
Following corn pre-crop, in the case of all the three crop protection technologies the maximum rate of wheat yield results were achieved
at N150+PK level. The highest yield was reached at intensive crop protection level (6079 kg ha-1). In triculture, in case of all the three crop
protection technologies the maximum yields were achieved at N50+PK level; in extensive technology 5041 kg·ha-1 yield, in conventional
technology 6190 kg ha-1 yield was realised, while in the intensive technological model the yield was 7228 kg ha-1.
The relationship between yield and fertilizer amounts, the rate of pathogen contaminations, crop protection technologies and pre-crops
was defined with correlation analysis in case of different crop rotations during the 2009/2010 crop year. Based on the results of the
experiment, we found that in stands after corn pre-crop strong positive correlation was established between the crop protection level and the
crop yield (0.543), the nutrient levels and the emergence of the four examined pathogens, and between the nutrient levels and the yield
(0.639). Extremly strong positive correlation was observed between crop protection and yield (0.843) in triculture. Strong positive
correlation was detected between the nutrient levels and the presence of the four examined pathogens, as well as between nutrient and
lodging (0.688). Strong negative correlation was between the crop protection level and the four examined diseases both in biculture and
The authors examined the nutrition value of the meat of shot wild boars (wild pigs) (n=66) from three wild boar enclosures with different feeding intensity and also the technological properties of the meat. Samples were taken immediately after the evisceration. Considering the storing and processing properties of game meat the samples were take...n from m. serratus anterior. As for dry matter examination results, the highest values were measured in case of semi-intensively fed wild boars, then followed the data from the samples of intensively and extensively fed wild boars. The fat content from the meat samples of intensively and extensively fed wild boars proved to be lower while in case of the semi-ntensively fed wild boars it was higher. In females the dry matter content, while in males the fat content was higher. As for the protein content there were no differences in either the feeding groups or in the genders. It was only the water holding capacity of the samples from the meat of the females from semi-intensive feeding intensity wild boar enclosure that fell in between normal values.
According to the data of KSH (Hungarian Central Statistical Office), the sowing area of cereals in the crop year 2016 was over 2.56 million ha, on which winter wheat and maize were produced in a rate of around 50–50%. Regarding these data it is obvious that the domestic cropping structure has been simplified and become unilateral. This unfavo...urable crop rotation system causes several problems. The number of Hungarian livestock decreased in the past decades. The amount of manure was 24 million tons in 1960, but only hardly 4.5 million tons of organic manure was applied in 2016. Therefore, the importance of other possibilities, alternatives for organic matter recovery have become enhanced. This is especially important from the aspect of sustainable plant production. The fact that the European Union has introduced new directives for subsidiaries in 2015 has to be noted as well.
The objective of the set experiment is to find new technological solutions that are suitable for the execution of sustainable plant production by inadequate crop rotation, organic substance recovery conditions or under more unfavourable climatic conditions.
In our days, ecologiacal and economic models of agricultural application are of ever increasing significance. These provide an opportunity for more accurate planning, and thus can favourably influence the efficiency and the economic situation of the given enterprise. The relevant literature divides models according to various criteria. The most... common is the division between optimising and non-optimising models. Non-olptimising models generally endeavour to make the best use of technological lines, of machine capacity, while optimising models are used to optimise revenues returns from sales; or occasionally, production costs. In our case revenue and returns from sales were optimised. The models examined consists of several modules. These are the following: plant cultivation modules, evaluations (assessment of situation, conception plan, complex corporate evaluation), supplementary sheets (sheets and charts for ancillary plant production, general costs of operation, summary and crops structure optimisation). With the help of the model annual plans of plant cultivation can be made an optimal crop structure may be planned with the resources of the enterprise taken into consideration, and thereby it becomes possible to define the largest net revenue on a corporate level.
The effect of crop production factors on maize yield are examined on chernozem soil in a more than 30 year old long-term experiment on the Látókép Experiment Site of the Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences of the University of Debrecen. The aim of research is to evaluate the effect of fertilisation, cultivation, plant numbe...r, genorype and irrigation. The analysis of the data in the database of the examined period makes it possible to evaluate the effect of maize yield, as well as that of the crop production factors and the crop year, while the correlations and interactions between these factors were also examined. During the examination of the cultivation treatments, it was concluded that the highest yield was obtained as a result of autumn ploughing, but its effect largely differs in the irrigated and the nonirrigated treatments. Based on our examinations, strip cultivation should be applied periodically (e.g. strip – strip – ploughing – loosening) in areas with favourable soil conditions free from compacted layers.
In years with smaller, average precipitation supply or when the precipitation was higher than average, higher plant numbers were more favourable. Under drier conditions, but especially in several consecutively dry years, a lower plant number can be recommended which is not higher than 60 thousand per hectare. In the case of favourable water supply, 70-80 thousand plants per hectare can be used. The yield increasing effect of fertilisation was significant in the case of both non-irrigated and irrigated conditions, but it was much more moderate in the non-irrigated treatment. The extent of weed coverage was significantly affected by the previous crop. In the case of a favourable previous crop (wheat), the weed coverage was significantly lower than after an unfavourable previous crop (maize). In the case of the same previous crop (maize), the extent of weed coverage was mostly determined by the crop year and the extent of precipitation supply. Irrigation is not enough in itself, because if it was not accompanied by intensive nutrient management, yields started to decline.
The results of researhc, development and innovation contributed to the technological method which makes it possible to apply locally adjusted sowing seed, fertiliser and pesticide in a differentiated way, as well as to change the method of operations within the given plot.