In Hungary the mycotoxin is a great problem, because there are many natural toxins in wheat and maize. These cereals can be found on
considerable proportion of the country’s sowing area, and they are deterministic food for the population. The direct human and animal
utilization of the contaminated cereals mean a serious risk in the food
moulds, particularly Fusarium species, which increase by respective temperature and moisture content in cereals. The Fusarium can
decrease the quality of the wheat in different ways: decrease the germination capability and cause visible discoloration and appearance of
mould, reduces the dry material and nutrient content of the grain. From the toxins produced by the Fusarium genus, the trichotecene (T-2,
HT-2, deoxinivalenol, nivalenol, diacetoxyscxirpenol, Fusarenon-X) and the estrogenic zearalenon (F-2) are the most common in Hungary.
The fumonisins (FB1, FB2, FB3) first identified in 1988, relatively newly discovered, are also important. Major proportion of mycotoxins in a
healthy organization is metabolized by the enzyme system of liver and intestinal bacteria. The toxicity is reduced or even leaves off.
However, more toxic and biologically active compounds can be formed. For the reduction of mycotoxin-contamination several possibilities
are available in the case of storage, processing and feeding.
The most important aim of the study is to introduce the theoretical background of my PhD dissertation – agricultural environmental management –, in order to help the scientific foundations for my dissertation, which is in progress. For this reason I will try to clarify and systematize facts found in the special literature according to my ow...n thoughts, from a new aspect.
In my study, I therefore attempt to introduce the theoretical background of sustainable development as pertains to the subsidies of agricultural environmental management (National Agricultural Environmental Management Program, National Regional Development Plan, agricultural environmental management measures). Having clarified the concepts I place sustainable development in the economic theories directed to the treatment of environmental problems, introduce where subsidies are within the environmental regulation implements and I dwell on to the institutional questions in the explanation. I then study questions of sustainable agricultural economics. Accession to the European Union has to be considered as one of the most important concrete motivities of domestically coming into prominence of agricultural environmental subsidies therefore I think it is important to study how the problematic of sustainable development, sustainable agricultural development and agricultural environment protection worked out in the EU. Finally I survey the main characteristics of domestic agricultural environment management programs fitting into the theories explained above, how the program adjusts to the theories of sustainable development and sustainable agricultural development.
In the dissertation I begin with sustainable development as the broadest theoretical background, then I survey a narrower category, the theories of sustainable agricultural development and how concrete agricultural environmental programs fit into the studied theoretical relations.
During our research we aimed at finding an answer as to what extent the different concentrations of 17-alpha methyl testosterone incorporated in the diet of common carp fries can influence the production parameters of the species, as well as how efficient their sexreversal can be with the use of this method. To this end, an aquarium experiment...was conducted in the course of which four different hormone treatments were set and monitored. The fish feed was enriched with 17-alpha methyl testosterone in 50 ppm, 75 ppm, 100 ppm, 500 ppm dosages.
The obtained figures revealed that the hormone treatments had no influence on the production parameters and conservation of the common carp fries. Further on, our team is to determine the sex of the fish through the examination of gonads during autopsy when they reach the 500 g average weight.
Furthermore, a male specific test method which was supposed to be of great help in our attempt to select the sex-reversed specimens in the subsequent processes was also put to the trial. During the experiment the DNA-isolation of different sample types (muscle tissue, fin, mucus) of common carp with identified sex was successfully carried out. The extracted PCR product was examined with agarose gel. Our results indicated that the ccmf2 marker was applicable, however, the obtained figures were not reliable.
The treatment and utilization of plant and animal waste and by-products from agriculture is very diverse. Traditional environmental management practices for waste management have been retained through soil conservation and the applied of recycle degradable organic substances in soil. The management o...f by-products from agriculture (animal husbandry) is important because a closed loop can be created to utilize by-products (manure, feathers) from the production of the main product (eggs, meat, milk) and to form a raw material for a new product. It is important to treat the resulting by-products, especially deep-litter manure, as it has served as a basis for compost-treated manure to develop an organic-based, soil-conditioning product line. Poultry manure by itself is not suitable as a substrate for aerobic decomposition, so it has to be mixed with other substances (zeolite, bentonite, soil), because of its high nutrient capacity, it is an acidifying substance.
