No 50 (2012)

Published December 16, 2012

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Articles

Effect of selenium supplement on proteome of chicken liver
9-13

The aims of the present study were to optimize a two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method to chicken liver proteome and to determine the changes of protein expression caused by selenium. Twelve broiler chicken were used in this experiment. The selenium intake was 0,2 mg/kg in the control group (6 chicken) and 4,25 mg/kg in the ...experimental group (6 chicken). Using the optimized proteomic approach, we have succesfully separated 747 proteins in the experimental group and 741 proteins in the control group. We found six proteins, wich expressed only in the samples of experimental group. Further investigations need to determine these six proteins with mass spectrometry (MS) and look for the correlation between the physiological effects of selenium and the expression of these proteins.

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Age of puberty and conception rates of Hungarian Merino, (Merino x Somali) F1 and (Merino x Barbados Blackbelly) F1 ewes
15-19

The aim of our examination was to detect the puberty of the Hungarian Merino and its hairsheep crossbred ewes, and also to determine their average conception rates after having ram exposed in May and June. Hormon diagnostation was used to evaluate the exact date of the very first ovulation. Ultrasound technique was used for checking the concept...ion rates of ewes. The pregnancy detection was applied after a month of the date of taking off the ram.
We evaluated the ages of ewes at puberty. Statistical deviation and standard error were calculated. The results proved the Hungarian Merino x Somali (N=10), ((x ± s) = 173 ± 43) and also the Hungarian Merino x Barbados Blackbelly crossbred genotypes (N=7), ((x ± s) = 186 ± 19) have their puberty much earlier as compared to the fullbred Hungarian Merino ewes (N=10), ((x ± s) = 231 ± 95). We experienced the highest conception rate in the group of the (Hungarian Merino x Somali) F1 ewes after exposing the ram in the „out-of season” period of time.

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Investigation of the effects of biggame-preserves on forests with different species composition
21-24

Hungary is well known for its high level game management. In order to develop a concentrated and more profitable gamemanagement new game preserves were established in the last few years. According to the law, in the game-preserves the game bearing capacity is not the most important parameter, because in these areas the feeding is continuous. In... practice it means that in gamepreserves we find a much higher density of games than in nature. This causes a relative big loading of the area (of the herbaceous and arboreal), where the game-preserves are located.
Our aim is to study the ecological and management issues of forest- and game resources. The scene of these work is a gamepreserves related to the Nyírerdő Corporation (Nyíregyháza). We made forest structure survey to determine the main stand-forming tree species in the area of the game preserves as well as to estimate the number of the measuring points.

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Some Variable Traits of Broiler Genotypes
25-30

One the most effective ways to satisfy the requirements of mankind for food of animal origin is the fattening of chicken. Healthy and cheap meat with low fat and high protein content can be produced rapidly and in large quantities by broilers with low feed consumption. This paper presents the production results and carcass traits of three genot...ypes (Ross 308, Cobb 500, Ross broiler parent) females and males at the age of 42 days.
In both sexes, we found that the average body weight of the Ross parents genotype was higher (females: 2643 g; males: 3089 g) than the
average body weight of the other two hybrids – significant difference was found only between pullets. However, the smallest difference in the
average body weight between the two sexes (446 g) was found in this genotype. In both sexes, the lowest average weight was detectable in
the case of the Cobb 500 hybrids (females: 2443 g; males: 3052 g).The feed consumption ability of the females were worse – in all but one
case (Ross pullet) – than that of the males. For one kg of weight gain - in the order of genotypes – 1.79kg, 2.08kg and 2.08 kg of feed was
used. The same values for the males were as follows: 1.81kg, 1.80kg and 1.89 kg, respectively.
Carcass traits were examined and it was found that the average grillfertig weight, the weight of whole thigh meat and thigh meat of the
Ross parents’ genotype was higher than the average weight of the other two hybrids. Significant difference was found only in grillfertig- and
whole thigh meat weight. Pullets of the Ross parents’ paternal line had worse results in the average weight of breast meat with bone and
breast meat fillet than the other two genotypes. In the case of cocks was detectable the inverse of this: the average weight of breast meat with
bone was the highest in the cocks of the Ross parents’ maternal line.

