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  • The uses of wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) as a fruit in an international breadth of view
    7-13.
    Views:
    259

    Lycium barbarum is known exclusively as an ornamental plant in Hungary, and is planted so, as popular belief deem it a toxic plant. The plant’s fruit receives great respect in countries abroad, thus, due to its favourable content values the Lycium has achieved the title of ‘biological gold mine’. The last couple of years has seen the import of Lycium shrubs and its corresponding products, dried goods or in the form of various processed products which have been marketed and sold at extreme prices (under name of Goji, Wolfberry, Lifeberry). Our goal was to examine the similarities of the content values of wolfberry found in Hungary and those cultivated abroad. Along with Miklós Józsa the domestic Lycium population was surveyed based on foreign examples, between the years 2009 and 2011. Those defined sweet and largefruited were selected for further investigations to be set into a clone repository. This clone repository– which contains 67 different clones from a number of regions of Hungary – was established in the nursery of Dr. Miklós Józsa, located in the city of Szombathely. The phenological and morphological characteristics and the fruit ripening and quality indicators of plants in the clone repository were investigated. Six ‘best’ clones – selected based on flavour, disease-resistance and vegetative characteristics (plant size, fruit set, yield and fruit size) were analysed based on their content values. The control plant was a cultivar imported by a delivery service, found also in growing. In addition to the results of the selection, the results of the content values of the six selected ‘best’ clones (total soluble sugar content, glucose-fructose ratio, carotene content, FRAP value) is documented in this paper. Further, based on the resulting information the possibilities of the fruit’s utilization are suggested. Significant differences were measured in the vegetative characteristics of the clones (plant size, fruit set, yield and fruit size) and of those of
    its inner content values. The resulting properties are considerable in regards of the plant’s introduction into cultivation and also utilization. Based on growing characteristics, more favourable clones were selected than the foreign varieties already in growing. Those clones selected by us have had similar or better content values than foreign breeds. The investigation of these content values is still in progress.

  • Antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content of Lavandula cultivars at different growing areas in Hungary
    65-69.
    Views:
    316

    Lavandula species are worldwide grown essential oil producing medicinal plants with considerable economic value. Beside volatile oil, lavender also contains different phenolic compounds which have been less widely studied till now. Cultivation of lavender has become widespread in Hungary in the recent years, however, growers have limited knowledge on the productivity of cultivars available. In our research we were aimed to studying the antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content of samples collected in two growing areas (Dörgicse and Szomód) from flowers of two L. angustifolia (‘Hidcote’, ‘Munstead’) and two L. × intermedia (‘Grosso’, Grappenhall’) varieties, during the full blooming period of 2017. Antioxidant capacity of the samples was determined by FRAP assay (Benzie and Strain, 1996), while total polyphenol content (TPC) was measured by a modified method of Singleton and Rossi (1965). According to our results, varieties of L. × intermedia showed higher values of antioxidant capacity and of total polyphenol content, than those of L. angustifolia cultivars. Among them, both the antioxidant capacity (179.6 mg AAE/g DW) and total polyphenol content values (152.4 mg GAE/g DW) of ’Grosso’ from Dörgicse were the highest. Concerning FRAP values of all the cultivars investigated, larger variability were found in Dörgicse, than in Szomód. Regarding the effect of growing area, each cultivar represented similar FRAP values in Dörgicse and in Szomód, except for ’Grosso’. However, in the case of TPC values, higher variability was observed between the growing areas, especially in the case of ’Grosso’. In the future our studies on lavender polyphenols will be completed with qualitative evaluation of the values obtained by HPLC analysis.

