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  • Effects of bioactive plant extracts on immune-related gene expression of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)
    49-56
    Views:
    271

     In recent years, intensive fish farming has led to an outbreak of several diseases, and the health status of fish can affect the economy of aquaculture. Since fish health and intestinal health are in correlation, it may also have an impact on immunity. Accordingly, many natural feed additives are being used to improve immune functions. In our study, carotenoids, oligosaccharides, and anthocyanins were applied at 1 m/m% in feed to investigate their effects on cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) in spleen and mid-intestine of 6 months old carp. Gene expression analysis was carried out to examine IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α, and IRF-1 mRNA levels in fish spleen and mid-intestine. The gene expression level of pro-inflammatory IL-1β decreased in the mid-intestine of carotenoid-fed carp compared to anthocyanin supplemented group, but the effects of the bioactive plant extracts were not observed on the examined cytokines compared to control fish.

  • Impact of precision irrigation on the unit income of maize production
    157-162
    Views:
    38

    The study of the economic/economic impact of precision farming should be a priority area in digital agriculture, as the results, profitability, and efficiency indicators can have a significant decision-support effect on the development of both the agronomic and the technical regions of individual farms both in the longer and shorter term. Individual firms, companies, farmers, and family farms quantify the effectiveness of their farming processes. The modern age offers the possibility of digitally recording all the elements of farming technology, making it possible to analyse the cost-effectiveness of a farm more effectively and, in some cases, to carry out more detailed analyses. Nevertheless, the number of farms demonstrating their profitability with such precise economic calculations is still minimal.

    Our analyses were conducted on a 56,02 ha field of Balogh Farm-Tépe Ltd. The agricultural operations carried out were fully documented so that the inputs (seeds, fertilisers, pesticides, crop enhancers) were recorded in coordinates and kind, as well as the specific yields, grain moisture data, irrigation norms, and irrigation rotations. At the same time, the company's owner provided the data's monetary value. The main econometric indicators (yield, production value, cost of production, income, cost price) related to the evaluation of the enterprise management were evaluated along with the spatial data in the irrigated and non-irrigated tables. Our calculations show that a given year's climatic and market characteristics fundamentally determine the cost and income relations of a plot of land (and thus of an entire farm). In addition to additional inputs, introducing some elements of precision farming and intensification and increasing yields improves yield security and allows for excellent yield stability.