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  • Changing of some parameters of the soil-plant system as an effect of different composts
    262-266
    Views:
    79

    Composting is an alternative way for practicing site-specific and environmental friendly plant nutrient supply. Our aim was to study the effect of different composts on plant and soil system. 
    Pot experiment with acidic sandy soil blended with three composts in five (0%, 5%, 10%, 25% and 50%) proportion was set up. Our experimental plant was perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). After the harvest of ryegrass we measured the fresh and dry weight of harvested plants, the P-, K-, Mg-contents, and the pH of soils.
    The three composts had different effect on dry weight production and on nutrient-supply of soil. We established that one of the compost had significantly larger effect on the dry weight of ryegrass compared to the others. In this study we proved that favourable compost/soil proportion is different in the case of different composts.

  • Studies of the influences of different N fertilizers and Microbion UNC bacterial fertilizer on the nutrient content of soil
    134-140
    Views:
    59

    A field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of different nitrogen fertilizers in combination with bacterial fertilizer on
    nutrient uptake of horseradish and plant available nutrients of the soil. Three different N fertilizers, ammonium-nitrate, urea and calciumnitrate
    (116 kg ha-1 N) in combination with Microbion UNC bacterial fertilizer (2 kg ha-1) were applied as treatments in a randomized
    complete block design in three replications. In this paper we presented the results of soil measurements. The soil of the experimental area
    was chernozem with medium sufficiency level of N and P and poor level of K.
    Our main results:
    The amount of 0.01M CaCl2 soluble inorganic nitrogen fractions, NO3
    --N and NH4
    +-N and also the quantity of soluble organic-N were
    almost the same in the soil. N fertilizers significantly increased all the soluble N fractions. The amount of NO3
    --N increased to the greatest
    extent and the increase of organic N was the slightest. We measured the largest CaCl2 soluble NO3
    - -N and total-N contents in the plots
    treated with ammonium-nitrate, the largest NH4
    +-N in the plots treated with calcium-nitrate and the largest organic-N fraction in plots
    treated with urea.
    Bacterial inoculation also increased both soluble inorganic nitrogen forms and also total-N content of soil compared to the control. In
    the case of combined (artificial and bacterial fertilizer) treatments we measured lower NO3
    --N, organic-N and total-N compared to the
    values of plots having only nitrogen fertilizer treatments. On the contrary in the plots with combined treatments the CaCl2 soluble NH4
    +-N
    content of soil in more cases were higher than that of values with artificial fertilizer treatment.
    As a function of calcium-nitrate application increased AL-P2O5 and AL-K2O values were measured compared to control. Microbion
    UNC supplement of calcium nitrate yielded also increase in AL-P2O5 and AL-K2O values, till then supplement of ammonium-nitrate fertilizer
    yielded a decrease in these values compared to the control.
    All nitrogen fertilizers resulted in a significant decrease in AL-Mg content of soil compared to the control. Nevertheless bacterial
    fertilizer increased AL-Mg values in any cases.

  • The Natural, Social and Economic Conditions and Opportunities for Development of Balmazujvaros, Especially in the Case of the Co-operative Kvaliko
    77-85
    Views:
    75

    Balmazujvaros as a settlement near Hortobagy has to cope with both advantages and disadvantages. Its natural and social conditions are mainly given, the agricultural characteristic is dominant, and the number of the employed is the highest in the agricultural firms and processing industry. Developing the third sector, including hosting, tourism, eco-tourism, thermal-tourism, may be an opportunity for the city. The subsidy for rural development relating to the SAPARD-programme may contribute to this, as the city is the member of the Association of Hajdu Towns.
    The agriculture plays an important part in Balmazujvaros in which production and marketing of vegetables and fruits excel. Several farmers realised this opportunity and founded the Marketing Co-operative of Vegetable Producers in Eastern Hungary, that is the Kvaliko. This PO works in a Corporation form and is constantly developing, spreading and expanding its choice making use of the local natural, social and economic conditions and applications for realising its investments. This PO may set an example for the other entrepreneurs and farmers of Balmazujvaros to co-operate and it may be considered as an already realised opportunity.

