The selenium is an essential trace element with antioxidant effect, constituent of many enzymes, natural component of the body of the animals. The addition to the fish feed as micro element supplementation is generally accepted. Numerous animal experiments veryfied, that the antioxidant effect of the nanoselenium is higher than other selenium f...orms. But no much information is available of the usuage at fish.
In the experiment were investigated the effects of the nanoselenium supplementation of a commercial fish feed were investigated to the production parameters and the body tissue composition. The correlation between the accumulated selenium content of the body and the treatment, and the feed conversation was also statistically analyzed beside the production parameters. Furthermore we were curious, if can be toxic the nanoselenium in higher doses.
The experimental stock was placed into 12 plastic tanks (each 70 l water vol.) in a recirculation system for larval rearing. The salinity and the water temperature was constant during the 8 week long experiment. The feeding was ad libitum, 4 times a day. Beside the control five (1, 1.5, 2.5, 5.5, 10.5 mg Se kg-1) duplicated treatment were set.
According to the results, from the production parameters only at the value of FCR and the survival was found significant difference (p<0.05) between the groups. However strong correlation (r=0.752–0.780, p<0.01) was determined between the treatment and the accumulated selenium levels. To analyzed the free fatty acid contentof the fish, we realized, that the selenium uptake significanly enhanced this level at all treatments. The greatest change was found in case of the type n-3 fatty acids.
Established by the results, the higher intake than 0.5 mg Se kg-1 was not changed significantly the production parameters, nevertheless to increase the selenium content of commercial feeds to 1.5 mg Se kg-1 could be rewarding on the rearing of red drum.
The main goal of this analysis was to determine, whether the production of sweet corn competitive is from the point of view of profitability and identify the main factors determining profitability. The hypothesis of this research was that sweet corn production is profitable and output factors (yields, selling prices) affect most significantly t...he profitability. The total costs of production with irrigation are 560 000 HUF ha-1. Average yield is 18 t ha-1, while selling prices on average of the last 5 years were about 38 000 HUF t-1. The realisable profit in the sector was 248 828 HUF ha-1. Direct cost-related profitability was 48.6% and profit level 26%. Elasticity analysis pointed out that the changes of selling prices and yields affect profitability. The critical value shows the turning point of profitability, which was at the yield of 13.82 t ha-1. It can be concluded, the hypothesis was true, because sweet corn production was profitable compared to other field crops.
Despite new cultivation methods, the proportion of conventionally cultivated land is still very high in Hungary.
Although these technologies demand more time, labour and fuel, they are still attractive to users because they require less professional skill and simple machinery. In Hungary, conventional tillage methods usually lead to soil det
The technologies for those plants which are dominant on Hungarian arable lands use (winter wheat, maize, sunflower and barley) need to be improved both in the interest of environmental protection and the reduction of cultivation costs.
The Department of Land Use at Debrecen University is cooperating with KITE Sc. to carry out soil tillage experiments at two pilot locations to prove tillage technologies already used in the USA.
The aim of our examination is to adapt new technological developments and machinery, and to improve them on Hungarian soil for local environmental conditions. With these improved machines, the field growing of plants could be executed by less manipulation and better suited to economic and environmental needs. The most significant task is to investigate and improve the conventional cultivation replacing, new soil-protecting tillage technologies, and to apply no-till and mulch tillage systems.
On the basis of the experiments’ survey data, we established that the looseness and moisture content of the soil using reduced tillage is more favourable than after using conventional technologies. The results of no-till and shallow spring tillage are behind those of winter plough or disk ripper cultivation in corn yield and production elements.
To preserve moisture content in the soil, the ground clearing and sowing while simultaneously performing no-till method presents the most favourable results. The surplus moisture gained using no-till technology is equal to 40 mm precipitation.
Regarding the yield of winter wheat we established that the tillage methods do not affect plant yield. Both disk ripper and conventional disc cultivation showed nearly the same harvest results (5.55 or 5.5 t/ha), where the difference is statistically hardly verifiable from the no-till method. From the individual production of corn and the number of plants planted in unit area, calculated results prove that no significant difference can be detected between the production of winter plough and disk ripper technology. Although the yield achieved with the no-till method is less than with the previously mentioned technologies, the difference is only 9-10%. We received the lowest production at shallow spring tillage.
