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  • Genetic diversity in a collection of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) cultivars as revealed by RAPD markers
    25-35.
    Views:
    173

    A collection of 151 apple cultivars was investigated with 7 RAPD primers generating 71 informative bands, to evaluate genetic variability and relatedness. All cultivars presumably derived through genetic recombination were distinguished whereas identical DNA profiles indicated that some cultivars had arisen as sports. A cluster analysis and a PCO did not reveal any distinct geographic patterns, but there was a weak tendency for Swedish and foreign cultivars to differentiate.. Many cultivars however clustered together with either one of their parents or with siblings. Overall genetic diversity among the 151 cultivars was estimated with Nei's diversity index (H), 0.269, and with Shannon's index (H'), 0.594. The cultivars were also analysed in six groups, according to time of origination and country of origin, with an average H = 0.262 and H' = 0.546. No major differences in genetic diversity were observed over time or space, although the group with recent, foreign cultivars had the lowest diversity (FL = 0.235, H' = 0.493). Comparison between the entire material and a subset with 94 mandate cultivars chosen for preservation in Sweden, showed similar genetic diversity: HFN.rj1E = 0.268, frE,NTIRE, = 0.593 and HMANDATE = 0.263, WMANDATE = 0.575. No major differences in band frequencies were observed between these two sets, but 5 RAPD bands were missing in the set with mandate cultivars.

  • Molecular diversity of Hungarian melon varieties revealed by RAPD markers
    11-13.
    Views:
    117

    RAPD markers were used to reveal genetic diversity between nine varieties of Cucumis melo L. and to identify the studied varieties. Of the 60 primers tested 12 primers produced polymorph patterns. A set of 4 primers was sufficient for distinction the nine investigated melon varieties.

  • Characterization of quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) cultivars using SSR markers developed for apple
    7-10.
    Views:
    306

    Quince (Cydonia oblongaMill.) is a minor fruit crop, which is primarily used for marmalade, jam and sauce.Very few quince cultivars are known all over the world and in many cases similar names are used for presumably different cultivars. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and characterize the genetic diversity of 36 quince cultivars and selections with SSR markers. Seven out of 8 SSR markers designed from apple sequences could successfully yield amplification also in quince cultivars. Number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 3 alleles. These allele numbers are quite low when compared to apple. It is supposed to be the consequence of a genetic bottleneck. In spite of the low allele number per locus, the 36 quince cultivars formed 30 different genotypes. The ratio of homozygosity was low, which might be coupled with the self-(in)compatibility phenotype of quinces. SSR markers proved unable to differentiate putatively closely related cultivars (e.g. ‘Bereczki’ and ‘Bereczki bôtermő’). In general, the level of polymorphism among the tested quince genotypes was much restricted due to the low allele number detected. However, it must be considered that the number of analysed SSR loci is not enough high to estimate the overall heterozygosity of the quince genome. Further experiments are needed and the SSR markers proved to be a reliable and useful tool for such analyses.

  • Comparative investigation on Hypericum perforatum L. populations of different origin
    56-60.
    Views:
    177

    Widespread application for herbal medicines based on Hyperici herba has been experienced in the last few years, especially in the treatment of depression syndrome. As the wild origins could not satisfy the market demands neither in quantitative nor in qualitative res­pect, the necessity of the development of intensive growing methods has been raised. In the course of our investigations we intended to clear up the morphological and chemical variability among and within populations of different origin in order to start a new breeding program. According to our data, growth dynamics of populations could be characterised by a logistic curve. According to the time of flowering the populations formed early, middle and late groups. Morphological diversity among populations was measurable in differences of flower length, plant height, different leaf types and plant habit, according to which characteristics groups were distinguished. Generally, the accessions were the most homogenous in plant height (CV: 7-15%), followed by inflorescence-lengths (CV: 11-36%) and the least uniform characteristics proved to be the number of flowering shoots (CV: 14-59%). The greatest morphological heterogeneity was experienced in the accessions of wild origin as it has been expected. In the second vegetation period generally a much better homogeneity was obtained, than in the first year. The most outstanding accessions produced 1.2 t of dry flowers and 4 t of dry flowering shoots, calculating to one hectare area. The individual yields varied on a large scale in each population (CV: 18-70%).

    The content of hypericin varied between 1,85 and 9,9 mg/g in 1996, and between 0,18 and 2,70 mg/g in 1997, showing high individual divergences. Flavonoid values -including first of all hyperosid, rutin and quercitrin - reached 17-39 mg/g in the first and 15-20 mg/g in the second year, respectively. Individual and seasonal variation was less than in hypericin. A joint high level of these two compound groups seems to have low frequencies.