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Analysis of vitamin E content in pilot dairy products
31-34

Within the framework of Ányos Jedlik program we started an experiment on feeding anti-oxidants with dairy cows at Körös-Maros Biofarm Kft. The purpose of the experiment was to test whether vitamin E and selenium fed as feed-supplement have an effect on the composition of milk produced. Furthermore we examined the cheese and yoghurt made out ...of the milk to explore how much vitamin E and selenium is retained in the products after processing. Our goal is to develop such functional dairy product which can be part of the daily diet helping us to remain healthy.
After analyzing the data we found out that the anti-oxidant fed to the cows resulted in elevated vitamin E and selenium levels in the milk and that these were retained in the cheese and yoghurt in relatively large amount.

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Nest-site selection of Hooded Crow (Corvus cornix) in urban environment
35-39

In the past decade Hooded Crows showed a significant growth in Debrecen. The aim of this study was to become acquainted with Hooded Crows nest-site selection in urban circumstances. The research revealed that Hooded Crows are not choosy when it comes to selecting the species of the trees, but we noticed differences regarding nesting height - Ho...oded Crows living in the city build their nests in higher regions than those living in places outside Debrecen. We discovered a significant difference between nesting heights and the tree species, which is probably due to the different characteristics shown by the given tree species. As for nesting heights, we found that in typical urban habitats there were no relevant differences shown. Samet the situation, when we compared these habitats in pairs, it came to light that nesting heights - when comparing lonely trees - wood segments and tree raws – wood segments - did not show significant differences too, which can be explained by the various conditions provided by the habitats mentioned.
To sum up, during our research the following results emerged:
1. Hooded Crows prefer approximately the same nesting heights in all kinds of habitats, urban environment and tree species.
2. Nesting height depends on the tree species but independent from habitat.

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Investigation of the heat shock gene Hsp70 polymorphism in different sheep genotypes
41-45

Nowadays the climate change has an increasing effect on the animals. The warming climate brings up several problems on the area of the animal husbandry, which ones are really important. From the first time the living beings have defensive mechanisms against the heat shock. In current examination we use– from Hungary and from other countries c...ollected –samples of sheep breeds, which are living on different climate. Our fundamental assumption was, that the animals living on other climate adapted to the changes of the environment and there are differeces in their genetic background. These fixed mutations we are looking for in the HSP70 heat shock gene, but we haven’t found any polymorphism yet. We are going to involve further breeds and more individuals in the investigations.

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Study of animal welfare status in dairy cow herds in Hungary – looking for causes of lameness
47-50

In the last 20–30 years lameness in cattle was found to be third the most influential disease next to mastitis and reproduction disorders. Studies have been established to explore reasons for lameness and prevention. The problem with more robust prevention plans is that knowledge and research evidence is not strong enough to run an effective ...prevention plan. The aim of the research is to look for reasons of lameness by observing number of cows on 6 farms during 2 lactations. Performance data will be put together to body condition score (BCS) and lameness scores. Other examination is focused on monitoring of 40 farms. This part of the project is more related to extension, collecting and sharing solutions for decreasing lameness. Producers are advised what kind of measures are possible to reduce occurrence of lameness. Effectiveness of those actions will be measured at the end of the study. The first preliminary results show lack in almost all preventive measures needed to be taken in minimising lameness. Those areas are related to poor facilities, lack of straw, problems with labour and basic management.

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Inner pelvic measurements in dairy breeds
51-56

Dystocia causes great financial losses: due to dystocia milk production is decreased and the probability of calf loss is increased. There are many factors that may cause dystocia. One of the factors –often investigated in beef cattle- is pelvic measurements. There have not been inner pelvic measurement comparisons in dairy breeds in Hungary.&...nbsp;
After comparing the imported, primiparous cows, Jersey turned out to have the smallest absolute inner pelvic measures. According to their age and weight, Brown Swiss cows had the largest pelvic dimensions. Ayrshires, Norwegian and Swedish Red, the three dairy breeds which share similar genetic background did not differ in most measures. Holsteins were closest to the seemingly ideal 1:1 horizontal and vertical diameter ratio; however this breed suffers the most from dystocia. Jerseys, despite having the smallest pelvic area are famous of their calving ease, perhaps not by coincidence. Though this dairy breed is the lightest, when pelvic area was compared in ratio of body weight Jerseys were not smaller than the 130 and 114 kg heavier Norwegian and Swedish Red cows.