  • Comparative analysis of peach and nectarine cultivars based on their ecological and biological indicators
    7-26.
    Views:
    340

    Natural conditions other than the ecological conditions of the Chinese gene center (as 34-38° latitude and 600 to 2400 m above sea level), mainly dry subtropical, i.e. Mediterranean effects, facilitated the development of new forms and varieties (Scorza & Okie, 1991; Faust & Timon, 1995). Probably the primary cause of nectarines, this could also be the primary cause of mutations (probably about 2000 years ago) (Roach, 1985; Surányi, 1985). During the long domestication of peaches, its natural occurrence increased, which was greatly enhanced by its ecological and mutational ability and the organoleptical values of its fruit (Hedrick, 1917; Roach, 1985; Scorza & Okie, 1991; Faust et al., 2011). Through the Ellenberg-Borhidi model and its refinement, the author has demonstrated the suitability of peaches in a broad climate zone based on the relative ecological and biological values of 700 varieties. Among the varieties, clone cultivars and hybrids were Hungarian selected and crossed form, because the diverse environmental conditions of the Carpathian Basin and the past and present size of cultivation were representative (Faust & Timon, 1995; Timon, 2000). It can be concluded from the present relative ecological data that the average standard deviation is below 12% for both peach and nectarine varieties, but the relative biological values were very different. Comparison of cultivars or classical (downy) peaches (n = 562) and nectarines (n = 138) in terms of environmental values confirmed the difference in heat demand and salt tolerance of the two groups of varieties. The pictures of the paper also demonstrated the rich diversity of this fruit species, and after analyzing the apricot and plum varieties (Surányi 2014, 2018), the peculiarities of the relative ecological and biological values of peaches were confirmed.

  • Influence of environment in electro-chemical quality of tomato
    17-20.
    Views:
    176

    The aim of the research was to investigate the impact of different cultivation environments of tomato cultivars, the electro-chemical and the qualitative traits of the tomato fruits. The quality of tomato fruit harvesting was evaluated at the Laboratory of Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna. Two hybrids of tomatoes were tested Belle-F1 and AmaF1, in two locations and two different treatments (open field and plastic tunnels). Model of experimental fields was based on random method and included three replications. Following parameters were analyzed and tested: pH, Rh, P-Value, Nitrates and the content of vitamin C. The values of pH for treatment in the open field and indoor production system were not significant (4.47 to 5.05). For P-Value derived from the two treatments the maximal values were without significant differences, while minimal values were significant. Study has shown also that the highest values of nitrate content (16.34 mg, open field) compared to average value differences were + 0.384 mg or 43.83% higher. In indoor production the nitrate content was lower in compared with plants cultivated in open fields, so these differences were +3.81 mg or 26.4 0%, and highly significant for both levels. In relation to vitamin C content, the highest value was identified in the indoor systemof 298.6mg, with variations from the overall average of 16.43% or + 42.15 mg. The coefficient of variation values for both levels was of 29.96 respectively 27.31%.

  • Evaluation of crop yield and fruit quality in organic apple production
    7-10.
    Views:
    157

    In this study, crop yield and fruit quality parameters (soluble solid concentration, sugar, total acid, and vitamin C content) of 15 apple cultivars including old, resistant and currently grown cultivars. The highest fruit yield among all 15 cultivars was obtained on CV. Jonagold with 15.5 kg/tree, while the lowest yield was measured on the resistant cultivar Reanda with 8.1 kg/tree. There were no significant differences among the cultivars in fruit diameter ranging from 70 mm in the case of cv. Húsvéti rozmaring to 82 mm for cv. Mutsu. Values of soluble solids concentration of the cultivars varied between 15.5% for cv. Téli Banán and 19.2% for cv. Renora. Sugar content values showed a similar tendency to soluble solids content. The highest and lowest total sugar content was observed on cvs. Jonagold and Renora and cv. Re­tina with 17% and 12.4%, respectively. Total acid content values ranged between 0.18% and 0.53% for cvs. Jonagold and Remo, respectively. Values of vitamin C content for the 15 apple cultivars varied between 2 mg% and 4 mg% for cv. Retina and cv. Mutsu, respectively.