    The superior population were selected for further breeding.

     

  • Self-incompatibility alleles in Esatern European and Asian almond (Prunus dulcis) genotypes: a preliminary study
    23-26.
    Views:
    183

    Almond [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb.] as one of the oldest domesticated plants is thought to have originated in central Asia. Gametophytic self-incompatibility of almond is controlled by the highly polymorphic S-locus. The S-locus encodes for an S-ribonuclease (S-RNase) protein in the pistils, which degrades RNA in self-pollen tubes and hence stops their growing. This study was carried out to detect S-RNase allelic variants in Hungarian and Eastern European almond cultivars and Turkish wild growing seedlings, and characterize their S-allele pool. Five new alleles were identifi ed, S31H, S36-S39 in Eastern European local cultivars. The village Bademli and Akdamar island are two distinct places of almond natural occurrence in Turkey. Trees growing wild around Bademli city showed greater genetic diversity than those originated on Akdamar island. Many of the previously described 45 S-RNase alleles have been also detected in these regions. Homology searches revealed that Turkish almonds carried some P. webbii alleles indicating hybridization between the two cultivars and massive introgression events. Our results supply long-awaited information on almond S-allele diversity from regions between the main cultivation centres and the centre of origin of this species; and are discussed from the aspect of methodological developments and evolution of the cultivated almond.

  • Molecular characterization of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivars using cross species SSR amplification with peach primers
    53-57.
    Views:
    200

    Apricot takes an important place in Hungarian fruit production. Considering morphological characteristics of apricots it was concluded that the genetics background of European cultivars is very limited. Molecular markers and their use for genotyping have revolutionized the identification of cultivars. In a classic apricot breeding program, it is important to be able to establish unique DNA profiles of selections to identify them unambiguously and to determine their genetic relationship. Presently SSR is far the most frequently performed technique for genetic diversity studies. In this study there were used peach and apricot primer pairs from four different sources in order to examine microsatellite polymorphism among cultivars and investigate relationships among them. The possibility of cross species amplification among different Prunus species using SSR primers allowed us to use primers developed in peach to study genetic diversity in apricot. In this work, 90% of the primers used were able to amplify SSRs in apricot and more than half of them were polymorphic. With the 10 primer pairs utilized were proven to be sufficient to set unique fingerprint for several cultivars studied. The obtained dendrogram classified of the 45 cultivars included in this study into two major groups and several subgroups.

  • Genetic relatedness among Asian Cotoneaster species investigated with DNA marker analysis
    43-46.
    Views:
    152

    The widespread genus Cotoneaster has its centre of diversity in the Himalayas and surrounding areas. Most taxa appear to be polyploid and apomictic, and many of them have become popular ornamentals due to their attractive foliage and berries. One of the taxonomically most critical groups is Section Alpigeni which contains several important ornamental plants. The number of species belonging to this section varies widely between different taxonomic treatises, depending on whether 'splitting' or 'lumping' of species is preferred. Using a rather narrow species definition, we have investigated 13 different species using RAPD analysis. A simple matching (SM) coefficient-based principle coordinate analysis (PCO) was calculated from the RAPD data. Some species were clearly more similar to each other than to other species in the analysis. The levels of similarity did, however, not correspond very well to the lumping together of several taxa under the same species name as performed e.g. in the recent Flora of China. Obviously, the complex hybridogenous origination and, in some cases, still ongoing recombination with sexual species or among the apomictic taxa themselves, produces a genetic variability structure that cannot be properly reflected in a hierarchical taxonomy.

  • Large variations in antioxidant capacity and contents of Hungarian sour and sweet cherry cultivars
    25-28.
    Views:
    341

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) cultivars grown in Hungary are of local origin while most sweet cherry cultivars in Hungary are introduced from other countries.A great phenotypic variability is displayed by both species. In the present study, we analyzed 10 sour and 9 sweet cherry cultivars for their antioxidant capacity, total polyphenolics (TPC) and total anthocyanin (TMAC) contents. In general, sour cherries showed higher levels of antioxidant capacity, TPC and TMAC. The anthocyanin contents varied from 0.16 to 6.85 and 1.41 to 127.56 mg/100 g for sweet and sour cherries, respectively. However, TMAC generally seems to have a limited influence on the antioxidant capacity of cherries.An amarelletype sour cherry, ‘Pipacs 1’ showed the highest antioxidant capacity (21.21mmolAA/l) and TPC (44.07mgGA/l) in contrast to its lowanthocyanin content. The detected diversity presents a choice that can satisfy different consumer preferences, and meet specific nutritional requirements.

