The uses of wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) as a fruit in an international breadth of view

Lycium barbarum is known exclusively as an ornamental plant in Hungary, and is planted so, as popular belief deem it a toxic plant. The plant’s fruit receives great respect in countries abroad, thus, due to its favourable content values the Lycium has achieved the title of ‘biological gold mine’. The last couple of years has seen the import of Lycium shrubs and its corresponding products, dried goods or in the form of various processed products which have been marketed and sold at extreme prices (under name of Goji, Wolfberry, Lifeberry). Our goal was to examine the similarities of the content values of wolfberry found in Hungary and those cultivated abroad. Along with Miklós Józsa the domestic Lycium population was surveyed based on foreign examples, between the years 2009 and 2011. Those defined sweet and largefruited were selected for further investigations to be set into a clone repository. This clone repository– which contains 67 different clones from a number of regions of Hungary – was established in the nursery of Dr. Miklós Józsa, located in the city of Szombathely. The phenological and morphological characteristics and the fruit ripening and quality indicators of plants in the clone repository were investigated. Six ‘best’ clones – selected based on flavour, disease-resistance and vegetative characteristics (plant size, fruit set, yield and fruit size) were analysed based on their content values. The control plant was a cultivar imported by a delivery service, found also in growing. In addition to the results of the selection, the results of the content values of the six selected ‘best’ clones (total soluble sugar content, glucose-fructose ratio, carotene content, FRAP value) is documented in this paper. Further, based on the resulting information the possibilities of the fruit’s utilization are suggested. Significant differences were measured in the vegetative characteristics of the clones (plant size, fruit set, yield and fruit size) and of those of
its inner content values. The resulting properties are considerable in regards of the plant’s introduction into cultivation and also utilization. Based on growing characteristics, more favourable clones were selected than the foreign varieties already in growing. Those clones selected by us have had similar or better content values than foreign breeds. The investigation of these content values is still in progress.

Antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content of Lavandula cultivars at different growing areas in Hungary

Lavandula species are worldwide grown essential oil producing medicinal plants with considerable economic value. Beside volatile oil, lavender also contains different phenolic compounds which have been less widely studied till now. Cultivation of lavender has become widespread in Hungary in the recent years, however, growers have limited knowledge on the productivity of cultivars available. In our research we were aimed to studying the antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content of samples collected in two growing areas (Dörgicse and Szomód) from flowers of two L. angustifolia (‘Hidcote’, ‘Munstead’) and two L. × intermedia (‘Grosso’, Grappenhall’) varieties, during the full blooming period of 2017. Antioxidant capacity of the samples was determined by FRAP assay (Benzie and Strain, 1996), while total polyphenol content (TPC) was measured by a modified method of Singleton and Rossi (1965). According to our results, varieties of L. × intermedia showed higher values of antioxidant capacity and of total polyphenol content, than those of L. angustifolia cultivars. Among them, both the antioxidant capacity (179.6 mg AAE/g DW) and total polyphenol content values (152.4 mg GAE/g DW) of ’Grosso’ from Dörgicse were the highest. Concerning FRAP values of all the cultivars investigated, larger variability were found in Dörgicse, than in Szomód. Regarding the effect of growing area, each cultivar represented similar FRAP values in Dörgicse and in Szomód, except for ’Grosso’. However, in the case of TPC values, higher variability was observed between the growing areas, especially in the case of ’Grosso’. In the future our studies on lavender polyphenols will be completed with qualitative evaluation of the values obtained by HPLC analysis.

Comparative analysis of peach and nectarine cultivars based on their ecological and biological indicators