The aim of this study was to compost the mixture of poultry manure and hen manure by the addition of zeolite and to monitor the composting process. It was also our aim to statistically determine the effect of the zeolite on parameters describing the composting process.
The windrow composting experiments were set up in the composting area of the University of Debrecen, Institute of Water and Environmental Management. The composting experiment was 62 days long, during which the main parameters describing the composting process were continuously monitored: temperature (°C), moisture content (w/w%), electrical conductivity (mS/cm), organic matter content (w/w%), examination of nitrogen forms (w/w%). In this study, three factors were investigated: temperature, humidity, and pH. For statistical evaluation, R software and RStudio user interface were used. We developed a repeated measurement model, in which the fixed and random effects were determined for our parameters under study, and the resulting relationships were shown on interaction plots.
Based on our results, the temperature of the prisms has become independent of the ambient temperature and the composting stages can be separated in both the control and the zeolite treated prisms. In the repeated measurement model, we proved that treatment, time and treatment: time interaction were significant at both temperature and pH.
Composting is an alternative way for practicing site-specific and environmental friendly plant nutrient supply. Our aim was to study the effect of different composts on plant and soil system.
Pot experiment with acidic sandy soil blended with three composts in five (0%, 5%, 10%, 25% and 50%) proportion was set up. Our experimental plan
The three composts had different effect on dry weight production and on nutrient-supply of soil. We established that one of the compost had significantly larger effect on the dry weight of ryegrass compared to the others. In this study we proved that favourable compost/soil proportion is different in the case of different composts.
Soils represent a considerable part of the natural resources of Hungary. Consequently, rational land use and proper soil management – to guarantee normal soil functions – are important elements of sustainable (agricultural) development, having special importance both in the national economy and in environment protection.
The main soil fu
Society utilizes these functions in different ways (rate, method, efficiency) throughout history, depending on the given natural conditions and socio-economic circumstances. In many cases the character of the particular functions was not properly taken into consideration during the utilization of soil resources, and the misguided management resulted in their over-exploitation, decreasing efficiency of one or more soil functions, and – over a certain limit – serious environmental deterioration.
Soil resources are threatened by the following environmental stresses:
– soil degradation processes;
– extreme moisture regime;
– nutrient stresses (deficiency or toxicity);
– environmental pollution.
Environmental stresses caused by natural factors or human activities represent an increasing ecological threat to the biosphere, as well as a socio-economic risk for sustainable development, including rational land use and soil management.
The stresses are caused by the integrated impacts of various soil properties, which are the results of soil processes (mass and energy regimes, abiotic and biotic transport and transformation and their interactions) under the combined influences of soil forming factors. Consequently, the control of soil processes is a great challenge and the main task of soil science and soil management in sustainable development.
The efficient control of these processes necessitates the following consecutive steps:
• registration of facts and consequences (information on land and soil characteristics, land use, cropping pattern, applied agrotechnics, yields, with their spatial and temporal variability);
• evaluation of potential reasons (definition and quantification of soil processes, analysis of influencing factors and their mechanisms);
• assessment of the theoretical, real, rational and economic possibilities for the control of soil processes (including their risk-assessment and impact analysis);
• elaboration of efficient technologies for the „best” control alternatives (best management practice).
Scientifically based planning and implementation of sustainable land use and rational soil management to ensure desirable soil functions, without any undesirable environmental side-effects, require adequate soil information. In the last years such data were organized into a computer-based GIS soil database in Hungary, giving opportunities for the quantification, analysis, modelling and forecasting of the studied environmental stresses and for the efficient and scientifically based prevention, elimination or reduction of environmental stresses and their unfavourable ecological and economical consequences.