Evaluations have shown a 1.1 t/ha (13%) difference in the yield of maize, between winter tillage and the disk ripper method, in this case the traditional method resulted in higher yield. In winter tillage, the yield of maize was 1.9-2.1 t/ha (23-25%) higher than in the case of direct sowing and cultivator treatments. No significant difference could be noted between the yields of direct sowing and cultivator treatments.
Our research so far has proved the industrial application of reduced tillage methods in crop cultivation technologies.
Currently we do not have the possibility to define our energy reserves, since we do not know the magnitude of extant material resources. The known petroleum (crude) supply will be sufficient for about 100 years at the longest, and according to the latest estimates in 2008 we will reach and even exceed the maximum level of oil extraction, and af...ter this it is going to decrease.
Hungary has good givens to go upon the way of sustainable energy economy according to experts, however a coherent government policy that lasts for not just one period is essential, and a sound economic- and agricultural policy is needed as well. According to the FVM’s under-secretary in Hungary more than 1 million hectares can be disposable for energy crop production. This would mean that 20 percent of the fields would be taken away from food production and on these fields energy crops would be grown. But we also have to take into consideration that the increase in energy plant production could happen at the expense of food production. If we would like to ensure the food for Hungary’s population from national sources we have to make calculations in determining energy need. In my research I set out the objective to determine the level of that specific turnover and marginal cost which supports the profitability of grain cultivation. With these indicators it is possible to analyze the economy and competitiveness of growing energy crops in the region of the North Plain. The alternatives of using cereals and rational land use should be also considered. A developing bio-fuel program can be a solution for the deduction of excess grain that is typical in Hungary for several years in the cereals sector. The pressure on the national market caused by excess grain can be ceased or moderated, and therefore the storage problems would decrease as well.
The author summarizes the main new challenges facing animal agriculture: growing GDP in many countries increasing animal protein demand, bioenergy industry as a new player using potential food or feedstuffs, increasing demand, Growing water and land scarcity, weaking the position of plant agriculture, feed production. Forecasts are summarized r...egarding the magnitude of meat consumption increases, and the possible plant biomass quantities required additionally in the next 20 years to cover the needs of food, feed and biofuel on a global scale.
Efficiencies of various animal production sectors, poultry, pork, beef, mutton meat, milk and eggs and their environmental footprints are compared, summarizing the most important research results concerning UK, USA, OECD evaluations. Intensive systems using highly productive plant and animal population will play an even more important role in the future especially in poultry, pig, milk and aquaculture production system being efficient users of resources (feed, water, land) and the environmental foot print is smaller per unit product.
In every economic sector, the enacted and expected quality of the products strongly affects its market entry and subsistence. The aim of management is success, competitiveness and subsistence that require adequate human and material resources and enough production stock. We must also notice that the quality of tools and instruments significantl...y influences work productivity. This applies to both plant production and animal husbandry.
The author researched milk production factors with methodical observation, document analysis and interviews. Data were collected with a ten-year interval, thus this assay can highlight the field, volume and sources of investments during this period and that the production stock increased in most farms and decreased in few. The data also shows the influence of investments on work productivity - there are differences between farms of equal size, so there are still ways of development.
During the last few years, the spread of the silver crucian carp has caused significant problems in pond fish culture. One of the main challenges of successful fish production in fishponds, is to rid ponds of the silver crucian carp. The nature of the damage caused by silver crucian carp is a complex question. To get into the ponds, the crucian... carps occupy the territory before the common carp, and competes for food with common carp. The silver crucian carp has a less favorable food coefficient than the common carp, and it’s value is also lower. Therefore, the income of the fish farm decreases. In the course of the experiment, carp fry were stocked in 5 nursing ponds at the same stocking rate, with different (0,- 50-, 100-, 150-, 200%) stocking rates of silver crucian carp fry, respectively. At the end of the experiment, the yield/hectar and the production values were calculated. The experiment proved that the presence of the silver crucian carp in the fishponds causes lower yields and production values.