Natural conditions other than the ecological conditions of the Chinese gene center (as 34-38° latitude and 600 to 2400 m above sea level), mainly dry subtropical, i.e. Mediterranean effects, facilitated the development of new forms and varieties (Scorza & Okie, 1991; Faust & Timon, 1995). Probably the primary cause of nectarines, this could also be the primary cause of mutations (probably about 2000 years ago) (Roach, 1985; Surányi, 1985). During the long domestication of peaches, its natural occurrence increased, which was greatly enhanced by its ecological and mutational ability and the organoleptical values of its fruit (Hedrick, 1917; Roach, 1985; Scorza & Okie, 1991; Faust et al., 2011). Through the Ellenberg-Borhidi model and its refinement, the author has demonstrated the suitability of peaches in a broad climate zone based on the relative ecological and biological values of 700 varieties. Among the varieties, clone cultivars and hybrids were Hungarian selected and crossed form, because the diverse environmental conditions of the Carpathian Basin and the past and present size of cultivation were representative (Faust & Timon, 1995; Timon, 2000). It can be concluded from the present relative ecological data that the average standard deviation is below 12% for both peach and nectarine varieties, but the relative biological values were very different. Comparison of cultivars or classical (downy) peaches (n = 562) and nectarines (n = 138) in terms of environmental values confirmed the difference in heat demand and salt tolerance of the two groups of varieties. The pictures of the paper also demonstrated the rich diversity of this fruit species, and after analyzing the apricot and plum varieties (Surányi 2014, 2018), the peculiarities of the relative ecological and biological values of peaches were confirmed.

Influence of environment in electro-chemical quality of tomato

The aim of the research was to investigate the impact of different cultivation environments of tomato cultivars, the electro-chemical and the qualitative traits of the tomato fruits. The quality of tomato fruit harvesting was evaluated at the Laboratory of Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna. Two hybrids of tomatoes were tested Belle-F1 and AmaF1, in two locations and two different treatments (open field and plastic tunnels). Model of experimental fields was based on random method and included three replications. Following parameters were analyzed and tested: pH, Rh, P-Value, Nitrates and the content of vitamin C. The values of pH for treatment in the open field and indoor production system were not significant (4.47 to 5.05). For P-Value derived from the two treatments the maximal values were without significant differences, while minimal values were significant. Study has shown also that the highest values of nitrate content (16.34 mg, open field) compared to average value differences were + 0.384 mg or 43.83% higher. In indoor production the nitrate content was lower in compared with plants cultivated in open fields, so these differences were +3.81 mg or 26.4 0%, and highly significant for both levels. In relation to vitamin C content, the highest value was identified in the indoor systemof 298.6mg, with variations from the overall average of 16.43% or + 42.15 mg. The coefficient of variation values for both levels was of 29.96 respectively 27.31%.

Evaluation of crop yield and fruit quality in organic apple production

In this study, crop yield and fruit quality parameters (soluble solid concentration, sugar, total acid, and vitamin C content) of 15 apple cultivars including old, resistant and currently grown cultivars. The highest fruit yield among all 15 cultivars was obtained on CV. Jonagold with 15.5 kg/tree, while the lowest yield was measured on the resistant cultivar Reanda with 8.1 kg/tree. There were no significant differences among the cultivars in fruit diameter ranging from 70 mm in the case of cv. Húsvéti rozmaring to 82 mm for cv. Mutsu. Values of soluble solids concentration of the cultivars varied between 15.5% for cv. Téli Banán and 19.2% for cv. Renora. Sugar content values showed a similar tendency to soluble solids content. The highest and lowest total sugar content was observed on cvs. Jonagold and Renora and cv. Re­tina with 17% and 12.4%, respectively. Total acid content values ranged between 0.18% and 0.53% for cvs. Jonagold and Remo, respectively. Values of vitamin C content for the 15 apple cultivars varied between 2 mg% and 4 mg% for cv. Retina and cv. Mutsu, respectively.

Correlation between pigment contents and FRAP values in beet root (Beta vulgaris ssp. esculents var. rubra)

It is well known that beetroot quality is determined mainly by the red pigment content (betacyanins) and its uniformity of the root. The effect of the most important red pigment components (betanin). the total polyphenol content and antioxidants were studied in 20 beet root varieties. Antioxidants were expressed in FRAP (ferric reducing ability of plasma) values in pM/I.

Our results indicated a close correlation (r = 0.7799 and r = 0.7435. respectively) between betanin and total polyphenol contents of the root as well as between FRAP values.

Our measurements showed more than threefold differences in total antioxidant activity among varieties. the lowest value being 196.4 13M/1 and highest 702.57 pM/I. The corresponding betanin (16.3 and 57.8 mg/100 ml) and total polyphenol (37.5 and 85.5 mg/100 ml respectively) contents show similar differences. Based on our results it can be stated that varieties of higher betanin and poliphenol contents have higher antioxidant values as well.