  • Development of microsatellite markers for Rhodiola rosea
    37-42.
    Views:
    200

    Rhodiola rosea L. is an important adaptogen medicinal plant. In this study two new microsatellite markers were developed. The assessment of the genetic diversity of R. rosea has recently started with molecular markers, but only a few species-specific microsatellite markers have been published so far. However the small number of markers allows only a limited insight into the genetic variability of the species therefore the aim of our work was to develop new microsatellite markers for R. rosea with a microsatellite enrichment library technique. Genomic DNA was cleaved with an endonuclease enzyme followed by adaptor ligation and PCR amplification. DNA fragments that contained microsatellites were first isolated using a biotin-streptavidin linkage based magnetic selection and then cloned into plasmids. Out of forty-three sequenced clones three contained  microsatellites, in these cases primers were designed for the amplification of the microsatellite repeats. The newly developed primer pairs were tested on individuals from distant R. rosea populations and the variability of the amplified fragments was estimated by fragment-length analysis. The locus RhpB14a was found to be monomorphic while RhpB14b and RhpB13 were polymorphic. As a result of the present study, two novel variable microsatellite loci were identified in the genome of R. rosea.

  • The Hungarian pear germplasm as source of genetic variability for breeding programmes
    7-13.
    Views:
    203

    TheHungarian pear collection (Pyrus communis L.) consists of 423 genotypes distributed over seven genebanks inHungary. This is one of themost extensive collections of native and cultivated pears found in Eastern Europe and includes a wide range of genotypes with small size fruit (referred to as “Miniature pears”). Based on the in situ and ex situ measures taken by governmental and other institutions for fruit tree conservation in Hungary, an overview is given on some activities regarding areas of Pyrus collection and genebanks where pears are collected and grown. Descriptions of traits of miniature pears found in Hungarian genebanks for the interest of genetic characterization and breeding are presented.

  • Preliminary characterization of the self-incompatibility genotypes of European plum (Prunus domestica L.) cultivars
    23-26.
    Views:
    210

    European plum is an important fruit crop with complex, hexaploid genome of unknown origin. The characterization of the selfincompatibility (S) locus of 16 European plum cultivars was carried out using the PaConsI-F primer in combination with the EM-PC1consRD primer for the first intron and the EM-PC2consFD and EM-PC3consRD primers for the second intron amplification. Altogether, 18 different alleles were scored indicating high genetic diversity. These alleles were labelled using alphabetical codes from SA to SS. We  identified 5 different alleles in 9 cultivars, 4 alleles in 5 cultivars, while 3 alleles were shown in two of the assayed cultivars. A total of 16 different S-genotypes were assigned, and discrimination of all plum cultivars was successful based on their unique S-genotypes. However, further research is required to reliably identify the S-alleles based on their DNA sequence and clarify complete S-genotypes.

  • Ecological diversity of Hungarian medicinal and aromatic plant flora and its regional consequences
    10-19.
    Views:
    161

    During the last century the medicinal and aromatic plant sector has became a successful part of the Hungarian Agriculture. Some of the national products have been accepted as a special Hungarian ones ("Hungaricum"), evaluated on the world market, respectfully. By the estimates the cultivation area of medicinal and aromatic plants increased up to 37,000-42,000 hectares and considerable amount — about 10, 000-15, 000 tonnes of dry biomass — are produced by utilisation of Hungarian indigenous flora, year by year.

    In the present work ecological requirements of 97 collected and 55 cultivated medicinal and aromatic plants are characterised. Based on the analysis of -Ts (temperature regime values) about 63 per cent of cultivated species came from Submediterranean and Mediterranean type of habitat, originally, while the majority of collected plants (61.8 per cent of them) prefer the deciduous forest conditions. The differences between collected and cultivated species are appreciable too, if the distributions of their characteristic water regime ('W' values) are compared. The majority of cultivated species require dry (moderate dry) and fresh (moderate fresh) habitats, while the amplitude of water requirement of collected species is much more wide-ranging.

    The regional specialisation of Hungary according to production of medicinal and aromatic plants is known from the beginnings of the 20th century. As a result of spontaneous process seven well-defined production areas were developed. The relationship between regions, their climatic conditions and spectrum of species produced there are analysed.