The effect and interaction of crop production factors on maize yield has been examined for nearly 40 years at the Látókép Experiment Site of the University of Debrecen in a long-term field experiment that is unique and acknowledged in Europe. The research aim is to evaluate the effect of fertilisation, tillage, genotype, sowing, plant densit...y, crop protection and irrigation. The analysis of the database of the examined period makes it possible to evaluate maize yield, as well as the effect of crop production factors and crop year, as well as the interaction between these factors.
Based on the different tillage methods, it can be concluded that autumn ploughing provides the highest yield, but its effect significantly differed in irrigated and non-irrigated treatments. The periodical application of strip tillage is justified in areas with favourable soil conditions and free from compated layers (e.g. strip – strip – ploughing – loosening). Under conditions prone to drought, but especially in several consecutive years, a plant density of 70–80 thousand crops per hectare should be used in the case of favourable precipitation supply, but 60 thousand crops per hectare should not be exceeded in dry crop years. The yield increasing effect of fertilisation is significant both under non-irrigated and irrigated conditions, but it is much more moderate in the non-irrigated treatment.
Selecting the optimum sowing date is of key importance from the aspect of maize yield, especially in dry crop years. Irrigation is not enough in itself without intensive nutrient management, since it may lead to yield decrease.
The results of research, development and innovation, which are based on the performed long-term field experiment, contribute to the production technological methods which provide an opportunity to use sowing seeds, fertilisers and pesticides in a regionally tailored and differentiated way, adapted to the specific needs of the given plot, as well as to plan each operation and to implement precision maize production.
In synthetic fermentation of lysine (amino-acid) a by-product (Biofert) originates which can be characterized by 6% N-content and other ingredients (vitamins, enzymes, micro-elements etc). In small and large plot experiments Biofert was studied in different agroecological (cropyear, soil), biological (genotypes) and agrotechnical (non-irrigated... and irrigated; N-splitting etc) conditions in order to obtain information about agronomic efficiency and environmental effects of its applications.
Our results proved that Biofert has the same agronomic efficiency as traditional N-fertilizers (applied in equal doses and splitting), but Biofert has economic and environmental advantages (less N-leaching in soils) for maize production. We found a special interaction between N-supply and irrigation. In maize production (irrigation) with the optimum application of nutrient- (N-fertilization, Biofert) and water- supply we could stabilize maize yields at a high level (11.0-14.0 t/ha) fairly independently of agroecological factors. When applying Biofert in autumn, NO3-N leaching was less in 100-200 cm chernozem soil-layers than for applications of traditional N-fertilizer. There were no differences between different maize genotypes concerning the agronomic efficiency of Biofert. In maize production 120-190 kg/ha N (chernozem soil) and 165 kg/ha N (meadow soil) doses of Biofert were the optimum doses in splitting applications (autumn + spring).
In the last few decades a new intensive milking stock has developed as a result of breed-converter crossing in Hungary. Beside this reproduction biology of the population was affected adversely by the keeping-, and feeding technology. Serviceable lifetime has shortened and service period has lenghtened. Whereas profitable milk production needs...cows with longer productive life, larger life-time production. In our work we analysed the productivity-, and reputation parameters of the 200 highest lifetime-productivity cows of Hungary. We found that inheritance has not got important role in the serviceable lifetime. Adaptability and good constitution of Holstein-friesian is proved by the fact that cows with large life-time production are reared in large plants, some of them in large stocks, industrial environment. We found during the analysis of reputation parameters that these prominent cows mostly have deeper body, higher dairy form, higher rear udder, smaller foot angle. We found some weak connection between the milk production and the reputation. Loose correlations between useful material content and some linear traits were found.