Accordingly, the two compounds must have a role in the evolution of antioxidant effects.

Climate change effect on sour cherry production in Central Hungary

Consideration of the soil and climatic conditions and their expected changes is very important in planning of new orchards. This research focuses on the expected climatic conditions and opportunities of sour cherry production in Central Hungary in the periods of 2021–2050 and 2071–2100, compared to the base period of 1961–1990. Results show that in the near future the expected changes are mostly favourable for sour cherry production, the utility values are increasing in most of the subregions. By the end of the century the utility values show further increase in the formerly colder subregions. However, in some subregions the utility values slightly decrease because of the appearance of the extreme dry and warm year types, though their values remain at the level of the base period or even higher.

Nectar production of quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) cultivars

Nectar production of six quince cultivars were measured during three consecutive years. The nectar production of quince can be regarded to be small compared to other temperate zone fruit tree species since quince flowers contained 1.07 ± 0.06 mg of nectar in average. The extreme values, however, ranged between 0.1 and 7.3 mg/flower and this indicated that the nectar production was highly variable. The distribution of the nectar production was definitely skew because low values were definitely much more frequent than the highest ones. Our findings do not corroborate the earlier statements on the high sugar concentration of quince nectar. We found some 21-27% sugar in average, only. The normal distribution of the sugar concentration also indicates that the typical sugar concentration may be between 20-30%. Accordingly, the sugar concentration of quince nectar is rather low compared to other temperate zone fruit tree species (except pear). There was a significant negative correlation between the amount of nectar and its sugar concentration in quince flowers in all of the three years of the study (r= -0.51, n=37, p<0.02 in 1996, r= -0.57, n=28, p<0.1 in 1997, r= -0.35, n=9 I, p<0.001 in 1998). No definite difference was established between the nectar production of quince cultivars. Nevertheless, one cultivar tended to produce less and two other ones produced somewhat more nectar in average than the rest of the 6 cvs investigated but the extreme values of nectar production of cultivars overlapped in most cages.


Comparative analysis of sweet cherry cultivars on their ecological and biological indicators

Sweet cherries are slightly more demanding than sour cherries. It is grown in warmer areas around the world. The relative ecological values obtained for the varieties obtained by extensive data collection differ slightly from the leading descriptions. Warm and demanding. The woody parts tolerate the cool of the winter quite well, the flower buds are damaged by the spring frosts. Its water demand is medium, in the case of 550 mm of annual rainfall, it adorns well on loose soils with good nutrient supply. Airy ground, neutral soil (pH 5.5-7.5) is optimal, but not suitable for areas with strongly calcareous, stagnant, stagnant groundwater. From the start of ripening, sudden rainfall, stormy winds and birds can cause great damage. Highlighting the world’s leading varieties in the study (Bing, Rainier, Chelan, Van and Burlat) (Iezzoni et al., 1991, Faust & Surányi, 1997) - according to relative ecological and biological values, the most popular cherries are mainly they differed from the other varieties based on TB and KB. Open pollination and with it, the productivity of the varieties exceeded the overall variety average precisely because of the breeding objectives. Certainly, the analysis of historical varieties, the oldest landscape and local varieties based on relative ecological and biological values can help further pomological-ecological research.

Evaluation of lifespan values of six tree taxa in city streets

The aim of this study was to evaluate lifespan values of trees in tree-row system in the streets of Debrecen in two years (2009 and 2017). Six selected taxa (Pyrus calleryana, Acer tataricum, Sorbus intermedia, Magnolia kobus, Acer platanoides and Crataegus x lavalleei) were estimated for the following lifespan parameters: i) trunk diameter (cm), ii) tree crown size (m), iii) trunk status (in 0-5 grades), iv) tree crown status (in 0-5 grades), and v) estimated tree viability (in 0-5 grades). Our results showed that the largest were achieved for Pyrus calleryana and the lowest for Acer tataricum. The largest tree crown diameters were achieved for Acer platanoides and the lowest Magnolia kobus. The best trunk statuses by 2017 were achieved for Pyrus calleryana and the worst Crataegus x lavalleei. The best tree crown statuses by 2017 were achieved for Pyrus calleryana and the worst for Acer tataricum. The best estimated tree viability status was achieved for two taxa (Pyrus calleryana and Acer platanoides). Overall tree values were 2.73 times higher in 2017 compared to 2009. In summary, this study demonstrated the role of appropriate choice of tree taxa for a tree-row system under city street conditions.