Special attention was paid to the assessment of various soil degradation processes, as: (1) soil erosion by water or wind; (2) soil acidification; (3) salinization and/or alkalization; (4) physical degradation (structure destruction, compaction); (5) extreme moisture regime: drought sensitivity and waterlogging hazard; (6) biological degradation; (7) unfavourable changes in the plant nutrient regime; (8) decrease of natural buffering capacity, (9) soil (and water) pollution.
The actions against undesirable environmental stresses and their unfavourable consequences are important elements of sustainable, efficient, economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally sound crop production and agricultural development. These are joint tasks of the state, decision makers on various levels, the land owners, the land users and – to a certain extent – of each member of the society.
Apple production has seen a decline in yields in recent years, primarily due to ecological factors such as drought, water stress, water scarcity, uneven rainfall distribution, frost damage and hail damage. Ecological factors that are harmful to the plant can be eliminated by human intervention, irrigation or the...use of hail net. In our study, we investigated the positive effects of hail net on the development of plant water potential as the vegetation progressed, in non-irrigation area with temperature and humidity. Water potential values were determined using a field osmometer. Confirmed the positive effect of the ice protection net in the apple orchard of Early Gold and Golden Reinders. Our results were supported by statistical analyzes our results.
A significant proportion of the aboveground green and dry weight of the plant is constituted by foliage. The canopy is an important factor of plant growth. On the one hand, the canopy absorbs solar energy, which is necessary for photosynthesis; on the other hand, it accumulates the nutrients absorbed by the roots, and most of the water-loss occ...urs through the foliage. The determination of the full canopy is not an easy target. In our research, we developed a measurement method to determine the leaf area. With the parameters of the examined tree (leaf length and maximum width) and the data of the ADC AM 100 leaf area scanner, we determined the k-value, with which we can easily and fast evaluate the leaf surface. Furthermore, we defined from the water balance of compensation lysimeters the cumulative transpiration of fruit trees and the efficiency of water use of trees. From the examined trees were made a 3D depiction, which show the shape, branching and the location of trees.
Within our experiment, we studied the combined effect of live food application and feed training on the production parameters of carp larvae. In addition, we examined whether there is a difference in the growth rate and survival rate of the specimens of Szeged mirror landrace reared in similar stocking density but with different treatments....
Specimens of Szeged mirror landrace from induced propagation were placed into 12 pieces of 40-liter aquaria. For the 4 different treatments, (K, A3, A6, A9), live food (Artemia salina) was fed, as well as feed training was applied.
We also sought to find an answer as to how our feeding and rearing conditions can affect the production parameters of common carp fries and what impact these conditions may have on their survival rates. At the end of the 2-week experiment we determined the individual weight gain of the carp fries, their survival rate and the biomass growth. The purpose of the study is to examine the optimum timing of shifting from live food to feed for carp larvae.
In recent years, intensive fish farming has led to an outbreak of several diseases, and the health status of fish can affect the economy of aquaculture. Since fish health and intestinal health are in correlation, it may also have an impact on immunity. Accordingly, many natural feed additives are being used to im...prove immune functions. In our study, carotenoids, oligosaccharides, and anthocyanins were applied at 1 m/m% in feed to investigate their effects on cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) in spleen and mid-intestine of 6 months old carp. Gene expression analysis was carried out to examine IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α, and IRF-1 mRNA levels in fish spleen and mid-intestine. The gene expression level of pro-inflammatory IL-1β decreased in the mid-intestine of carotenoid-fed carp compared to anthocyanin supplemented group, but the effects of the bioactive plant extracts were not observed on the examined cytokines compared to control fish.
The microbiological quality of milk is important not only for food safety, but it can also influence the quality of dairy products. In this study, our aim was to assess the microbiological status of the bulk milk of a milk-producing farm, and some natural and flavored (garlic, dill, onion) gomolya cheeses made from pasteurized milk produced by...their own processing plant. We determined the number of coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and molds of three milk and eight cheese samples. The tests were conducted between July and September, 2017.