  • Correlation between pigment contents and FRAP values in beet root (Beta vulgaris ssp. esculents var. rubra)
    85-89.
    Views:
    254

    It is well known that beetroot quality is determined mainly by the red pigment content (betacyanins) and its uniformity of the root. The effect of the most important red pigment components (betanin). the total polyphenol content and antioxidants were studied in 20 beet root varieties. Antioxidants were expressed in FRAP (ferric reducing ability of plasma) values in pM/I.

    Our results indicated a close correlation (r = 0.7799 and r = 0.7435. respectively) between betanin and total polyphenol contents of the root as well as between FRAP values.

    Our measurements showed more than threefold differences in total antioxidant activity among varieties. the lowest value being 196.4 13M/1 and highest 702.57 pM/I. The corresponding betanin (16.3 and 57.8 mg/100 ml) and total polyphenol (37.5 and 85.5 mg/100 ml respectively) contents show similar differences. Based on our results it can be stated that varieties of higher betanin and poliphenol contents have higher antioxidant values as well.

    Accordingly, the two compounds must have a role in the evolution of antioxidant effects.

  • Climate change effect on sour cherry production in Central Hungary
    61-66.
    Views:
    173

    Consideration of the soil and climatic conditions and their expected changes is very important in planning of new orchards. This research focuses on the expected climatic conditions and opportunities of sour cherry production in Central Hungary in the periods of 2021–2050 and 2071–2100, compared to the base period of 1961–1990. Results show that in the near future the expected changes are mostly favourable for sour cherry production, the utility values are increasing in most of the subregions. By the end of the century the utility values show further increase in the formerly colder subregions. However, in some subregions the utility values slightly decrease because of the appearance of the extreme dry and warm year types, though their values remain at the level of the base period or even higher.

  • Cumulative vector intensity and seed potato virus infection in Hungary
    61-64.
    Views:
    108

    Aphids were collected by Moericke yellow pan traps placed in the potato fields. The cumulative vector intensity is an index that describes the vector abundance and their propensity to transmit PVY (3). The vector intensity was obtained as the number of known PVY vector species caught and multiplied by their relative vector efficiency value. Cumulative vector intensity for the season was calculated by accumulating species-specific vector intensity values at each trapping date. In those places where the number of PVY vectors caught by yellow pan traps were the highest (1194, 1495 and 663, 570, respectively), the cumulative vector intensity was also the highest (322 and 570, respectively). This high vector intensity resulted in high progeny tuber infection 21 and 31 %, respectively. In those years when the cumulative vector intensity did not reach the value of 10 until the end of June and the beginning of July the proportion of PVY infected progeny tubers met the requirements of the standard, it was less than 5 %. The cumulative vector intensity seems to be a reliable way to forecast virus threat to seed potato. Both seasonal variation and vector abundance is reflected in cumulative vector intensity, above all propensity of different vector species is included in the calculation. As the virus translocation from leaves to tubers takes 12-14 days. Therefore it is imperative that immediately after weekly trap catches cumulative vector intensity values are calculated, as when values reach around ten growers in seed potato growing region will have 12 days to execute killing leaves and stems of seed potatoes.

  • Preliminary evaluation of breeding perspectives of Ukrainian sweet cherry cultivars: nutraceutical properties and self-incompatibility
    7-11.
    Views:
    305

    Some traditional sweet cherry cultivars of Ukrainian origin may represent perspective material for Hungarian cherry breeding. A total of eight cultivars analysed represent great diversity in several phenotypic traits including fruit ripening time or fruit flesh colour. Considerable differences in the anthocyanin content may result in different antioxidant capacity of fruits. In the present study, we used ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total phenolic content (TPC) assays to characterize fruits’ nutraceutical properties. These values were compared with the respective values measured for eight commercial cultivars grown in Hungary. The average of FRAP and TPC values was higher for the Ukrainian cherries compared with commercial cultivars suggesting they might be included in functional breeding programs. Since, cherry is a self-incompatible species, the determination of S-genotype is required for both breeding and successful cultivar association in commercial orchards. Complete or partial S-genotypes were determined for 5 and 3 cultivars, respectively.