Economic figures of apple production at national level of Hungary

Apple is the most important fruit in Hungary, despite of that, it is a paradox that during the last years, apple growing was the most unsuccessful enterprise among the prosperous ones in the country. The real cause of regression was unequivocally the low price, which could be obtained and the inadequate structure of apple varieties. A heavy problem is still the overweight of the quality doomed to supplying the processing industry instead to the fresh consumption. In order to improve the conditions, we aimed the economic analysis of the five year long period, 2005-2009, to trace the changes involving values and costs of production, income and all conditions combined with this activity. The data presented in the paper are means of a heterogeneous population of values, which cannot be utilised for immediate use in management, but they may reveal the challenges and tendencies of that branch in economics.

Relative ecological and biological indicator values of plum and prune cultivars

The study was conducted to compare historical plums, gene collections, and is currently cultivated and recent perspective varieties from the author. The object of the study was the relative ecological Borhidi’s figures and classification of varieties under the new definition, as the relative biological values. There were 11 figures no one in particular affect the data of the plums grown in importance as TB, WB, RB, LB, and the values are relative biological value (OP, FR, SS, and DR). The specificity of each indicator was different, but in general the  importance and specific breeds was associated with. The SB (salt figures) is not proved informative, partly because small data in the literature, on the other hand, had little to their own observations as well. The gene bank of Cegléd is now third-generation (1951–1972, 1973–1991, since 1992) kind of collection, during which many aspects have changed climatic conditions: cold winter eased the strictness, but has increased the threat
of spring frost advection. The relative biological scores markedly influenced around flowering extreme weather (dry, windy weather and so flowering in within 2-3 days), optimal conditions of the plum pox virus vectors and of course the presence of fruit and foliage harmful fungi. It see to be, in the case of semi-wild and wild fruit species – are possible with similar comparative analyzes, and hopefully will in feral forms, culture – as we have seen previously (Surányi 2000 and 2006). In the continuation analysis of the natural vegetation and cultural context of the complex multifactorial factors will be carried out more easily, according to the relative value figures, as well as rootstock effects and plantation’s habitat studies, and even the most phytotechnical evaluation of interventions.

Cumulative vector intensity and seed potato virus infection in Hungary

Aphids were collected by Moericke yellow pan traps placed in the potato fields. The cumulative vector intensity is an index that describes the vector abundance and their propensity to transmit PVY (3). The vector intensity was obtained as the number of known PVY vector species caught and multiplied by their relative vector efficiency value. Cumulative vector intensity for the season was calculated by accumulating species-specific vector intensity values at each trapping date. In those places where the number of PVY vectors caught by yellow pan traps were the highest (1194, 1495 and 663, 570, respectively), the cumulative vector intensity was also the highest (322 and 570, respectively). This high vector intensity resulted in high progeny tuber infection 21 and 31 %, respectively. In those years when the cumulative vector intensity did not reach the value of 10 until the end of June and the beginning of July the proportion of PVY infected progeny tubers met the requirements of the standard, it was less than 5 %. The cumulative vector intensity seems to be a reliable way to forecast virus threat to seed potato. Both seasonal variation and vector abundance is reflected in cumulative vector intensity, above all propensity of different vector species is included in the calculation. As the virus translocation from leaves to tubers takes 12-14 days. Therefore it is imperative that immediately after weekly trap catches cumulative vector intensity values are calculated, as when values reach around ten growers in seed potato growing region will have 12 days to execute killing leaves and stems of seed potatoes.

Preliminary evaluation of breeding perspectives of Ukrainian sweet cherry cultivars: nutraceutical properties and self-incompatibility

Some traditional sweet cherry cultivars of Ukrainian origin may represent perspective material for Hungarian cherry breeding. A total of eight cultivars analysed represent great diversity in several phenotypic traits including fruit ripening time or fruit flesh colour. Considerable differences in the anthocyanin content may result in different antioxidant capacity of fruits. In the present study, we used ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total phenolic content (TPC) assays to characterize fruits’ nutraceutical properties. These values were compared with the respective values measured for eight commercial cultivars grown in Hungary. The average of FRAP and TPC values was higher for the Ukrainian cherries compared with commercial cultivars suggesting they might be included in functional breeding programs. Since, cherry is a self-incompatible species, the determination of S-genotype is required for both breeding and successful cultivar association in commercial orchards. Complete or partial S-genotypes were determined for 5 and 3 cultivars, respectively.