In bulk milk, the mean coliform count was 3.83±0.17 log10 CFU/ml; the mean E. coli count was 1.38±0.14 log10 CFU/ml; the mean mold count was 3.74±1.30 log10 CFU/ml; and the S. aureus count was <1.00 log10 CFU/ml, respectively. The mean coliform count in gomolya cheeses was 3.69±1.00 log10 CFU/g; the mean E. coli count was 2.63±0.58 log10 CFU/g; the mean S. aureus count was 3.69±1.35 log10 CFU/g and the mean mold count was 1.74±0.37 log10 CFU/g. The amount of coliforms detected in different flavored gomolya cheeses were significantly different (P<0.05). More than 10 CFU/g of E. coli was found only in the dill flavored cheeses, and S. aureus was found only in dill (3.66±1.86 log10 CFU/g) and onion (3.71±0.52 log10 CFU/g) flavored gomolya cheeses. Based on the obtained results, it was found that the amount of coliform bacteria and E. coli in bulk milk exceeded the limit set in regulation of the Hungarian Ministry of Health (MoH) 4/1998 (XI. 11.) and the amount of S. aureus was below the limit. For gomolya cheeses, the S. aureus count exceeded the limit. The amount of coliform bacteria remained above the limit in cheeses, except for the garlic flavored gomolya cheese. In cheeses, a larger E. coli count was detected than in the bulk milk, but there is no specific limit for cheeses in the regulation. The mold count exceeded the limit specified in the regulation in cheeses, but a lower value was detected relative to milk.
The results show that, in the case of bulk milk and gomolya cheeses, certain detected quantities exceeded the limit values set forth in regulation of MoH 4/1998 (XI. 11.). The results indicate an inadequate microbiological state of the raw material and the finished products. The reasons for these are due to reduced technological hygiene or the inappropriate handling of raw material and finished products. In this study, we have summarized the results of our preliminary studies, which can provide a basis for further hygiene studies.
The aim of this review is to examine the effect of milk supplementation on pigs’ carbohydrate metabolism. These parameters regulate the growth of piglets, the nutrient intake and the period of pre-weaning. Due to the increased litter size, the sow milk yield reaches an individual maximum. The individual maximum has not increased proportionall...y with the number of piglets born alive. The use of liquid milk supplementation may give the opportunity to keep these large litters. The examined hormones are insulin, insulin-like growth factor, growth hormone, growth hormone releasing hormone, ghrelin and leptin. This review seeks to find these hormones’ interactions.
Agricultural management practices – directly or indirectly – influence soil properties.
Fertilization rates and crop rotation can strongly affect soil pH, soil nutrient supply and soil organic matter content due to the changes of microbial processes. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of different fertilization d...oses in monoculture and tri-culture of maize (monoculture: only maize grown since 1983, tri-culture: it is a three-year crop rotation system: pea – winter wheat – maize) on selected soil characteristics. The long-term fertilization experiments were set up in 1983 in Eastern Hungary. These experiments are situated west of Debrecen in Hajdúság loess region, on calcareous chernozem (according to WRB: Chernozems).
The test plant was maize (Zea mays L.). One-one pilot blocks were selected from monoculture and tri-culture of the long-term experiments. The observed soil samples were taken in the 30th year of the experiment, in 2013. The doses of NPK fertilizers increased parallel together, so the effects of N-, P- and K-fertilizers cannot be separated.