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Optimization of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer parameter’s to measuring arsenic and selenium
59-64

In the last decades an increased interest has been evolved about arsenic and selenium. The aim is to understand the environmental, agricultural and biological role of the these elements. In case of arsenic the mayor reasons are the relatively high concentration of arsenic in marine biota (mg kg-1) and the arsenic contaminated drinkin...g waterbases of some Asian countries besides Hungary. The toxicity of higher level selenium content is also known, nevertheless selenium is essential for some biological functions. Considering its esssentiality, in our country the insufficient selenium intake rate couse lack of selenium. Measuring the concentrations of these elements are cruital but not satisfactory information, but the speciation, that is the form of an element presented in a sample is also required. 
In both cases the most suitable method to determine concentration is the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrimetry. My objective was to optimase the changeable parameters of the ICP-MS for reaching the lowest (the best) detection limit. For this porpuse I have investigated the effect of parameter change on nett signal intensity and relative signal intensity. With the optimased parameter settings the limit of detection for arsenic and selenium were determined, which are 0,032 ng cm-3 for arsenic, and 0,097 ng cm-3 for
selenium.

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The effect of apoplastic pH on the nutrient uptake
65-71

The pH of soil and rhizosphare –around the roots- determine the mobility and solubility of nutrients. The exudates organic acids of plant able to modify the pH, as well as the microorganisms also take part in mobilization of nutrients. The nutrient solve mostly in mildly acidic and neutral pH. The either assumption of utilization of nutrients... is the uptake by roots and of course uptake to the cells to take part in metabolism. The pH of apoplast fluid determines the solubility and uptake of nutrients to the cells.
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of nutrient solution and apoplastic pH together with a bacteria based biofertiliser (Phylazonit MC®) on nutrient uptake and pH of apoplast fluid in case of nutrient solution grown plants in laboratory experiment. According to my results, the bicarbonate increased the pH of nutrient solution in due to influence the solubility and uptake of nutrients. The given bicarbonate to the nutrient solution and infiltrated into the apoplazma also modified the pH of the apoplast fluid of the test plants. The effect of bicarbonate and biofertilizer were different on the pH of the apoplast fluid and nutrient solution in nutrient solution experiment. 

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The effect of long-term fertilization on the 0.01 M CaCl2 extractable nutrient content of a meadow soil
73-79

During my research, I studied the 0.01 M CaCl2 extractable NO3--N, NH4+-N, Norg, P and K contents of the soil samples originated from a long term fertilisation trial in the experimental site Hajdúböszörmény. Relationships among the soil nutrient contents, the agronomic nutrient balances... of the 2009 year, and fertilization were studied. 
From the results of the study it was concluded as follows:
– Fertilization significantly increased the CaCl2 extractable NO3--N, NH4+-N, and K contents of soil.
– Norg fraction increased as a function of the increasing yield. Hence, it can be assumed that the greater the produced yield, the more the stubble and root residues remain on the arable land. These organic residues can result significant increase in the Norg content of soils.
– The CaCl2 extractable P and K contents were compared with the calculated P and K limit values. According to these, the experimental soil has a good phosphorus and lower potassium supply capacity. These results are in accordance with the results of the conventional Hungarian fertilization recommendation system.
– It can be stated that the 0.01 M CaCl2 is able to determine not just inorganic N forms but Norg fraction as well that characterize the easily mineralizable nitrogen reserves. The results proved that AL-P and -K (ammonium lactate acetic acid, traditional Hungarian extractant) are in good agreement with the P and K reserves, but it is important from the aspect of environmental protection and plant nutrition to measure the easily soluble and exchangeable K-, and P-contents of soil. 0.01 M CaCl2 method is recommended for this.

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Molybdenum - accumulation dynamics of cereals on calcareous chernozem soil
81-85

This work is about the molybdenum-accumulation of cereals analyzing soil and plant samples from a field experiment set in
Nagyhörcsök by Kádár et al. in 1991.
In this long-term field experiment different levels of soil contamination conditions are simulated. Soil and plant samples were collected
from the experiment station to study... the behaviour of molybdenum.
In this report results of maize, winter wheat, winter barley and soil analysis are presented. The conclusions are as follows:
– Analysing soil samples from 1991 we have found that roughly half of the molybdenum dose applied is in the form of NH4-acetate+EDTA soluble
– Comparing element content of grain and leaf samples we have experienced that molybdenum accumulation is more considerable in the  vegetative plant parts
– Winter wheat accumulated less molybdenum then maize in its vegetative parts. Comparing molybdenum content of winter wheat to winter barley we found that the concentration of the element in wheat was lower by half than in the winter barley. It seemed that molybdenum accumulated to the least degree in winter wheat.