The authors carried out an examination on two Saanen goat farms during four months from May to August 2008. The body condition score and milk production of the goats were measured. In data processing analysis of variance was used to compare the data of the studied farms. They tried to find the answer for the question how the body condition scor...es and milk production change in each month. The changes observed in each farm were examined separately then they compared the values of the two farms.. On one of the farms the nutrition was proper therefore with an ideal, intermediate body condition (average 2.73) the goats produced a good amount of milk (2.5 milk-kg/mother/day). On the other farm the nutrition was not proper, therefore the body condition of the goats was weak (average 1.88). Their milk production decreased significantly from month to month (average 2.35 milk-kg/mother/day). The authors could conclude considering both farms that the more milk the goats produced, the lower their body condition score became. The two parameters showed negative correlation.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Durring the 2011 year I was given the possibilty to study in Indiana, USA for 5 months with the help of the Bloomington fellowship, and had the chance to study the bioethanol production in the given state. I focused mainly on the details of corn based dry milling large scale bioethanol production. The dry milling process is a relatively common production mode in the USA. In the coure of my research I tried to compare and to highlite the advantages of the dry milling process contrasted with the wet milling bioethanol production.
Some 80% of the revenues from tobacco production originate from subsidies, therefore the existence of the tobacco industry basically depends on the system of subsidies. According to the current position, in the transitional period of introduction of the CAP reform (from 2006 to 2009) at least 40% of tobacco premiums shall be decoupled from the...production, while the tobacco producing member states may decide to continue to pay the remaining 60% (or a less rate, depending on the rate of decoupling) in a coupled form. Tobacco premiums shall be fully decoupled as from the 2010 crop, however farmers will be eligible only for 50% of the subsidies, and the rest 50% shall be used for subsidising rural developments in tobacco producing regions (Radóczné, 2007).
This change affects the section very seriously. In EU-15 member states this system was introduced in 2006, which resulted in giving up tobacco growing by high percentage of the farmers (70-80% reduction of tobacco production in Greece and Belgium, and 45% reduction in Portugal). In Hungary – due to the small scale of the tobacco section – this rate reduction in production would jeopardise the existence of the section, therefore we are interested in maintaining the existing system of coupled subsidies to as a large extent and for as long time as possible.
This study shows the possibility of tobacco sector before and after introducing the changes in the system of subsidies, and formulates the most serious problems and roles of the sector.
This paper presents the basic elements of maize production technology in Serbia. For their good knowledge, it is necessary to be familiar with the basic biological requirements of the species, phenology and its particular requirements for water, heat, soil conditions and mineral nutrition. A special emphasis in this paper is given to recent res...earch by the author regarding the correction of production technology (selection of hybrids, time and density of sowing, etc.) from the aspect of knowing the weather conditions of the year to the moment of sowing and the amount and position of available nitrogen in the soil profile during the spring before sowing. In the light of predicted climate change conditions for the Republic of Serbia, the authors of this paper have proposed and appropriated adaptation measures. The general conclusion is that there are no general recipes for the correct production technology of this plant species, but should be adapted to each specific year, field and hybrid.
The objective of this research was to test the influence of various natural substances on acid production, growth, and viability of characteristic microorganisms in yogurt and probiotic fermented dairy foods. Oligofructose, inulin, honey, and the dried biomass of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis were found to stimulate the growth rate and acid... production activity of the major thermophilic diary cultures tested and, in addition to this, the presence of the aforementioned substrates also improved the survival of starter bacteria in fermented milk products during storage. The reduced production time of cultured milks resulted in increased production efficiency. The stimulatory and/or protective effect of oligofructose,
inulin, honey, and Spirulina on Bifidobacterium spp. is probably the most important finding of this study because bifidobacteria do not grow well in milk and they have low survival rates in conventional fermented milks. Some of the bioactive substances tested were also capable of exerting an antifungal effect on spoilage yeasts and molds, and improving the nutritional and sensory properties of the final product, thus providing a new opportunity for manufacture of functional fermented dairy foods.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The sweet sorghum is a perspective plant of bioenergy, which can be the foundation of Hungarian bioethanol production in the future. By the examination six sweet sorghum hybrids have been examinated by the viewpoint of sugar aggregation and bioethanol production capacity. The founda tion of the surve y was three growing se ason (201 0, 2011, 2012 ). The ex per ime nt w as on the production sites of U niversity of Debrecen CAAES RISF Karcag Research Institute. The production site of the sweet sorghum have been sampled by samples of 1 m2 by hybrids within the period of august 15 and november 15. The sugar content of the samples have been measured by refractometer which was the base in the determination of ethanol production capacity.