With the increasing fertilizer doses, the soil pH has decreased in both crop production systems and, in parallel, the hydrolytic acidity has significantly increased. A close negative correlation was proved between the pHH2O, pHKCl and hydrolytic acidity. An increased nutrient content in soil was recorded in every NPK treatment and the available phosphorus and nitrate content increased in higher proportion than that of potassium. Of the measured parameters of C-and N-cycles, fertilization has mostly had a positive effect on the microbial activity of soils. Besides the effects of fertilizer doses, correlation were looked for between soil microbiological properties. Evaluating the ratios among the measured parameters (organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon, OC/MBC ratio; carbon-dioxide and microbial biomass carbon; CO2/MBC proportion), the fertilization rate seems to be favoured by the increase of amounts of organic compounds
In the last decades, an increased interest has evolved in arsenic and selenium. The aim is to understand the environmental, agricultural and biological roles of these elements. In the case of arsenic, the major reasons are the relatively high concentration of arsenic in marine biota (mg kg-1) and the arsenic contaminated drinking wat...er bases of some Asian countries, as well as Hungary. The toxicity of higher level selenium content is also known; nevertheless, selenium is essential for several biological functions. Considering its essentialness, in our country, the insufficient selenium intake rate causes a lack of selenium. Measuring the concentrations of these elements provides crucial, but unsatisfactory information, as the speciation, i.e. the form of an element presented in a sample is also required.
In both cases, the most suitable method to determine concentration is inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Our objective was to optimize the variable parameters of the ICP-MS to attain the lowest (the best) detection limit. For this purpose, we investigated the effect of parameter change on net signal intensity and relative signal intensity. With the optimized parameter settings, the limits of detection for arsenic and selenium were determined, which are 0,032 ng dm-3 for arsenic, and 0,097 ng dm-3 for selenium.
Selenium is an element of environmental interest owing to the narrow range between its nutritionally required and toxic concentrations in many organisms. Its mobility and bioavailability differ greatly depending on individual Se species. In this regard, in present study, the uptake and distribution of Se, the changes in Se content, and the effe...cts of different concentration of Se in two forms of sodium selenite and sodium selenate on maize plants were measured in nutrient solution experiments to clarify their response to the two forms of Se. The results revealed that the Se content in shoots and roots of maize plants significantly increased as the Se level increased. Two Se forms behaved differently and the effects of toxic damage in samples which had been treated with selenite were much more than in the selenate treatments.
The effect of wheat straw ash as a fertlizizer was studied in a pot experiment with an acidic sandy loam soil (pHKCl=4.9) with weak K and P supply. The test plant was ryegrass (Lolium perenne). The treatments were the following: 1. control untreated soil, 2. NPK fertilizer, 3. small dose of ash (1.4 g kg-1), 4 large dose o...f ash (2.8 g kg-1), 5. small dose ash completed with NP fertilizers. Soil parameters (pHH2O, pHKCl, ammoinum-lactate soluble P, K, 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble PO43--P, K, Mn, Cu, Zn ) and plant parameters (yield, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Mn uptake) were investigated. Based on the analysis of the straw ash sample and the results of pot experiment it can be stated that the wheat straw ash is suitable for the fertilization of the studied soil. The small dose ash completed with NP resulted in the largest yield increment (43%). In order of the treatments the pHKCl changes to: 4.9, 4.8, 5.2, 5.8, 5.1. As the N : P2O5 : K2O ratio is 0 : 1: 3.5 in the wheat straw ash sample, to reach optimal yield ash should be completed with N and P.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that season has an affect on semen quality and scrotal circumference of Dorper rams. The experiment was carried out with six Dorper rams aged between 15 and 18 month. Semen samples were collected with artificial vagina and volume, concentration (x 109/ml), total sperm number/ejaculate (x 109), mass motility (0–5), progressive motility (%), scrotal circumference (cm) was observed. Significant differences (P<0.05) were observed in concentration, total sperm number/ejaculate, scrotal circumference in different seasons. Volume was the highest in autumn (1.4±0.5 ml) and the lowest in the spring (1.3±0.4 ml). Concentration of semen was lower in spring (2.6±1.5 x 109) and summer (3.3±1.5 x 109) as compared to fall (4.1±1.1 x 109) (P<0.05). Regarding total sperm number/ejaculate (x 109), scrotal circumference (cm) all the seasons differed significantly (P<0.05), although the season had no effect on mass motility and progressive individual motility (P<0.05). In conclusion the present study showed that semen quality parameters and scrotal circumference of Dorper rams were better in autumn than in the other sea- sons.