Economic figures of sour cherry production at national level of Hungary

After the political changes of 1989, economical processes impaired heavily the Hungarian fruit growing branch, more particularly production of sour cherry. Paralleling with the increasing mass of production, producer’s prices dwindled drastically. At present, Hungarian growers cannot cover the costs of production, nay, hardly raise income. My purpose was to analyse the cost and income relations of the sour cherry branch during the period of 2002-2009 years in order to find out what are the decisive features, which reveal the trends to be considered. The data presented in the paper are means of a heterogeneous population of values, which cannot be utilised for immediate use in management, but they may reveal the challenges and tendencies of economics of the branch.

Metaxenia in apples cv. 'Rewena', 'Relinda', 'Baujade' as influenced by scab resistant pollinizers

Fruit quality of cross pollinated apples (Malus x domestica) influenced by the metaxenic pollen effect of the pollinizer was observed in Hungary. Flowers of three resistant cultivars (`Baujade', `Rewena') were hand pollinated with other resistant apple cultivars. Fruits were harvested on 25 September, 2005. Fruit quality was investigated in the laboratory of the Department of Pomology; Corvinus University of Budapest. Not only size and morphological parameters (diameter, height, stem length), but also refraction and acidic content of the fruits were measured.

According to the statistical analysis significant differences were determined on fruits among the groups as an effect of the pollen provider. In consideration of size parameters (diameter, height, weight) of `Rewena' fruits pollination partner 'Freedom' and 'Prima' caused outstanding results but `Florina' caused flatter fruits. Pollen of `Florina' and `Freedor-,' caused a higher percent refraction in the fruits of `Rewena'. In the case of `Baujade' fruits `Reglindis' — among cultivars we used as pollinizer — caused the biggest fruits medium flesh firmness and harmonic inner content values. `Rajka' caused on one hand smaller fruits and on the other hand higher flesh firmness and inner content values in the case of `Relinda' fruits. According to our data measured pollinizers varied the stem length as well.

Evaluation of the competitiveness of fresh tomato

The existence of international trade and related trade theory are closely related to competitiveness. The following study focuses on the competitiveness of Hungary, which studies the development of comparative advantage in terms of tomato for fresh consumption among horticultural products. As a consequence, the main objective is whether Hungary has comparative advantage over EU-28 countries in case of fresh market tomato. Data in the study were provided by FAOSTAT database. The study period focuses on results from 2004 to 2019, breaking them down into 5-year (average) cycles. The method chosen was the RCA index group, the most widely recognized and applied index group for calculating comparative advantage. Although Hungary is not a significant vegetable-producing country in Europe, the fruit and vegetable sector accounts for 10-13% of the production value of agriculture. Regarding the results, it can be stated that Hungary does not have comparative advantage in case of tomato products. With respect to values of the tomato sector, the RCA index is in the range of 0<RCA≤1, therefore we have no comparative advantage. Spain and the Netherlands have stable competitive advantage. These countries show weak comparative advantage in each period studied, as the indicator values exceed 1 but do not reach 2.

Connection of fertilization conditions of sour cherry and meteorological parameters