  • Ecological characteristics of natural and culturated species, their comparison in Prunus genus
    7-16
    Views:
    155

    Plum species are found native throughout the nothern hemisphere, but mostly in the temperate zone. The earliest writings about plum date back some 2000 years (De Candolle, 1894; Cullinan, 1937) puts the age of plums at 2000-4000 years old (Bagenal, 1954). However, the stone core findings suggest a greater past. The question is difficult to conclude because the large number of species of the genus are taxonomically unclear and spread over a wide geographical area. The taxonomic position of stone fruit species and varieties can also be different, especially for Prunus species (Kárpáti, 1967; Terpó, 1974; Raming & Cociu, 1991; Faust & Surányi, 1997; Surányi, 2013).  The study analyzes the average relative ecological value measurement numbers of 75 species, including 120 cultivars, in terms of diversity and similarity. It is novel that, based on the sources, the author used the Ellenberg-Borhid values for the European, Asian, North American and other species, expanding them with transitional subgenera (e.g. Microcerasus). It was also possible to pay attention to a North African, Central and South American Prunus/Prunophora species. Following the accounting of economic and fruiting values, the species, subspecies, and varieties of the European and Mediterranean regions are the finalists, but species hybrid plums, rootstocks, or Prunus species whose values have not yet been known can play a role. Although the kéköny is a known species, it can become a cultivated fruit species due to the high antioxidant content of the fruit (Hegedűs & Halász, 2019).

  • Nectar production of quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) cultivars
    87-94.
    Views:
    183

    Nectar production of six quince cultivars were measured during three consecutive years. The nectar production of quince can be regarded to be small compared to other temperate zone fruit tree species since quince flowers contained 1.07 ± 0.06 mg of nectar in average. The extreme values, however, ranged between 0.1 and 7.3 mg/flower and this indicated that the nectar production was highly variable. The distribution of the nectar production was definitely skew because low values were definitely much more frequent than the highest ones. Our findings do not corroborate the earlier statements on the high sugar concentration of quince nectar. We found some 21-27% sugar in average, only. The normal distribution of the sugar concentration also indicates that the typical sugar concentration may be between 20-30%. Accordingly, the sugar concentration of quince nectar is rather low compared to other temperate zone fruit tree species (except pear). There was a significant negative correlation between the amount of nectar and its sugar concentration in quince flowers in all of the three years of the study (r= -0.51, n=37, p<0.02 in 1996, r= -0.57, n=28, p<0.1 in 1997, r= -0.35, n=9 I, p<0.001 in 1998). No definite difference was established between the nectar production of quince cultivars. Nevertheless, one cultivar tended to produce less and two other ones produced somewhat more nectar in average than the rest of the 6 cvs investigated but the extreme values of nectar production of cultivars overlapped in most cages.

     

  • Comparative analysis of sweet cherry cultivars on their ecological and biological indicators
    14-33.
    Views:
    140

    Sweet cherries are slightly more demanding than sour cherries. It is grown in warmer areas around the world. The relative ecological values obtained for the varieties obtained by extensive data collection differ slightly from the leading descriptions. Warm and demanding. The woody parts tolerate the cool of the winter quite well, the flower buds are damaged by the spring frosts. Its water demand is medium, in the case of 550 mm of annual rainfall, it adorns well on loose soils with good nutrient supply. Airy ground, neutral soil (pH 5.5-7.5) is optimal, but not suitable for areas with strongly calcareous, stagnant, stagnant groundwater. From the start of ripening, sudden rainfall, stormy winds and birds can cause great damage. Highlighting the world’s leading varieties in the study (Bing, Rainier, Chelan, Van and Burlat) (Iezzoni et al., 1991, Faust & Surányi, 1997) - according to relative ecological and biological values, the most popular cherries are mainly they differed from the other varieties based on TB and KB. Open pollination and with it, the productivity of the varieties exceeded the overall variety average precisely because of the breeding objectives. Certainly, the analysis of historical varieties, the oldest landscape and local varieties based on relative ecological and biological values can help further pomological-ecological research.