     

  • Ecological characteristics of natural and culturated species, their comparison in Prunus genus
    7-16
    Views:
    155

    Plum species are found native throughout the nothern hemisphere, but mostly in the temperate zone. The earliest writings about plum date back some 2000 years (De Candolle, 1894; Cullinan, 1937) puts the age of plums at 2000-4000 years old (Bagenal, 1954). However, the stone core findings suggest a greater past. The question is difficult to conclude because the large number of species of the genus are taxonomically unclear and spread over a wide geographical area. The taxonomic position of stone fruit species and varieties can also be different, especially for Prunus species (Kárpáti, 1967; Terpó, 1974; Raming & Cociu, 1991; Faust & Surányi, 1997; Surányi, 2013).  The study analyzes the average relative ecological value measurement numbers of 75 species, including 120 cultivars, in terms of diversity and similarity. It is novel that, based on the sources, the author used the Ellenberg-Borhid values for the European, Asian, North American and other species, expanding them with transitional subgenera (e.g. Microcerasus). It was also possible to pay attention to a North African, Central and South American Prunus/Prunophora species. Following the accounting of economic and fruiting values, the species, subspecies, and varieties of the European and Mediterranean regions are the finalists, but species hybrid plums, rootstocks, or Prunus species whose values have not yet been known can play a role. Although the kéköny is a known species, it can become a cultivated fruit species due to the high antioxidant content of the fruit (Hegedűs & Halász, 2019).

  • Damages caused by winter frosts, their temporal variation and frequencies in the main fruit growing region of Transdanubia and of the East Tisza regions of Hungary
    89-97.
    Views:
    199

    The aim of the study was the study of winter frost damages, especially their changes expressed in temporal frequencies on the main fruit growing regions of the country. In our earlier paper, we introduced the calculation with the term LT50 as the quantitative expression of temperature threshold, when the lethality halves the survival of plant organs, buds or cells causing 50% death rate. The damage is highly dependent on the temperature and on its duration (length of time), but not at least on the frost tolerance of the fruit trees. The incidence and severity of damage is analysed according to the apricot and peach varieties of their different susceptibility or tolerance too. Four fruit growing regions, two of the in Transdanubia and two belonging to the regions east of the Tisza river have been selected to trace the incidence and severity of frost damages. For that purpose, we analysed the history of the past 60 year period, 1951–2010, utilising the database of the network of 16 meteorological stations of the countrywide service. Being aware of the values of LT50 during the rest period and afterward, the compulsory dormancy caused by low temperature, the number of days, the probability of frost damage could be predicted. The role of the orographical profi le, the height above sea level and the exposition of plantations are also decisive. Within the same plantation, 20–30 m difference of level may cause large diversity in temperature and frost damage. Air circulation and regular incidence of winds within the Carpathian basin modify the occurrence and severity of damages. Lowlands near the southern and northern country borders are particularly exposed to winter frosts. Most damages are reported in February, as temperatures below –20 °C especially if the fi rst part of the winter was mild, or in January was a warm period. With the end of the physiological rest period of the trees, the frost-susceptibility increases signifi cantly, and a cold period of –15 °C may cause heavy damage. This study proves that tolerance of varieties infl uence the damages substantially. By planting frost tolerant varieties, winter frost damages could be diminished by 40–50% at the same growing sites. Present results may also offer a tool to estimate the risk of frost damages and express the security of yields at a given site based on the data accumulated in the database over many years.

  • Comparative analysis of sour cherry cultivars on their ecological and biological indicators
    7-28.
    Views:
    329

    Sour cherries developed in the northern hemisphere, an alloploid hybrid of dwarf sour cherries (Prunus fruticosa) and bird cherries (P. avium), born in the confluence of the two species. However, the ecological and, above all, cold tolerance of the ancestor of cultivated sour cherries is higher than that of wild cherries (De Candolle, 1894; Rehder, 1954; Terpó, 1974; Iezzoni et al., 1991; Faust & Surányi, 1997). The cultivation limits are in the northern hemisphere 38-44. degree. The Carpathian Basin, the Balkans and Asia Minor are considered to be the main birthplaces for sour cherries. The genetic and morphological diversity of sour cherries is greater than that of the basic species (Iezzoni et al. 1991; Faust & Surányi, 1997). In the study, 472 sour cherry cultivars were compared based on 7 relative ecological indicators and 3 biological values. Compared to other Prunus species, we mostly found less variability in sour cherries - not counting their salt tolerance (SB). The partial similarity between open pollination (OP), frost tolerance (FR) and disease resistance (DR) - partly true in terms of varieties, but also reflected the effects of purposeful breeding and selection. The cultivars together - in comparison, showed balance, but in the highlighting, the differences of the 3 cultivar groups became significant. Indeed, the differences between the species of the former Hungarian cultural flora are clearly different (Surányi, 2004), which is also the case when comparing a large number of apricot (Surányi, 2014), plum (Surányi, 2015) and peach (Surányi, 2020) varieties.