Our analyses showed that the degree of free fertilization is mostly influenced by maximum temperature and sunshine duration.We found that free fertilization ratio increases with higher daily maximum temperatures; similar results characterise sunshine duration as well, namely we observed higher free fertilization ratio at higher sunshine duration values. Total amount of precipitation during the period between blossoming and maturity and the difference between the average daytime and night temperatures have an important role in the tendency of maturity time. Photosynthesis and respiration are essentially significant in the development of biological systems. These two processes are mostly regulated by the daytime and night temperatures. Therefore, it is not surprising that if the difference between daytime and night temperatures is large, it means intensive photosynthesis and a low degree of respiratory loss. Under these conditions intensive development and ripening can take place; however, in case of a low temperature difference intensive respiration slows down the process of development. Duration of ripening is also significantly influenced by the amount of precipitation of the period between blossoming and maturity.Abundant precipitation slows down the process of ripening, while dry weather accelerates it. Self-fertilization takes place in a space isolated from the environment. In spite of that, we found that effectiveness of self-pollination significantly depends on the meteorological conditions. Degree of self-fertilization is influenced directly by temperature and indirectly by other climatic parameters. We found a significant connection between the values of maximum and minimum temperatures during blossoming and the ratio of self-fertilization. Increase of maximum temperature reduces the effectiveness of self-pollination.A 1 °C increase of maximum temperature reduces self-fertilization ratio by 0,6%. In the case of minimum temperature we can state that the morning minimum temperature of 7,5–8,5°C is the most favourable. If minimum temperatures are under 4 °C or above 12 °C, self-fertilization ratio reduces to the quarter of the value characteristic at 8 °C. We believe that the effectiveness of self-fertilization can be improved considerably by the rational placement of isolator bags within the crown area, avoiding their placement to the external, western crown surface.

Antioxidant capacity, C-vitamin and anthocyanils content in the fruits of elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) types

: Elderberry used to be a common medicinal plant since long. Its ripe fruit and inflorescence has been collected. Cultivation however, started in Hungary recently, with the early 90-es. Initially, has been planted, the 'Haschberg' cultivar. Our Department started first with the selection of favourable genotypes in the Hungarian spontaneous populations of the species, we aimed to find clones, which are earlier ripening than 'Haschberg', moreover, superior in any of the agronomical or quality traits. Present study deals with 19 new selected clones by their content of vitamin-C, anthocyanins and their antioxidant capacity. Environmental stresses are inducing, increased, accumulation of free radicals in living organisms. To evoid the harmful effects of the free radicals, we need to consume antioxidant compounds (flavonoids, anthocyanins, vitamins, etc.) In the literature there are quite a few references related to the anthocyanins and antioxidants of the elderberry. Measurements prove that substantial differences exist among the population of the species as for the content and quality of those compounds. In anthocyanin content, the difference between the highest and lowest values was 3000 mg/I, whereas in antioxidant content this value was 6001.1M. Those types, which contained less anthocyanin (<5000 mg/I), produced lower antioxidant capacity, whereas the highest anthocyanin content was associated with the strongest antioxidant activity. C-vitamin content varied between 36.5 and 96.4 mg/100g. These values provide daily human requirements by their consumption. Summing up all parameters, examined the best type was Cinkota 1.

Variety specific integrated fruit production development in order to optimize inner content values

In this paper we introduce our results of three years (2007-2009) investigatio ns carried out in the framework of "Research and development in foodstaff chain" - project of Regional University Knowledge Center by the members of Corvi nus U niversity of Budapest - Department of Pomology and. Research Institute for Fru it growing and Ornamentals.  Budapest-Erd. The main objectives of the project were the followings: submi ssion of sour cherry candidate suitable for industrial process for state approval; determination of physica l parameter and inner content value changes of sour cherry varieties duri ng ripening; evaluation of health care attributes of sour cherry fruit; ripen ing process description by the colour and the force required to pick fruits of sour cherry. We stated that the optimal begi nning and period of the harvest can be determined wi th the fruit removal force. In this period the fruit growth stops. ju iciness rat io does not change. refractions are approximately equal.acidic content turns to decreasing trend.However the proportion of anthocyan in and polypheno l can still increase. Fruits harvested in this period fulfil a wide range of industrial process opportunities. 'Erdi jubileum ·and candidate IV-3/48 according to their inner content values arc suitable for high quality products (containing real fruit material in high proportion).

Long term investigations of flowers and leaves on mainly non-domestica plums

The author dealt with plum species representing different eco-geographic areas by their genetic adaptation and their hybrids, as European (P. domestica, P. italica, P. cerasifera), Asian (P. salicina, P. simonii, P. ussuriensis), American (P. americana, P. besseyi, P. munsoniana, P. tomentosa). The rootstocks of the trees examined were seedlings of C. 679 myrobalan with the exception of Laroda and Santa Rosa II, which were grown on three different stocks: seedlings of C. 174 myrobalan, C. 449 bitter almond and C. 471 sweet almond. The size of peduncle, length of pistil, stamen number per flower, relative stamen number (SN/PL) have been suitable for description and distinction of varieties. Similarly shape of leaves, length of petiole, length and width of blade helped the identification.