  • Evaluation of lifespan values of six tree taxa in city streets
    25-27.
    Views:
    289

    The aim of this study was to evaluate lifespan values of trees in tree-row system in the streets of Debrecen in two years (2009 and 2017). Six selected taxa (Pyrus calleryana, Acer tataricum, Sorbus intermedia, Magnolia kobus, Acer platanoides and Crataegus x lavalleei) were estimated for the following lifespan parameters: i) trunk diameter (cm), ii) tree crown size (m), iii) trunk status (in 0-5 grades), iv) tree crown status (in 0-5 grades), and v) estimated tree viability (in 0-5 grades). Our results showed that the largest were achieved for Pyrus calleryana and the lowest for Acer tataricum. The largest tree crown diameters were achieved for Acer platanoides and the lowest Magnolia kobus. The best trunk statuses by 2017 were achieved for Pyrus calleryana and the worst Crataegus x lavalleei. The best tree crown statuses by 2017 were achieved for Pyrus calleryana and the worst for Acer tataricum. The best estimated tree viability status was achieved for two taxa (Pyrus calleryana and Acer platanoides). Overall tree values were 2.73 times higher in 2017 compared to 2009. In summary, this study demonstrated the role of appropriate choice of tree taxa for a tree-row system under city street conditions.

  • Economic figures of apple production at national level of Hungary
    103-105.
    Views:
    240

    Apple is the most important fruit in Hungary, despite of that, it is a paradox that during the last years, apple growing was the most unsuccessful enterprise among the prosperous ones in the country. The real cause of regression was unequivocally the low price, which could be obtained and the inadequate structure of apple varieties. A heavy problem is still the overweight of the quality doomed to supplying the processing industry instead to the fresh consumption. In order to improve the conditions, we aimed the economic analysis of the five year long period, 2005-2009, to trace the changes involving values and costs of production, income and all conditions combined with this activity. The data presented in the paper are means of a heterogeneous population of values, which cannot be utilised for immediate use in management, but they may reveal the challenges and tendencies of that branch in economics.

  • Relative ecological and biological indicator values of plum and prune cultivars
    37-53.
    Views:
    197

    The study was conducted to compare historical plums, gene collections, and is currently cultivated and recent perspective varieties from the author. The object of the study was the relative ecological Borhidi’s figures and classification of varieties under the new definition, as the relative biological values. There were 11 figures no one in particular affect the data of the plums grown in importance as TB, WB, RB, LB, and the values are relative biological value (OP, FR, SS, and DR). The specificity of each indicator was different, but in general the  importance and specific breeds was associated with. The SB (salt figures) is not proved informative, partly because small data in the literature, on the other hand, had little to their own observations as well. The gene bank of Cegléd is now third-generation (1951–1972, 1973–1991, since 1992) kind of collection, during which many aspects have changed climatic conditions: cold winter eased the strictness, but has increased the threat
    of spring frost advection. The relative biological scores markedly influenced around flowering extreme weather (dry, windy weather and so flowering in within 2-3 days), optimal conditions of the plum pox virus vectors and of course the presence of fruit and foliage harmful fungi. It see to be, in the case of semi-wild and wild fruit species – are possible with similar comparative analyzes, and hopefully will in feral forms, culture – as we have seen previously (Surányi 2000 and 2006). In the continuation analysis of the natural vegetation and cultural context of the complex multifactorial factors will be carried out more easily, according to the relative value figures, as well as rootstock effects and plantation’s habitat studies, and even the most phytotechnical evaluation of interventions.