Some chemical and microbiological properties of the carbon cycle were investigated in three chernozem soil profiles. The soil profiles originated from a long term fertilization experiment (potato) of the University of Debrecen, Látókép, Kryvyi Rig Botanic Garden (grassland) and a large-scale farm (sunflower) of Ukraine. The results of the or...ganic C-content, total number of bacteria, microscopical fungi, cellulose decomposing bacteria, CO2-production, microbial biomass carbon and saccharase and dehydrogenase activities were compared and evaluated with the help of correlation analyses. Close correlation was found between the organic carbon content and the number of microscopical fungi,, saccharase and dehydrogenase enzymes’ activities, as well as close correlation was found between the dehydrogenase activity and microbial biomass-C and saccharase activity.
A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to compare the effects of manure with different origin (horse, cattle), various bedding materials (straw, sawdust) and diverse doses (30 t ha-1, 60 t ha-1) and the impact of food waste compost on the plant growth and the available plant nutrient content of soil. The study was condu...cted on humic sandy soil and consisted of 9 treatments in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) was grown as the test crop. The treatments were: 1. unfertilized control; 2. horse manure with straw (30 t ha-1); 3. horse manure with sawdust (30 t ha-1); 4. cattle manure (30 t ha-1); 5 food waste compost (30 t ha-1); 6. horse manure with straw (60 t ha-1); 7. horse manure with sawdust (60 t ha-1); 8. cattle manure (60 t ha-1); 9. food waste compost (60 t ha-1). Plant growth was monitored for 4 weeks. Shoot and root weights per pot were measured, total biomass weight per pot were counted.
On the basis of the results it can be concluded, that among treatments the application of horse manure with straw enhanced spinach growth most significantly compared to other treatments and to the non-treated control, resulted the highest weights of leaves and roots of spinach. At the same time even small dose (30 t ha-1) of this fertilizer caused increased plant available nitrogen and phosphorus of soil and the higher dosage further increased these values. The horse manure with sawdust applied in lower dose did not alter the leaves and roots weights, but higher portion (60 t ha-1) caused significantly decreased plant biomass. The results proved that the bedding material may significantly alter the composition of manure and may change the plant nutrition effect of organic fertilizer. Cattle manure and food waste compost in both applied doses enhanced plant growth. Both fertilizers increased the plant available nitrogen forms and phosphorus content of soil, but cattle manure caused higher increase.
During the industrial production of broiler chicken, a large amount of manure is produced, of which easily contained nitrogen content (without pre-treatment) is released into the atmosphere as an air pollutant. In our experiments, we aimed to prepare compost tea, also known as water extract of compost, from pre-treated poultry manure in order t...o create a product can be utilized as liquid nutrient supply. The poultry manure source was the Baromfi-Coop Ltd. located in Nyírjákó, Hungary, where it was treated by composting. As a result of this pre-treatment of the poultry manure, its nutrient parameters improve and nitrogen is present in a form that is better utilized for plants. Furthermore, this product is suitable for further utilization and also can be the base material for a brand-new product. For this reason the effects of compost/water ratio, incubation time, low oxygen level, and extraction time on the parameters of the resulted product were studied in the frame of developing new soil-life enhancing microbial product, so-called compost tea.
Chemical parameters of the compost used as base material strongly determined the properties of the resulted compost tea, especially the ratio of the various nitrogen forms, their concentration and the salt content. It was found that adding water at a higher rate that means 1/40 and 1/50 mixing ratios results in more cost-effective production. In the experiment the compost tea were held under oxygen-poor conditions, therefore pH of the extractions decreased, which influenced the quality and quantity of their nutrient content.
The general tendency of the last few years has been that besides large agricultural Ltd.’s and firms, smaller agricultural enterprises also have to correspond to stricter environmental regulations.