  • Effect of hail net on the water potential of an apple orchard
    109-113
    Views:
    119

     Apple production has seen a decline in yields in recent years, primarily due to ecological factors such as drought, water stress, water scarcity, uneven rainfall distribution, frost damage and hail damage. Ecological factors that are harmful to the plant can be eliminated by human intervention, irrigation or the use of hail net. In our study, we investigated the positive effects of hail net on the development of plant water potential as the vegetation progressed, in non-irrigation area with temperature and humidity. Water potential values were determined using a field osmometer. Confirmed the positive effect of the ice protection net in the apple orchard of Early Gold and Golden Reinders. Our results were supported by statistical analyzes our results.

  • Preliminary studies to evaluate the use of spectral data in monitoring of apple orchard parameters
    37-41
    Views:
    85

    The introduction/application of precision agricultural technologies has more important role in various fruit growing sectors among others apple growing. Remote sensing methods can detect electromagnetic waves where the green colour of the leaf is responsible for the chlorophyll content. The absorption of chlorophyll is in the wavelength range of 450–670 nm. Samples of apple tree leaves were taken on a weekly basis from the apple orchard at Horticultural Unit of Pallag on University of Debrecen in 2019 summer. Our studies were performed on 2 cultivars (Early Gold, Golden Reinders) and the samples were processed using 2 methodologies: a non-destructive spectral method and spectrophotometric method chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were calculated, which were created into some groups and compared with the spectral values. When the plant begins to lose strong green colour and turns yellow spectral measurements show that chlorophyll content decreases as the proportion of chlorophyll-carotenoid in the plant changes.  In case of grouping into intervals, it can be observed that as the chlorophyll content increases the reflectance value decreases continuously due to the strong absorption. Based on the results, close relationship between the pigments can be detected.

  • Combined traffic control of irrigation on heterogeneous field
    187-190
    Views:
    171

    In arid areas, such as Hungary, most climate models forecast a rise in water scarcity. Irrigated land accounts for 2% of agricultural land in Hungary, with most irrigation technology being relatively outdated. The aim of this research was to lay the foundation for a combined traffic management system for a water-saving precision irrigation system on an 85-ha field in the Tisza River basin's reference region. High-precision soil maps were created to support the water-efficient variable-rate irrigation system by selecting and selecting areas for different agrotechnical implementations and precision farming zones.

  • Analysis of the Hungarian National Action Plan for Employment in the Framework of RuralJobs International Project
    77-86
    Views:
    71

    Employment and creation of new jobs getting more and more attention both on national and on European level. The examination of this topic is especially important in rural areas of
    Europe. There were several European and national researches dealing with this question, and there are new upcoming works which try to find solutions for citizents to decrease unemployment in rural areas. The RuralJobs, EU Framework 7. project presented in the paper is one of these researches. After a short introduction of RuralJobs and the task under workpackage two of the research, which analysis strategies, policies and programmes from the aspect of rural jobs, one of the documents reviewed under this task, the Hungarian National Action Plan for Employment is presented, in line with the most important stages of the EU’s
    employment policy.

  • Hungary’s employment policy from the point of view joining the European Union
    189-197
    Views:
    61

    What is a place of work? Is it a commitment to work, or continuous pressure under work, or hunting for income? This article is a brief review about the main milestones of the employment history of the European Union and Hungary. In 1989, the Social Charta about the social principles of employee was issued. In 1997 the employment policy became the part of the acquis communautaire. Finally, in 1998, the European
    Employment Strategy was developed, which contains the community employment guidelines. In the year of millennium, the new long term concept of the EU, the Lisbon Strategy was approved. In this document the EU was targeted as the most dynamic and competitive knowledge-based economy in the World till 2010. The Tens joint to the EU in 2004, and a bit later it became clear, that the EU is light-armed against some of the world economy challenges. As a consequence, many objectives of the Strategy could not be reached. Recently member states of the EU have to develop the national action plan for employment year by year. The hungarian plans were developed as well, but the wrong labour market’s parameters haven’t been changed since 2004.