The produced plants reduce the greenhouse effect because they fix CO2 that contributes to the causing of the greenhouse effect with about 50%. The production of fertilizers is not only a costly process but it needs a considerable energy at the same time. Nowadays, the reduction of the proportion of the fertilizer is significant. One...of the reasons of this is that during the production such by-products are produced in a big quantity in which the necessary vegetal nutrients can be found in a considerable measure these enrich the organic matter of soil. The latter is essential condition for the microorganisms in the soil, without which the sustainable plant cultivation can not be achieved. Besides high prices of artificial fertilizers the utilization of the wastes is economically justified. Finally the other reason for the reduction of a usage of artificial fertilizer is that the wrong use of the fertilizer may cause environmental pollutions. I examined the cultivation application of the sewage sludge in laboratory circumstances during my work.
The development and implementation of precision agriculture or site-specific farming has been made possible by combining the Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Site specific agronomic applications are of high importance concerning the efficiency of management in crop production as well as the protectio...n and maintenance of environment and nature. Precision crop production management techniques were applied at four locations to evaluate their impact on small plot units sown by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) in a Hungarian national case study. The results obtained suggest the applicability of the site specific management techniques, however the crops studied responded in a different way concerning the impact of applications. Maize had a stronger response regarding grain yield and weed canopy. Wheat was responding better than maize concerning plant density and protein content performance.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The aim of this study was to define the connection between the leptin (LEP) gene T3469C polymorphism and its potential association with production traits in improved hybrid pigs. The study included data from 397 gilts and barrows from 2 different sample. The polymorphism was identified by using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) method with HinfI restriction enzyme. Two alleles of LEP gene were identified: T (0.93) an C (0.07). The analysis of values of production traits, depending on LEP genotype did not reveal significant (P≤0.05) differences. In the examination the loin diameter (between the 2nd and 3rd ribs), the live weight at slaughter and the averege daily gain during fattening were higher at pigs with C allele than pigs with TT genotipe. Accordingt to our data the effect of C allele was favourable in this population, because these animals had bigger bodyweight without valuable change of lean meat percent.
The concept of precision agriculture is straightforward at the scientific level but even basic goals are blurred at the level of everyday practice in the Hungarian crop production despite the fact that several elements of the new technology have already been applied. The industrial and the service sectors offer many products and services to the... farmers but crop producers do not get enough support to choose between different alternatives. Agricultural higher education must deliver this support directly to the farmers and via the released young graduates. The price of agricultural land must be higher if well-organized data underpin the production potential of the fields. Accumulated database is a form of capital. It must be owned by the farmers but in a data-driven economy its sharing will generate value for both farmers and the society as a whole.
We present a methodological approach in which simple models were applied to predict yield by using only those yield data which spatially coincide with the soil data and the remaining yield data and the models were used to test different sampling and interpolation approaches commonly applied in precision agriculture. Three strategies for composite sample collection and three interpolation methods were compared. Multiple regression models were developed to predict yields. R2 values were used to select among the applied methods.
The domestication of choice broadening, special vegetable species offers new market possibilities in Hungary. The production of artichokes has good perspectives due to its high protein, vitamin and mineral contents and its wide usability. According to the literature, in Hungary it is worth examining the annual production technology, which has y...et to be researched in our country. The basic aim of our work was to establish the annual production of artichoke in Hungary with scientific research.
In the experiment, 5 Italian sorts (Valetta di Roma, Gobbo di Nizza, Violetto di Romagna, Violetto S. Francesino and Precoce di Romagna), 1 American sort (Green Globe) and 1 Egyptian sort (Balady) were used. For one half of the plants, we tried to bring on bud-production appearing in the first year only with early planting, while we used also a gibberellic acid hormone treatment for the other half.