This process suits the EU’s environmental and waste management regulations. Recently, manure, liquid manure and addle are registered as non h
In the case of the amount of these wastes is larger than 200 t/year, one has to make an individual waste management plan.
Accordingly, several small agricultural enterprises have to make individual waste management plants in Hajdú-Bihar County.
This article is based on the results of these companies experiences.
Over the last few years, warming of the atmospheric layer near Earth's surface is increasingly experienced and researchers have also established that concentration of numerous greenhouse gases have risen over the past two centuries value. Change is basically a legitimate process - considering atmospheric concentration as well - but the change e...xperienced during the past centuries could not have become this critical without the contribution of human activity. Due to the nature of the greenhouse effect, the result of a very fragile, complex process is experienced currently on Earth, which can be significantly unbalanced even by a slight change. Carbon dioxide emitted from the soil is involved in the global cycle and has an impact on the greenhouse effect. The rise in soil respiration may result in the further intensification of warming. In the scope of the present study, it was examined how carbon dioxide emissions of the soil evolve over a day. The results have been established based on the comparison of the effects of different parts of the day, tillage methods and irrigation.
Spices and herbs have been used by humanity for thousands of years, so they are very important plants.
In this study, the change of dry matter content and antioxidant compounds of eight spices (basil, thyme, rosemary, mint, parsley, lemongrass, chives, coriander) have been examined the raw plants and in plants preserved by three differe...nt drying methods (an oven in 50–60°C; drying at room temperature; lyophilisation between -40 and -50°C, under pressure), because we wanted to see the change of the parameters.
The water content of raw plants was very high, i.e. the dry matter content was very low. By the application of the three drying methods nearly 100% of the water has left the plants, with the exception of the lyophilized basil and rosemary.
Based on the results related to the original material, lyophilized has proved to be the best treatment for the preservation of antioxidant compounds, however air drying also showed high results for some spices.
The effect of the preparation method was examined with regards to the physical and chemical characteristics of the propolis tincture, namely the extraction time and the ethanol content of the extraction solvent to the dry matter, polyphenol, flavonoid, phosphorus, calcium and copper concentration, respectively. The dry matter, the polyphenol an...d the flavonoid content were the lowest in the water extract of the propolis; however, significant increase was noticed depending on the extraction time. Significantly higher concentrations were found in 50 V/V% tinctures. The highest dry matter and flavonoid contents were analysed in 100 V/V% tinctures, whereas highest polyphenol content was found in 80 V/V% tinctures. However, the differences were not significant in several cases between latter tinctures. Moreover, the increase was not determined in some cases depending on the extraction time. Phosphorus and calcium concentrations were decreased depending on the increasing ethanol content, whereas copper concentration was increased up to 80 V/V%. Higher increase was found in the case of 0 and 50 V/V% extracts than in 80 and 100 V/V% tinctures. Moreover, in latter cases, no significant differences were found on several occasions, depending on the extraction time. There was no connection between the flavonoids and the calcium as well as the phosphorus content, whereas flavonoids may be made complex with copper. However, the amount of the possible complex was negligible.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The aim of the study was to compare different fitted models for show-jumping results of sporthorses and to estimate heritability and repeatability value. Show-jumping competition results collected between 1996 and 2011 were analyzed. The database contained 358 342 starts of 10 199 horses. Identity number, name and gender of the horse, rider, competition year, the level and location of the competition and placing were recorded in the database. To measure performance of horses, placing, number of starters and competition level were used. Competitions were categorized into five groups based on their difficulty level. The used repeatability animal model included fixed effects for age, gender, competition place, year of competition (and competition level in case of non-weighted measurement variables), and random effects for rider, animal and permanent environment effect. Variance components were estimated with VCE-6 software package. The goodness-of-fit of the models was low and moderate. Heritability and repeatability values were low for each measurement variables. The best goodness-of-fit model the weighted square root of placing resulted the highest heritability and repeatability value h2=0.074 and R=0.296.