  • The role and current state of gene reservation of medicinal and aromatic plants in Hungary an overview
    19-21.
    Views:
    146

    As it well known the decrease of biodiversity is a large problem all over the world. In case of medicinal plants, where the huge majority of drugs are collected from natural ecosystems, the sustainable, utilization of the populations and reservation of their gene-pools has an increased interest.

    In Hungary, the major background of 'in situ' reservation of medicinal plant species, their natural plant associations and ecosystems is the official protection by law. Successful examples are known for the controlled utilization of medicinal and aromatic plant species grown in protected areas. Assuring the naturally occuring high degree of biological and chemical diversity of species is a special task in this field: only maintenance of valuable intraspecific races can form the real genetic basis of natural biologically active compounds.

    Maintenance of chemotaxonomical gardens and gene bank collections (seed banks, tissue banks) as 'ex situ' methods of reservation is carried out on an extended range in Hungary. As the required information on storage and maintenance of many medicinal and aromatic plant species is yet missing, exhaustive research is carried out at both genebanks in Hungary, which are specialized for medicinal plant reservation (RIMAP- Budakalász, SZIU- Budapest).

    Beside the static conservation methods, 'quasi-production systems' are intended to assure an up-to-date and economically possible way of dynamic reservation with sustainable utilization.

     

  • Comparative analysis of peach and nectarine cultivars based on their ecological and biological indicators
    7-26.
    Views:
    340

    Natural conditions other than the ecological conditions of the Chinese gene center (as 34-38° latitude and 600 to 2400 m above sea level), mainly dry subtropical, i.e. Mediterranean effects, facilitated the development of new forms and varieties (Scorza & Okie, 1991; Faust & Timon, 1995). Probably the primary cause of nectarines, this could also be the primary cause of mutations (probably about 2000 years ago) (Roach, 1985; Surányi, 1985). During the long domestication of peaches, its natural occurrence increased, which was greatly enhanced by its ecological and mutational ability and the organoleptical values of its fruit (Hedrick, 1917; Roach, 1985; Scorza & Okie, 1991; Faust et al., 2011). Through the Ellenberg-Borhidi model and its refinement, the author has demonstrated the suitability of peaches in a broad climate zone based on the relative ecological and biological values of 700 varieties. Among the varieties, clone cultivars and hybrids were Hungarian selected and crossed form, because the diverse environmental conditions of the Carpathian Basin and the past and present size of cultivation were representative (Faust & Timon, 1995; Timon, 2000). It can be concluded from the present relative ecological data that the average standard deviation is below 12% for both peach and nectarine varieties, but the relative biological values were very different. Comparison of cultivars or classical (downy) peaches (n = 562) and nectarines (n = 138) in terms of environmental values confirmed the difference in heat demand and salt tolerance of the two groups of varieties. The pictures of the paper also demonstrated the rich diversity of this fruit species, and after analyzing the apricot and plum varieties (Surányi 2014, 2018), the peculiarities of the relative ecological and biological values of peaches were confirmed.

  • Precision geoinformatical system of the pear gene-collection orchard
    43-50.
    Views:
    201

    The principle task of the sustainable development is the preservation of the genetic variety, which is similar challenge in the horticulture regarding the sublimation of fruit species. The breeders of the traditional fruit strains give stock to the sustenance diversity of the agro-environment on the species and landscape level. In 2009, hyperspectral images have been taken by AISA Dual sensors from the pear gene pool in Újfehértó, Hungary. The hyperspectral data cube (in the wavelength range of 400-2500 nm, with 1.5 m ground resolution) ensured possibility to make the spectral library of pear species. In the course of the simultaneously field work the spatial position and individual extent of all pear trees was defined to set up a detailed GIS data base. The water stress sensitivity of single species and the descriptive spectral curves were determined with common evaluation of the spectral and spatial data. Based on the unique methodology processing and the hyperspectral data base suitable strains can be chosen for agro-environment and let take adaptive stocks regarding climate change into the genetic grafting work. Furthermore we could determine and map the sparsely species in the region with the help of the hyperspectral data.