The ratio of the dimensions of leaves, length of petiole and of leaf blade, also contributed to the distinction of European, Asian and American plum species, notwithstanding their relations with ecological conditions as well as historical, technical properties, pomological features, etc. Computed indicators (relative stamen number and shape-index of leaves) also have been useful data.

Significant correlations have been found between colour of nectaries and mean values of variety-groups. The potential values of non-European varieties for purposes of commercial production could be forecasted from the point of view of quality, ecological, pomological as well as market value. It is important, however, to know the effect of the rootstock and growing site as well as their interaction, on the one hand, whereas the resistance or tolerance of the varieties as limiting factors, at least to the sharka (Plum pox) virus, Xanthomonas pruni, on the other hand (cf. Surányi & Erdős, 2004a and 2004b).

Increment analysis in black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) stand – a case study

The study on the diameter and volume increment of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) stand (age 10-27 years, yield class II) have shown that in comparison to the periodic annual increment of the breast height diameter of tree in height class I, trees in height class II have reached 83.3%, while in class III only 43.9. The same relations for volume were found 59.0% and 24.5%, respectively. The mean values of the whole stand were close to those of height class II. According to the distribution of the periodic annual increment of volume between 10 and 27 years of age, 50% of the values were between 2.00 and13.88 dm3, 73% were between 2.00 and19.82 dm3, and 96% were between 2.00 and 37.64 dm3. The range of 13.88–19.82 dm3 had the highest occurrence (24.5%).

Determination of biogenic amine content of Tokaj Wine Specialities

The knowledge of the finest composition of the Tokaj Wine Specialities is an indispensable task. The presence of the biogenic amines as an eventual combination of hygiene, technology and activity of Botrytis cinerea is a very important point of view in the future. The objective of this study was to measure the biogenic amine-content of Tokaj Wine Specialities.

According to our findings, the histamine-concentration remained lower than the prescribed end values, but ill the case of serotonine, there were significant measured values. During the fermentation period, in the first cycle there was a decrease in the concentration of biogenic amines, but with the advancement of fermentation, an increase was found.

Organic versus integrated apple growing: II. differences in fruit quality parameters

The aim our study was to establish whether significant differences in nutrients uptake and quality of fruit exist
between organic and integrated grown apples. The study was performed at the orchard Fruit Research Station, University of Debrecen, at Debrecen-Pallag during 2002–2004. Diameter (mm), weight (g), firmness (N/cm2), dry matter (%) and Vitamin C in fruit were determined. Diameter data showed that the size of apples strongly depended on cultivars and organic apples were larger than integrated ones. Moreover, the effect of year and species strongly affected the apple diameter, size and weight. Measured data of firmness were good agreement in data of diameter and weight. Larger fruits have lower values of firmness due to the structure of fruit flesh. Dry matter content of apples varied between 14.66 and 18.07 in integrated, and 12.87 and 17.29 in organic apples according to cultivars. Values were affected by years and cultivars. From results it was evident that the dry matter content of apples affected by production system. It was lower in organic samples than integrated ones.Vitamin C content of apples was stronger affected by species and years than production system.

Evaluation study for the effect of four mango rootstocks on behaviour of Keit mango variety

Our investigation was carried out in four mango rootstocks were namely Zebda, Socaria, 13/1 an 4/9. This study reviewed the effect of these rootstocks on growth behaviour of Keit mango variety as a scion grown on them. This evaluation and comparison included data on following aspects: the vegetative growth characters, root growth parameter, uptake of some macro nutrient and some organic substance. All results in this regard refer that the Socaria rootstock gave the highest values off all parameters so it is considered as a vigorous rootstocks, means that the trees on this rootstocks will reach to high size after short time. By contrast, Zebda rootstocks gave the lowest values in this concern and this will reflect on tree size on it. This means that the Zebda rootstocks will be useful in the system of high density orchard comparing with Socaria. Concerning to other rootstocks, they were intermediate between Socaria and Zebda rootstocks.

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