Only the sort Green Globe had yields in appropriate quantity (21.4 t/ha) and quality. The low yield and inequable quality of buds of the Italian and Egyptian sorts refers to the fact that these sorts are not applicable for annual production in Hungary. Although the gibberellic acid treatment resulted an earlier harvest, increased the equality of buds and increased the proportion of stems producing buds except for the sort Green Globe, overall it did not have a positive effect. The hormone treatment fastened the physiological processes of the plants, thereby it induced early insenescence and lignifying of the buds. The high temperatures during the bud-formation period largely increased the ratio of flabby, over-blowing buds, so the planting must be timed in the future that the harvest period is in early automn or late spring, early summer months.
According to our results, globe artichoke can become a perspective culture by applying cold-resistant sorts with short growing seasons, which can be produced as annual crops without hormone treatment by the appropriate timing of bud-formation.
Although sheep breeding in Hungary is grounded in strong traditions, its activities only comprise 1% of the total production value generated from agriculture, and 2% of that for animal-based products. The most significant portion of incomes earned in the Hungarian sheep sector has, for years now, stemmed from the sale of live animals. The secto...r is decidedly export-oriented, as the domestic demand for its main product, i.e. lamb meat, and is minimal, equaling some 20-30dkg per person per year. Part of the sold animals is sold to market as dairy sheep, while the greater
part is sold in the category of lamb carcasses. For this reason, the average weight of slaughter sheep has lied between 19-22 kg for years now. The target markets for live lamb sales are predominately Italy and Greece. In Greece, movement on this market has shown an upward tendency in recent years; noteworthy are also sales to Austria, Holland, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Poland. In 2003, we exported sheep meat in the form of carcasses to Italy, as well as to Germany, and of these exports, 94% went to Italy, while the remaining 6% went to Germany.
Among sheep products, only the trade balance for live animal sales is positive. But even for such producers, only those who are specialized in intensive breeding and those sheep farms “targeting” meat production can obtain earnings. Specialized literature on the sector argues that the quality of Hungarian lamb has diminished dramatically and is beginning to lose its market position. If Hungarian lamb does not meet market expectations, then it will only be bought from producers at lower prices.
My research focuses on those factors which influence price. I separately discuss the question of quality, as one of the most important decisive factors on price. Within this discussion, I describe the market expectations which actually have an effect on the acceptance of live animals for sale on commission. In practice, after the problems of quality, the next most important question is that of when sale is made. In the course of my research, I studied the development of averages for sales on commission of live lambs using statistical methods. The most important problem of this sector is the hierarchical system used in sales: this is the topic hich neither the producer, nor the buyer, wish to discuss, not even with each other. On the basis of the information at my disposal, I outlined the levels of traders and individual levels used to arrive at commission prices. Finally, I examined the components of the production value of live lamb sales. The results I obtained quantified the key role of the prices and the yield, as well as the factors influencing income.
For industrial (bioethanol) production of maize, a new production technology is needed. I tested and selected hybrids appropriate for this purpose and set up fertilization and plant density experiments. The experiment were set up on chernozem soil in 2008.
In bioethanol production, the selection of a high-yielding hybrid with high starch con
The overall objectives of our research program are to examine and to develop the possibilities of use and to expand the national production technology of sweet potato. In 2016, we have set up production technology experiments in many regions, from which we report the results of the experimental field in Deszk here. In our field experiments we o...btained results of planting material production, planting and nutrition optimization of sweet potato. Rating the effects of different nutrition doses, between the averages of treatment we didn't experience any significant differencies. On hard soil we set up experimental plots with or without ridges. Based on the result of the harvest the production technology without ridges proved to be more effective. The transplants originating from cuttings from shoots or from tubers did not show significant differences, but it does matter how many tons of sweet potato tubers we harvest per hectare.
In our experiments we tried to find correlation between the age and the body condition of milking goats. We found that these factors significantly incluence the economic parameters of the goats; they have effect on their milk production and reproduction as well. Body condition is the lowest in case of the 3-5-year-old goats, whereas it is the h...ighest in case of the 1-2-year-old. The highest number of kids (2.5) are produced by the 3-5-year-old, while the 1-2-year-old have the fewest kids. Lactation milk production is the highest in case of the 4-5-year-old animals, the lowest in the 1-2-year-old. The lactation period is the longest in case of the 3-4-year old animals in contrast to the younger. The difference is significant in each experiment.