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Comparison of macroelement and microelement contents of conventionally and organically grown crops
87-92

Nowedays one of the most important issues to discuss is the healthy nutrition: feeding our bodies with high quality nutrients, which is free of chemical residues. The demand for healthy and nutritious food is increasing worldwide, that results in the growing popularity of consumption of organic food. Several studies dealing with the nutrient co...ntent of traditional and organic food have been published lately, since it became clear that eating food contaminated with chemical residues damage to health, food and the environment. Therefore it would be desirable to find out if organic food is really superior to conventional one. In our study we analyzed the dry matter, ash, macroelement and trace element content of organically and conventionally grown crops (carrot root, potato tuber and parsnip). Our results provide further information to consumers about the nutritional value of organic and conventional crops.

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The effect of different bacterial fertilizers on the AL-soluble P2O5 content of soil, and the biomass of the rye-grass (Lolium perenne, L)
93-98

In pot experiment the effect of different bacterial fertilizers on some soil properties, and the amount of plant biomass were studied. The
experiment was set up in 2010 at the Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, in a three replications in a random block design. The ryegrass (Lolium perenne, L.) was used as a test plan...t. The studied soil type was calcareous chernosem soil from Látókép. In our laboratory AL-soluble P2O5 content of soil, the phosphatase enzyme activityof soil, the dry weight of rye-grass, and the phosphorus content of rye-grass were determined.
The results of the study were the following:
– The bacterial fertilizers - by basic treatments NPK - had significant positive effect on the AL- soluble phosphorus content of the soil.
– The soil phosphatase enzyme activity was increased in all cases strongly by the microbial preparations used, the greatest impact was the Bactofil A bacterial fertilizer.
– The plant educed P values significantly increased by the effect of microbial products, in addition to the fund NPK. In this case, the EM-1 and Microbion UNC bacterial fertilizer were the effective.
– In case of the rye-grass biomass none of the bacterial preparations used caused any significant changes, either alone or when used them with straw treatment.

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Examination of wheat rheological characteristics by near-infrared spectroscopy
99-104

Near-infrared spectroscopy has many advantages that make it a widely used analitical method in the different areas, like agricultural and food industry as well. In wheat quality control rheological characteristics of dough made from wheat flour are as important as physical and chemical properties too. In this work we examined rheological proper...ties of wheat flour samples by alveograph, and spectral data of the same samples were collected by FOSS Infratec 1241 instrument. Modified partial least squares analyses on NIR spectra were developed for two alveograph parameter (P/L és W) to get calibration equations.

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Effects of the cropyear and the agronomical factors on agronomical elements of different sweet corn (Zea Mays L. convar. saccharata Koern.) genotypes in long-term experiment
105-110

In the crop season of 2010 (rainy year), we studied the effect of three agrotechnical factors (sowing time, fertilization, plant density) and four different genotypes on the agronomical characteristics of sweet corn on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság. The experiments were carried out at the Látókép Experimental Farm of the University of Deb...recen. In the experiment, two sowing dates (27 April, 26 May), six fertilization levels (control, N30+PK, N60+PK, N90+PK, N120+PK, N150+PK) and four genotypes (Jumbo, Enterprise, Prelude, Box-R) were used at two plant densities (45 thousand plants ha-1, 65 thousand plants ha-1). The amount of precipitation in the season of 2010 was 184 mm higher, while the average temperature was 0.8 oC higher in the studied months than the average of 30 years. Weather was more favourable for sweet maize at the first sowing date, if we consider the yields, however, if we evaluate the agronomical data and yield elements (number of cobs, cob length and diameter, the number of kernel rows, the number of kernels per row) it can be stated that the size of the fertile cobs was greater at the second sowing date due to the lower number of cobs. The largest number of fertile cobs was harvested in the case of the hybrid Enterprise (72367.9 ha-1) in the higher plant density treatment (65 thousand ha-1) at the fertilization level of N120+PK when the first sowing date was applied. The largest cobs were harvested from the hybrid Box-R (cob weight with husks: 516.7 g, number of kernels in one row: 45.7) at the lower plant density (45 thousand plants ha-1) in the second sowing date treatment. Cob diameter and the number of kernel rows were the highest for the hybrid Prelude.

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Environment-friendly nutrient supply in the area of NYÍRERDŐ Zrt
111-116

The widespread realization of environmental friendly management is an important segment of seeking sustainable technological and
technical solutions. The methods ensuring sustainable development by exploiting natural facilities have great significance. Bacteria-based
biofertilizers and wood ash are good examples of them. Using bacteria-ba...sed biofertilizer means a kind of biofertilization that is using the
possibilities provided by the ecosystem.