  • Organic versus integrated apple growing: II. differences in fruit quality parameters
    61-63.
    Views:
    227

    The aim our study was to establish whether significant differences in nutrients uptake and quality of fruit exist
    between organic and integrated grown apples. The study was performed at the orchard Fruit Research Station, University of Debrecen, at Debrecen-Pallag during 2002–2004. Diameter (mm), weight (g), firmness (N/cm2), dry matter (%) and Vitamin C in fruit were determined. Diameter data showed that the size of apples strongly depended on cultivars and organic apples were larger than integrated ones. Moreover, the effect of year and species strongly affected the apple diameter, size and weight. Measured data of firmness were good agreement in data of diameter and weight. Larger fruits have lower values of firmness due to the structure of fruit flesh. Dry matter content of apples varied between 14.66 and 18.07 in integrated, and 12.87 and 17.29 in organic apples according to cultivars. Values were affected by years and cultivars. From results it was evident that the dry matter content of apples affected by production system. It was lower in organic samples than integrated ones.Vitamin C content of apples was stronger affected by species and years than production system.

  • Evaluation study for the effect of four mango rootstocks on behaviour of Keit mango variety
    49-53.
    Views:
    250

    Our investigation was carried out in four mango rootstocks were namely Zebda, Socaria, 13/1 an 4/9. This study reviewed the effect of these rootstocks on growth behaviour of Keit mango variety as a scion grown on them. This evaluation and comparison included data on following aspects: the vegetative growth characters, root growth parameter, uptake of some macro nutrient and some organic substance. All results in this regard refer that the Socaria rootstock gave the highest values off all parameters so it is considered as a vigorous rootstocks, means that the trees on this rootstocks will reach to high size after short time. By contrast, Zebda rootstocks gave the lowest values in this concern and this will reflect on tree size on it. This means that the Zebda rootstocks will be useful in the system of high density orchard comparing with Socaria. Concerning to other rootstocks, they were intermediate between Socaria and Zebda rootstocks.

  • Leaf number and plant height of three Canna x generalis cultivars
    22-24.
    Views:
    244

    The aim of this three-year study was to evaluate the effect of three treatments (thiophanate methyl, charcoal dust, and control) on leaf number and plant height on three Canna x generalis cultivars (City of Portland, Richard Wallace and Robert Kemp). Results showed that the 3-year means of leaf number ranged from 13.9 to 23.1 for the three cultivars. The largest leaf numbers were for cultivar Robert Camp (23.1 in 2010) and the lowest for cultivar City of Portland (13.9 in 2011). Thiophanate methyl treatment produced the highest number of leaves and the values were significantly different at P< 0.05 from the control for all years and for all cultivars. Numbers of leaves in charcoal dust treatments were larger than the control treatments but it was not significantly different. Results on plant height ranged from 69.2 to 160.5 cm for the three cultivars. The largest plant height was for cultivar Robert Kemp (160.5 cm in 2011) and the lowest for cultivar City of Portland (69.2 cm in 2011). Thiophanate methyl treatment produced the highest plant height and the values were significantly different at P< 0.05 from the control for all years and for all cultivars. Plant heights in charcoal dust treatments were larger than the control treatments but it was not significantly different.

  • Ecological diversity of Hungarian medicinal and aromatic plant flora and its regional consequences
    10-19.
    Views:
    161

    During the last century the medicinal and aromatic plant sector has became a successful part of the Hungarian Agriculture. Some of the national products have been accepted as a special Hungarian ones ("Hungaricum"), evaluated on the world market, respectfully. By the estimates the cultivation area of medicinal and aromatic plants increased up to 37,000-42,000 hectares and considerable amount — about 10, 000-15, 000 tonnes of dry biomass — are produced by utilisation of Hungarian indigenous flora, year by year.

