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  • Alternatives of sewage sludge use in the crop production
    83-87
    Views:
    103

    The produced plants reduce the greenhouse effect because they fix CO2 that contributes to the causing of the greenhouse effect with about 50%. The production of fertilizers is not only a costly process but it needs a considerable energy at the same time. Nowadays, the reduction of the proportion of the fertilizer is significant. One of the reasons of this is that during the production such by-products are produced in a big quantity in which the necessary vegetal nutrients can be found in a considerable measure these enrich the organic matter of soil. The latter is essential condition for the microorganisms in the soil, without which the sustainable plant cultivation can not be achieved. Besides high prices of artificial fertilizers the utilization of the wastes is economically justified. Finally the other reason for the reduction of a usage of artificial fertilizer is that the wrong use of the fertilizer may cause environmental pollutions. I examined the cultivation application of the sewage sludge in laboratory circumstances during my work.

  • Physiological examination of some industrial wastes under laboratory conditions
    241-246
    Views:
    221

    I would like to draw the attention to the different side-products and wastes that contain lots of organic matter, micro and macro elements, and the fact that they do not have any harmful effect. These materials can be used as micronutrient fertilizers, therefore quantity of the produced CO2 and other greenhouse gases will decrease. Compost, sewage sludge and lime sludge were used in our experiments. The usability of these materials in crop production was examined in crop production within laboratory conditions.

  • Possible alternatives in crop nutrition
    109-112
    Views:
    92

    The protection of the environment is our common task. All pollution that exposes our soils, plants or the environment – as taken in any proper or extended sense – will appear sooner or later in the food chain and in human beings who are on the top of the food-chain pyramid. The aim of our work is to give a brief overview of the effects of selected industrial wastes on the physiological parameters of corn plants. Sewage sludge and lime sludge were examined. These materials contain lots of useful element for plants (e.g. iron, phosphorus, potassium, zinc). However, their aluminum, chrome and lithium contents are also considerable. The element contents in sewage sludge and the filtrates of lime sludge, as well as the dry matter accumulation and relative chlorophyll contents, were measured. The disadvantageous and advantageous physiological effects of the examined materials were confirmed. The compensation effect of the environment is excluded; however, the neutralization of environmental impacts is not infinite under natural circumstances.

  • Investigation of the impacts of the by-product of sewage treatment on some characteristics of maize in the early growth stage
    77-82
    Views:
    32

    The use of sewage sludge on arable land has been widespread for many years. This by-product, treated as waste, can provide valuable nutrients to the soil, but the applied amount of sewage sludge to arable land is limited. The possibility of application of sewage sludge is essentially determined by the composition of the sludge. The goal of the experiment was to demonstrate that the physiological, morphological, and biochemical parameters of maize (Zea mays L. cv. Armagnac) linearly change with increasing concentrations of sewage sludge (25%, 50%, and 75% as m/m%). The experiment was set up in a glasshouse. The following parameters were investigated: plant height, relative chlorophyll content, photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, carotenoids), and leaf proline and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and PS II quantum efficiency in the 3-leaf stages of the plants. Sewage sludge applied in lower doses had a beneficial effect on the initial growth of maize. The relative chlorophyll content was significantly higher in all treatments compared to the control. There was no significant difference in the maximum quantum efficiency of PS II reaction centers among the treatments. In this experiment, different concentrations of sewage sludge treatments had different impacts on the MDA and proline content of maize leaves. The proline content was significantly higher in all treatments, while the MDA content did not change significantly compared to the control.

  • Examination of the decomposition of willow (Salix sp.), poplar (Populus sp.), reed (Phragmites australis) and mixed leaf litter with litterbag technique
    111-115
    Views:
    70

    Leaf litter decomposition is one of the main ecological material cycle processes in waterfront areas. In this microcosm experiment, the rate of decomposition of the most frequently occurring dominant waterside plants were examined in the summer months of 2022 in a class “A” evaporation pan, using litterbag technique. The study provides information about the decomposition dynamics of willow (Salix sp.), poplar (Populus sp.), reed (Phragmites australis) and different leaf litter mixture combinations. Dry mass, exponential decay coefficient and the chemical parameters of the water (pH, conductivity, NH4+, PO43-, SO42-) were determined during the 84 days long experimental period. The weight loss curves showed negative exponential pattern in every case. On average, the different samples lost ~ 57% of their initial dry mass during the experimental period. The largest mass loss was measured in case of poplar (67.2%), while reed leaves had the smallest mass loss (47.25%). Based on the results, it cannot be proven, that mixed leaf litter accelerates the rate of decomposition.

  • Development of seed analyses by means of various matrix solutions and the MALDI-TOF MS technique
    53-57
    Views:
    271

    The earth's population is growing steadily, currently accounting for about 7.3 billion people. Population growth causes food demand to rise, approximately 36 million people die each year due to starvation or related diseases. One solution to this problem is the continuous examination and development of the agricultural economy. In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI -TOF MS) were used to analyse of sunflower, soybean and hemp. In order to analyse the protein of maize, this method has already been applied. However, for sunflower, soy and hemp, it is necessary to develop a sample preparation method. Choosing the optimal matrix solution for ionization the traget molecule is an essential part of developing the method. Our aim is to compare two different matrix solutions (α-HCCA, SA matrix), based on the properties (intensity, noise ratio, value of spectra) of the spectra.