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Methods for detention of lipid rancidity
117-120

There are various methods available for measurement of lipid oxidation in foods.Changes in chemical, physical, or organoleptic properties of fats and oils during oxidation may be monitored to assess the extent of lipid oxidation. However, there is no uniform and standard method for detecting all oxidative changes in all food systems. The availa...ble methods to monitor lipid oxidation in foods and biological systems may be divided into two groups. The first group measures primary oxidative changes and the second determines secondary changes that occur in each system.

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Effect of molybdenum treatment on the element uptake of plants in a long-term experiment
121-125

Molybdenum as a constituent of several inmportant enzymes is an essential micorelement. It can be found in all kind of food naturally at low level, however, environmental pollution, from natural or anthropogenic sources, can lead to high level of the metal in plants. Our study is based on the long-term field experiments of Nagyhörcsök, where ...different levels of soil contamination conditions are simulated. Plant samples were collected from the experiment station to study the behaviour of elements: uptake by and transport within the plants, accumulation in different organs, phytotoxicity and effects on the quantity and quality of the crop.
In this work we present the effect of molybdenum treatment on the uptake of other elements. Molybdenum is proved to be in an antagonist relationship with copper and sulphur, while molybdenum-phosphorus is a synergist interaction.
However, in most of the plants we studied increasing molybdenum-treatment enhanced cadmium-uptake. We have found the most significant cadmium-accumulation in the case of pea, spinach and red beet.

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The effect of increasing compost rates on the yield and nutrient content of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)
127-134

Satisfaction of the increasing needs of humanity causes large environmental load. To provide a livable environment for future generations we have to satisfy our needs with the use of sustainable management. This is one of the biggest challenges of nowadays.
The amount of wastes emitted in increasing volume can be decreased by the recycling o...f them. The disposal of waste materials formed in the public spaces of cities and during the processing of agricultural row materials and by-products in landfills is inconceivable, so they must be recycled.
These materials mostly with organic compounds could be the primary substrates of composts. Completed with suitable additives, and applied appropriate treating technology, composts are capable to supply horticultural plants with nutrients. Composting wastes and byproducts not just decreases the amounts of deposited waste materials, but increases the nutrient (macro- and micronutrients) content of soils, so this is an  environmentally friendly and alternative way of nutrient management of plants.

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Stability analysis of different winter wheat genotypes in long-term experiment
135-141

Nowadays, due to the climate change, it is becoming increasingly important in the occasionally extreme years that the yield and the quality
parameters of a given winter wheat variety should not fluctuate at all or only slightly under similar agrotechnical conditions as a result of the year effect. In four years (2005–2008) we studied the c...hanges in the wet gluten content, gluten speading and protein content of five wheat genotypes at six fertilization levels.
In the control, it can be observed that the year had a significant effect on the wet gluten content, the protein content of the flour and gluten speading, therefore, a great fluctuation was detected in these qualities of the varieties in the four studied years. At the optimum fertilization levels (N120-150+PK), the varieties Sixtus, Saturus and Lupus showed a much lower fluctuation and more stable values were measured. The most stable variety in the control treatment was Mv Mazurka for all the three quality parameters, while at the optimum fertilization level (N120+PK), the most stable results were obtained for the variety Sixtus as an average of the four years.
When studying the results using Kang’s method for stability analysis, it can be stated that the most stable values of wet gluten content were obtained at the fertilization level of N120+PK under a variable year effect, the varieties gave also the best gluten content values at this level. The most stable protein content values of flour were obtained at the fertilization level of N60+PK. The results showed that the fluctuation of quality parameters as a result of the changing years differed between the different winter wheat varieties due to their differing genotypes, but this fluctuation could be reduced or minimized by a proper fertilization. 