  • Mutation induction in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by fast neutron irradiation
    30-38.
    Views:
    311

    Basil species are highly sensitive to exterior environmental conditions and its consequences lead to great economic and agronomic losses. In this research, a mutation method was optimized out for creating a new variety of Ocimum basilicum L., which could tolerate the extreme/extraordinary climatic circumstances or biotic stresses, such as fungal diseases. Fast neutron irradiation was performed on the Hungarian commercial variety seeds with doses of 5 to 60 Gray and grown into fully developed plants. Numerous phenotypical changes like deformed congestion, leaf mutation, and low growth occurred, especially at higher dosages. Then to confirm whether the plantlets had mutation or not, and to detect the molecular variation and relationship, fingerprinting profiles of the developed mutant regenerants and donor plant have been assessed using ISSR markers. 115 loci were yielded, ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 kb, out of which 110 loci were polymorphic in nature, representing 95.6% polymorphism. The most suitable primer to determine the genetic diversity within the Ocimum species was the UBC-856 with 0.42 PIC and 4.1 MI values.

  • Genetic variation in the rose pathogen Marssonina rosae estimated by RAPD
    63-67.
    Views:
    156

    Blackspot, caused by the fungus Marssonina rosae (Diplocarpon msae), is one of the most devastating and widespread diseases in garden roses, and it has as yet not been fully characterized in molecular terms. In this initial study we used RAPD analysis to investigate the genetic diversity among and within a few geographically diverse groups of single-spore isolates of M. rosae. DNA was extracted from in vitro­grown mycelia of 1 I single spore isolates grown on PDA medium. High levels of polymorphism were detected among the isolates. They clustered into three distinct groups: Group !consisted of isolates from eastern North America plus a European isolate (Germany), Group 2 included isolates from southern Sweden, and Group 3 included the isolates from Manitoba, Canada. The greater similarity of the environmental conditions in eastern North America and Europe as compared to the Canadian prairies suggest that. climate and weather could be key factors in influencing the potential race structure of M. rosae. However, variations among closely situated sites, e.g. southern Sweden, also occurred.

  • Preliminary evaluation of breeding perspectives of Ukrainian sweet cherry cultivars: nutraceutical properties and self-incompatibility
    7-11.
    Views:
    304

    Some traditional sweet cherry cultivars of Ukrainian origin may represent perspective material for Hungarian cherry breeding. A total of eight cultivars analysed represent great diversity in several phenotypic traits including fruit ripening time or fruit flesh colour. Considerable differences in the anthocyanin content may result in different antioxidant capacity of fruits. In the present study, we used ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total phenolic content (TPC) assays to characterize fruits’ nutraceutical properties. These values were compared with the respective values measured for eight commercial cultivars grown in Hungary. The average of FRAP and TPC values was higher for the Ukrainian cherries compared with commercial cultivars suggesting they might be included in functional breeding programs. Since, cherry is a self-incompatible species, the determination of S-genotype is required for both breeding and successful cultivar association in commercial orchards. Complete or partial S-genotypes were determined for 5 and 3 cultivars, respectively.

  • Comparative analysis of apricot cultivars based on their ecological and biological indicators
    35-50.
    Views:
    223

    The herbaceous plants organic characterize Ellenberg et al. worked out (1991), well-use system, which is updated with herbaceous and woody plant in the Hungarian flora species, so Soó (1964-1985), Zólyomi et al. (1967), Précsényi (1986) and Simon (1988) also addressed by different aspects of this problem circuits. The author is the first extended-Borhidi –Ellenberg’s system of wild fruit species (Surányi 2000, 2006) and cultivated of fruit (Surányi 2014) as well. Additional considerations there were aspects of the study of fruit varieties, these biological indicators following open pollination, frost tolerance, resistance of Sharka virus and disease   susceptibility for. Firstly, we introduced a system for improving it a plum species and cultivars (Surányi 2015). In this case we used the new system among species and varieties of apricots, because diversity was able to express significantly. Especially the SB, WB, NB, and the relative biological value figures showed the variety. RB (reaction figures) fluctuated only slightly among the 463 varieties, but the dynamic difference between the 11’s was an indicator for the characterization of apricots. If the comparison performed plum and apricot variety’s level anyway justified the use of 11 kinds of organic and biological indicators.