    In the present work ecological requirements of 97 collected and 55 cultivated medicinal and aromatic plants are characterised. Based on the analysis of -Ts (temperature regime values) about 63 per cent of cultivated species came from Submediterranean and Mediterranean type of habitat, originally, while the majority of collected plants (61.8 per cent of them) prefer the deciduous forest conditions. The differences between collected and cultivated species are appreciable too, if the distributions of their characteristic water regime ('W' values) are compared. The majority of cultivated species require dry (moderate dry) and fresh (moderate fresh) habitats, while the amplitude of water requirement of collected species is much more wide-ranging.

    The regional specialisation of Hungary according to production of medicinal and aromatic plants is known from the beginnings of the 20th century. As a result of spontaneous process seven well-defined production areas were developed. The relationship between regions, their climatic conditions and spectrum of species produced there are analysed.

     

  • Evaluation of a simple fruit tree structural model
    123-126.
    Views:
    155

    A simple three element tree structure model of Lang, 2006 was tested in plum orchard using two different inertia fruit tree shakers. The first was a slider crank type one; the second had rotating eccentric weights. The parameters of both were chosen to give similar frequency and amplitude output in average orchard conditions. Orchard experiments were carried out shaking the trees with both machines at several frequencies and shaking heights. The measured acceleration and amplitude values were plotted on diagrams together with the calculated acceleration and amplitude curves of the fruit tree-shaker machine model. Choosing the right fruit tree parameters, such as apparent spring constant, damping coefficient, reduced trunk mass and coefficient of elasticity of the trunk the measured and calculated values coincided well. This proves the ability of the fruit tree model for optimising the shaker parameters to any given orchard.

  • The antioxidant capacity of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) berries depends on the genotype and harvest time
    27-29.
    Views:
    243

    Berries of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) are characterized by increasing popularity due to their presumable healtheffects. The aim of this study was to compare the antioxidant capacity and total polyphenolic content in the berries of six Hungarian grown sea buckthorn genotypes and characterize the genetic variability in this trait. The harvest time of sea buckthorn berries affects the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents in berries of three popular cultivars of German origin. Berries harvested in October had higher antioxidant capacity compared with those harvested one month later. The extent of the difference was genotype-specific. Our analysis revealed a nearly 3-fold difference between the lowest and highest antioxidant capacities of the 6 tested genotypes with ‘Leikora’ showing the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power and total phenolic content. The TEAC values ranged between 1.76 and 3.13 mmol Trolox/100g fresh weight with Pető 1 and ‘Frugana’ having the highest values. The results presented in this study demonstrated that Hippophae rhamnoides berries possess in vitro antioxidant activity strongly determined by genotype but also influenced by harvest time.

  • Investigation of flowering dynamics of the basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and its consequences in production
    74-80.
    Views:
    158

    The flowering dynamics of Ocimum basilicum L., (a common population maintained at the UHFI) was studied with the aim to create an exact and practically applicable method for definition of phenological phases.

    According to our observation the development of individual flowers of the basil can be characterized by 8 distinguishable phases, which must be considered for description of the actual phenological stage of a spike.

    An accurate model was created for the unambiguous description of flowering process of different flowers within the spike and for the individual plant as a whole. The new flowering index formula is calculated from the number of flowers weighed by their phenological phases.

    The time dependence of flowering is presented by functions fitted to values of the flowering index. The results reflected different patterns of the main inflorescence, the inflorescences formed on the side shoots in the first or in the second half of the flowering period. However, for description of the flowering process of the whole plant, a sigmoid function proved to be the appropriate model.

    The accumulation process of the essential oil could be characterized by the flowering index values. They showed close correlation (r=0.964) at high probability.

    The new method assures an exact definition of phenological phases in basil. Its application seems to be optimal during breeding procedures, seed production and even in production of high quality drugs, according to the requirements of the Good Agricultural Practice (Guidelines for GAP, 1998).