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Effect of two different cropyear and the agrotechnological factors on the agronomic characteristic of the winter weat in a lon-term experiment
143-149

We studied the effects of crop rotation, fertilization and crop protection technologies on occurence of the major ear- and leaf-diseases (powdery mildew, helminthosporiosis, leaf rust, Fusarium wilt) and the degree of lodging in the winter wheat variety Mv Pálma in two very different years (2006/2007=dry; 2009/2010=rainy). The experiments were... carried out at the Látókép Experimental Farm of the University of Debrecen CAAES in triculture (pea-wheat-maize) and biculture (wheat-maize) at five fertilization levels by applying three different crop protection technologies (extensive, average, intensive).
In the cropyear of 2006/2007, the disease severity of leaf diseases was higher than the average in both crop rotations in spite of the fact that the weather during the whole vegetation period was dry. Infection by powdery mildew, helminthosporiosis and leaf rust increased with increasing fertilization, the highest infection was measured at the highest fertilization level (N200+PK) in the extensive crop protection technology. According to the results, no infection of ears by Fusarium and no lodging occurred in either bi- or triculture due to the dry year. The extremely rainy weather in 2009/2010 was favourable not only for the vegetative development of the stand, but also increased the occurance of leaf-, stalk- and ear-diseases and a high degree of lodging was observed. The highest infection by powdery mildew was observed in the plots with the highest fertilizer dosage under an extensive crop protection technology. A much higher helminthosporiosis infection was measured than in the cropyear of 2006/2007. The wet weather and higher than average temperature promoted the occurence and spreading of leaf rust. Under an extensive crop protection technology, a leaf rust infection of 24% and 31% was detected after maize and pea as a forecrop, respectively, in the N200+PK treatment. As opposed to 2006/2007, the disease severity of Fusarium was 3–8% and 2–7% in the control after maize and pea as a forecrop, respectively. This value, similarly to that of other pathogens, increased with increasing fertilization levels. Due to the large vegetative mass, a significant lodging was observed in the wheat stands in both bi- and triculture (17–100%, 12–100%). 

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Acquisition practice prior to commercial use in the European Union
153-158

The target of 3% of GDP spent on R&D by the Lisbon priorities seems to be still far away from the reality in some European countries and at EU level as well. The economic crisis determined the priorities and it makes more complicated to dedicate more budget on Research and Development. New methods, new measures are needed in the European Un...ion. Measures that supporting the demand side of the innovation and generates market-pull affects. The Europe 2020 Innovation Union Flagship Initiative dedicates a special role to precommercial procurement for the upcoming 10 years. Nowadays, there are more and more European countries running pilot projects adapting the American SBIR (Small Business Innovation Research) programme.

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Mitigation of environment impact of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species
159-164

The Fusarium fungi hazards the grain quality of cereals, therefore significantly affects their utilization as animal feed or consumable product. The Fusarium can decrease the quality of wheat in different ways: decreases the germination capability, causes visible discoloration, mould may appear, reduces the dry material and nutrient content of ...the grain, causes mycotoxin infection – as a result given by its by-product. Micotoxins produced by Fusarium genus, as the trichotecenes (T-2, HT-2, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, Fusarenone-X) and the zearalenone (F-2) are the most common in Hungary. Occurrence of fumonisins first discovered in 1988 are must be identified carefully. About 20–30% of the overall worldwide production of cereals is infected with Fusarium and its toxins, which situation is similar in Hungary. This infection causes serious yield-losses in cereal production. In the case of cereal products, which non-utilizable as forage seems, an optimal solution is utilizing as biogas raw material, but it is also important to examine the effect of the infected cereal on the anaerobe digestion process.

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Preliminary studies on in vitro sensitivity of Venturia inaequalis populations to some fungicide active ingredients
165-168

Aim of this study was to investigate the sensitivity of conidia of Spilocaea pomi to main fungicide active ingredients (cyprodinil, pirimethanil, fluquinconazole, tebuconazole, difenoconazole, dodine és trifloxistrobin) at dosages of 0.5, 1 and 2 times incubated in vitro at 24 and 48 hours collected from three integrated apple orchards. Result...s showed that degree of conidial germinations at the fungicide treatnemts decreased in the order of dosages of untreated, 0.5, 1 and 2 times. Considerable conidial germination was observed at higher dosages of some fungicides (e.g. groups of strobilurines and EBI) which confirmed the possibilities of sensitivity reduction of Spilocaea pomi to some funigicides in the sampled Hungarian apple orchards.

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Physiological examination on cadmium sensitvity of some maize and sunflower varieties
169-173

Cadmium is one of the most dangerous heavy metals, which may cause serious problems in certain physiological processes of living organisms even in small amounts. In our work we analysed how cadmium affects some physiological parameters of different maize and sunflower hybrids. The chlorophyll contents and the morphological changes of the root w...ere examined. We received different results in terms of the cadmium tolerance of these two plants.