     

  • Economic figures of sour cherry production at national level of Hungary
    107-109.
    Views:
    157

    After the political changes of 1989, economical processes impaired heavily the Hungarian fruit growing branch, more particularly production of sour cherry. Paralleling with the increasing mass of production, producer’s prices dwindled drastically. At present, Hungarian growers cannot cover the costs of production, nay, hardly raise income. My purpose was to analyse the cost and income relations of the sour cherry branch during the period of 2002-2009 years in order to find out what are the decisive features, which reveal the trends to be considered. The data presented in the paper are means of a heterogeneous population of values, which cannot be utilised for immediate use in management, but they may reveal the challenges and tendencies of economics of the branch.

  • Metaxenia in apples cv. 'Rewena', 'Relinda', 'Baujade' as influenced by scab resistant pollinizers
    11-14.
    Views:
    279

    Fruit quality of cross pollinated apples (Malus x domestica) influenced by the metaxenic pollen effect of the pollinizer was observed in Hungary. Flowers of three resistant cultivars (`Baujade', `Rewena') were hand pollinated with other resistant apple cultivars. Fruits were harvested on 25 September, 2005. Fruit quality was investigated in the laboratory of the Department of Pomology; Corvinus University of Budapest. Not only size and morphological parameters (diameter, height, stem length), but also refraction and acidic content of the fruits were measured.

    According to the statistical analysis significant differences were determined on fruits among the groups as an effect of the pollen provider. In consideration of size parameters (diameter, height, weight) of `Rewena' fruits pollination partner 'Freedom' and 'Prima' caused outstanding results but `Florina' caused flatter fruits. Pollen of `Florina' and `Freedor-,' caused a higher percent refraction in the fruits of `Rewena'. In the case of `Baujade' fruits `Reglindis' — among cultivars we used as pollinizer — caused the biggest fruits medium flesh firmness and harmonic inner content values. `Rajka' caused on one hand smaller fruits and on the other hand higher flesh firmness and inner content values in the case of `Relinda' fruits. According to our data measured pollinizers varied the stem length as well.

  • Connection of fertilization conditions of sour cherry and meteorological parameters
    17-21.
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    205

    Our analyses showed that the degree of free fertilization is mostly influenced by maximum temperature and sunshine duration.We found that free fertilization ratio increases with higher daily maximum temperatures; similar results characterise sunshine duration as well, namely we observed higher free fertilization ratio at higher sunshine duration values. Total amount of precipitation during the period between blossoming and maturity and the difference between the average daytime and night temperatures have an important role in the tendency of maturity time. Photosynthesis and respiration are essentially significant in the development of biological systems. These two processes are mostly regulated by the daytime and night temperatures. Therefore, it is not surprising that if the difference between daytime and night temperatures is large, it means intensive photosynthesis and a low degree of respiratory loss. Under these conditions intensive development and ripening can take place; however, in case of a low temperature difference intensive respiration slows down the process of development. Duration of ripening is also significantly influenced by the amount of precipitation of the period between blossoming and maturity.Abundant precipitation slows down the process of ripening, while dry weather accelerates it. Self-fertilization takes place in a space isolated from the environment. In spite of that, we found that effectiveness of self-pollination significantly depends on the meteorological conditions. Degree of self-fertilization is influenced directly by temperature and indirectly by other climatic parameters. We found a significant connection between the values of maximum and minimum temperatures during blossoming and the ratio of self-fertilization. Increase of maximum temperature reduces the effectiveness of self-pollination.A 1 °C increase of maximum temperature reduces self-fertilization ratio by 0,6%. In the case of minimum temperature we can state that the morning minimum temperature of 7,5–8,5°C is the most favourable. If minimum temperatures are under 4 °C or above 12 °C, self-fertilization ratio reduces to the quarter of the value characteristic at 8 °C. We believe that the effectiveness of self-fertilization can be improved considerably by the rational placement of isolator bags within the crown area, avoiding their placement to the external, western crown surface.