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Alternative rating methods of the LEADER programme
175-177

LEADER was one of the most important and diverse initiations in the rural development policy of the recent years that made it possible in the Member States of the European Union to carry out the needs of the lowest level, directly coming from the citizens. Decentralisation and the assignment of certain authorities furthered this opportunity, wh...ereas it was greatly restricted by the strong centralisation and regulation of the program in Hungary. This was the reason why the Hungarian LEADER program did not achieve any measureable success in terms of the standards in the rest of the EU Member States. There is a need to change this practice that can be done by the complete Hungarian reform of the program.

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Thoughts about the connection between spatial development and sustainable landscape at the region of the Northern Great Plain
179-185

This paper tries to find connections between sustainable landscape and spatial development policy of the Northern Great Plain region on the basis of specific examples explained in scientific literature. Searching for the common roots of spatial development and sustainability the paper explains two interpretation of sustainability from the view ...point of landscape, than the most significant element of current landscape change, the polarization of landscapes, will be introduced. This trend in landscape change basically determines the direction of spatial development. This paper analyses the Northern Great Plain region form two different approaches. In the first grouping the region is exposed from the view point of landscape. In the second partitioning the area is divided into subject matters based on the principles of sustainability and polarization of landscape. This research – analysing development plans and strategies – considers the current situation and the tasks of the future within the subject matters.

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Connections between the residential circumstances and the roma segregation processes in the outskirts of Hajdúböszörmény in the light of empirical examinations
187-193

In addition to the processing of the available special literature, this study aims to provide an accurate view of the segregation processes in Hajdúböszörmény, as well as their effect on the real estate market by interviewing roma people living in Hajdúböszörmény and by getting to know the opinions of the affected professionals and deci...sionmakers working at the local authorities.

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Cluster, a potential tool for rural development
195-201

There was a heavy change in the characteristics of the agriculture in the last 20 years. It become a multifunctional, sustainable, organic system, which needs strategic approach. On the problem map of the hungarian agriculture the most importatnt questions are the following: dual charachter of the land structure, to occidentalize the farm struc...ture. To develop the rural areas we need to real markets needs adapted, competitive, local agricultural production. From the ’90s into Europe’s economic development policies integrated the clusters, this research tries to certify, that this system is viable in classic agriculture and able to dissolve the defecinces, to support the aims of rural development.

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The effect of water supply and crop year on the yield potential of sweet maize (Zea mays L. convar. saccharata Koern.) hybrids with different genotypes
203-210

The successfulness of crop production is significantly affected by not only the the average yields that provide cost effectiveness, but also the success of striving for yield safety, therefore, varieties and hybrids tolerant to environmental stress factors are worth being included into the sowing structure. Our aim was to further the decision m...aking of producers in prepaering the right sowing structure by the evaluation of sweet maize hybrids’ tolerance to excess rainfall.
We performed our examinations in an extremely wet year (2010) on chernozem soil on three sweet maize hybrids (GSS 8529, GSS 1477, Overland) in 12 replications. Comparing the yields of 2010 with those that can be expected under optimal rainfall conditions, we showed that the examined hybrids react to the amount of rainfall higher than their needs with yield depression. The excess rainfall tolerance of the examined hybrids is different in the case of each hybrid.

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Reflections on the use of subsidies received from the Agriculture and Rural Development Operational Programme and the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development in the micro-region Ibrány-Nagyhalász
211-216

Hungary’s accession to the European Union caused major changes in the country’s life. Rural development subsidies can be received through extensive application mechanisms. This is particularly challenging for lagging micro-regions. My study presents the lagging microregion of Ibrány-Nagyhalász, focusing on what types of organizations and ...upon what grounds received subsidies in the framework of the Agriculture and Rural Development Operational Programme 2004–2006 (AVOP). I focus on the same parameters when examining the measures in the third axis of the New Hungary Rural Development Programme 2007–2013 (ÚMVP), followed by a comparison between the two programmes’ effectiveness. I conclude that due to the experience collected throughout the period of AVOP, both the number and the quality of applications have risen from the year 2007. Still, due to the lack of competence, cooperation and motivation, the region's planned improvements are not yet fully met and the capabilities of the region are not yet fully exploited. For the future, even more complex and more feasible projects are needed.

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Dilemmas of consumption habits - comparison of the quality of bottled mineral water and the public utility drinking water in Debrecen
217-221

This paper tries to help to decide whether the bottled mineral water or the piped water is more advisable for consumption in Debrecen and in its regions, according to the aspects of environmental awareness and aspects of health, beside the venture of representing the functions of water in our lives and its global importance.

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Innovation Potential and Regional Competitiveness studies in the Northern Great Plain region
223-228

1.5 million people live in the large region containing 3 counties, which makes it the second most populated region after Central Hungary. Its economy and land use are still defined by agriculture and it has been the least developed region in the country for a long time. In the country this region has the second lowest GDP per capita and employm...ent rate. In contrast to the low values of the economic indicators the region has high potential for innovation. The University of Debrecen is located in the region having one of the widest range of education and intensive research and development is also a characteristic of the region.

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Calculating possibility of the leaf area index of apple and pear trees
229-233

A significant proportion of the aboveground green and dry weight of the plant constitutes the foliage. The canopy is an important factor of plant growth. On one hand the canopy absorbs the solar energy, which is necessary for the photosynthesis, on the other hand accumulates the absorbed nutrients by the roots, and the most of the water-loss ha...ppens through the foliages. The determination of the full canopy is not an easy target. In our research we developed a measurement method to determine the leaf area. With the parameters of the examined tree (leaf length and maximum width) and the data of ADC AM 100 leaf area scanner we determined the k-value, with which we can easily and fast evaluate the leaf surface.

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Spatial environment analisys of the bioenergy production and utilization
235-240

The backwardness of the rural areas compared to the cities poses a problem all over Europe. Rural development and the reduction of differences between the development levels of the regions have expressed roles among the programs of the European Union. Member States are even entitled to subsidisation, they just need to manage subsidies economica...lly. In Hungary, a relatively small amount of the population lives in the capital, more than 80% of Hungarians live in rural cities or villages. The opposition between the countryside and the cities is rather intensified and the symbiotic correlation would need to be restored. Many people migrate from the countryside, especially youngsters, as they have no opportunities to find any job. This phenomenon poses big risks because getting a job is usually difficult everywhere and because fitting into a new environment always involves a lot of difficulties. Also from the aspect of the national economy, migration from the rural areas to the cities is a problem. The state budget will face significant excess costs if someone moves from a village to the city. It could cause unpredictable consequences if people leave the villages, as the maintenance and development of the village living space will face a hopeless situation.
Non-renewable energies are restricted and they will not be accessible after reaching a certain limit. People’s everyday activities and the functioning of the economy presupposes the availabilty of the necessary amount of energy. In the future, solution that provide the longterm stability of energy for the world will become increasingly necessary. There is a huge potential in bioenergy, more specifically in biomass. The building of biomass plants and putting them into operation creates jobs in the rural spatial environments. A locally available resource that can help in creating the energy safety of the country and the reduction of the dependence on import. The production of energy crops or the crops whose purpose of use is energy could help in strengthening the multifunctional character of agriculture and it can represent a source of income for those living off of agriculture under the current uncertain conditions.

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Physiological examination of some industrial wastes under laboratory conditions
241-246

I would like to draw the attention to the different side-products and wastes that contain lots of organic matter, micro and macro elements, and the fact that they do not have any harmful effect. These materials can be used as micronutrient fertilizers, therefore quantity of the produced CO2 and other greenhouse gases will decrease. C...ompost, sewage sludge and lime sludge were used in our experiments. The usability of these materials in crop production was examined in crop production within laboratory conditions.

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Testing a biological active plant extract’s antifungal effect against soil fungi
247-252

In Hungary today is about 5 million hectares of agricultural land contaminated with ragweed. The ragweed problem a year is about 60 billion HUF to be paid, of which 30 billion are used to reduce the agricultural damage. Experiments with ragweed pollen has mainly been carried out in connection with terms of allergy. The other biochemical experim...ents and studies with this plant, have so far been the scientific horizons of public life, boosted the edge. We wanted to demonstrate that the ragweed, which is a weed, containsbiological active (for example: antifungal) compounds. For our experiments in the previous cycle of flowering, plants were collected manually, with its roots and with each plant part. The extraction of the substance from dry plant – meal was carried out using appropriate solvents. The biological activity of ragweed-extracts were tested against fungi isolated from soils and meadow with different mode of cultivation. Our results suggest that ragweed contains biologically active substances, which inhibit the growth of fungi, depending on the concentration of active ingredients of the plant.

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Paradigm shift in the area of specialised social care in Hajdú-Bihar county
253-257

This paper tries to find the answer through an already working practical example how to save money on the social supporting system maintenanced by an elderly society. With the help of basic structural and organizational rearrangement, the social institutions, run by settlements and local goverments, can be helped to ran better and gain savings ...at the same time.

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