Our analyses showed that the degree of free fertilization is mostly influenced by maximum temperature and sunshine duration.We found that free fertilization ratio increases with higher daily maximum temperatures; similar results characterise sunshine duration as well, namely we observed higher free fertilization ratio at higher sunshine duration values. Total amount of precipitation during the period between blossoming and maturity and the difference between the average daytime and night temperatures have an important role in the tendency of maturity time. Photosynthesis and respiration are essentially significant in the development of biological systems. These two processes are mostly regulated by the daytime and night temperatures. Therefore, it is not surprising that if the difference between daytime and night temperatures is large, it means intensive photosynthesis and a low degree of respiratory loss. Under these conditions intensive development and ripening can take place; however, in case of a low temperature difference intensive respiration slows down the process of development. Duration of ripening is also significantly influenced by the amount of precipitation of the period between blossoming and maturity.Abundant precipitation slows down the process of ripening, while dry weather accelerates it. Self-fertilization takes place in a space isolated from the environment. In spite of that, we found that effectiveness of self-pollination significantly depends on the meteorological conditions. Degree of self-fertilization is influenced directly by temperature and indirectly by other climatic parameters. We found a significant connection between the values of maximum and minimum temperatures during blossoming and the ratio of self-fertilization. Increase of maximum temperature reduces the effectiveness of self-pollination.A 1 °C increase of maximum temperature reduces self-fertilization ratio by 0,6%. In the case of minimum temperature we can state that the morning minimum temperature of 7,5–8,5°C is the most favourable. If minimum temperatures are under 4 °C or above 12 °C, self-fertilization ratio reduces to the quarter of the value characteristic at 8 °C. We believe that the effectiveness of self-fertilization can be improved considerably by the rational placement of isolator bags within the crown area, avoiding their placement to the external, western crown surface.
Earlier results of experiments with paprika grown in soil have shown the high sensitivity of the crop to nutrient supply. According to these findings, yield and also fruit quality are highly affected not only by the nitrogen and potassium level, the concentration of nutrient solution, but also by the nitrogen-potassium ratio. Our preliminary tests have also proved, that the composition of the nutrient solution, first of all, the N/K ratio has a definite effect on the yield quantity and quality. Therefore we have investigated the ratio of the two nutrients with the aim of developing a nutrient solution of optimal composition for white fruited paprika forcing. The most balanced burden of the plants was found when the N/K ratio was 1:1. The highest yield was produced with N/K 1:1.3. Significant yield reduction (30%) was found with the treatment N/K 1:1.9 as compared to the 1:1.3 and 1:1.6.
The rain induced fruit cracking is a big, serious problem especially for sweet cherry growers but in some year growers of other stone fruit species had also problem with fruit cracking caused by too much and heavy rainfalls in the ripening and harvesting season. Cracked stone fruits can be easily infected by different diseases like Monillinia sp. Cracked and infected fruits can not be transported for long distance and using for preservation, they lost their market value by the destroyed fruit quality. It was decided to make a research work to determine the rain fruit cracking susceptibility of few stone fruit species (sour cherries, sweet cherries and European plums). Fruit cracking tests were occurred under laboratory conditions on the most common cultivars grown in Hungary. Furthermore we tried to find correlation between the fruit cracking and some fruit quality parameters (fruit size; total sugar content, fruit flesh firmness).
Our conclusions are the followings:
Sour cherries: There were found differences in the cracking ratio and the cracking dynamics of the tested sour cherry varieties when they were immersed in distillated water for 24 hours. Based on cracking test results under laboratory condition (immersing in distillated water) we made the grouping by cracking susceptibility of sour cherry varieties. Tested cultivars were divided three groups: very susceptible; susceptible; moderately susceptible (tolerant). Groups with varieties are: Very susceptible - ’Maliga emléke’, ’Piramis’, ’Érdi jubileum’,’Érdi nagygyümölcsû’ and ’Meteor korai; Susceptible (Sensitive) – ’Érdi bôtermô’, ’Pándy’ and Cigány 59. Moderately susceptible (tolerant) – ‘Éva’ and ‘Petri’as new rereleases. The most of tested sour cherry varieties are in agreement with the literature (Apostol, 2003) and four of them (’Maliga emléke’, ’Pándy 279’, ‘Éva’ and ‘Petri’) had higher average fruit weight than was mentioned in the literature (Apostol, 2003). Our fruit cracking results are in agreement with Zelinski’s (1964) and Christensen’s (1975) conclusions that there is no close relationship between fruit size and rain induced fruit cracking tendency. We found significant differences between the sugar content of tested cultivars. In contrast of Verner & Blodget (1931) our results confirm Tucker’s opinion that the sugar content is not correlation with the cracking tendency of cherry fruits (Tucker, 1934). Fruits firmness (elasticity) was measured by destructive method when juice was coming out from fruits. There were found big differences of fruit firmness and skin strength of observed cultivars. Our results are only partly agreement with Christensen’s (1996) opinion that cherry cultivars with firmer fruits are more prone to fruit cracking than softer ones. By this was seemingly we did not found close relationship between the fruit firmness and the cracking tendency of sour cherry fruits. We found that during fruits immersing in distillated water the fruit weight was increasing due to the absorbed water. Our opinion is that there is no close relationship between the scale of fruit cracking and the quantity of absorbed water. By results presented above we our opinion is that no very close relationship between the fruit cracking of sour cherries and the observed parameters (fruit size, fruit firmness, sugar content, amount of absorbed water) maybe other varietal effects and physiological characters (fruit skin structural parameters) play more important role in the fruit cracking mechanism of cherries.
Sweet cherries: Similarly to sour cherries in the case of sweet cherries we also did not find close relationship between observed fruit parameters and cracking index. It was differences in the cracking ratio and the cracking dynamics of the tested sweet cherry cultivars when they were immersed in distillated water for 24 hours. It was found that the cracking ratio of very cracking susceptible sour cherry varieties had the same or higher cracking index than observed sweet cherries. It is in contrast with the general opinion (Chistensen, 1996) that sour cherries are less prone to rain induced fruit cracking than sweet cherries. We found differences between the cracking ration and cracking dynamic of the same cultivar in different years (2006 and 2013). It is in agreement Christensen’s (1996) opinion that the year effect cause big differences in the fruit cracking of cherries.
European plums: We found differences in the cracking ratio and the cracking dynamics of the tested plum varieties when they were immersed in distillated water for 24 hours. A shorter term (6 hours) immersing in water caused three groups by their cracking susceptibility: „Very susceptible”: ’Révfülöpi’ and ’Szarvasi’; „Susceptible”: ’Besztercei’; „Less sensitive”: ’Bluefre’ and ’Cacanska rodna’. A longer term (24 hours) immersing in water resulted only two groups with significant differences: „Susceptible group”: ’Révfülöpi’, ’Szarvasi’ and ’Besztercei’; „Less sensitive”: ’Bluefre’ and ’Cacanska rodna’ Similarly the cherries we did not find correlation between the fruit size and cracking susceptibility of European plum cultivars. It was based on: the big fruit sized ‘Bluefre’ and middle sized ‘Cacanska rodna’ cracked in the lowest scale, during the small sized ’Révfülöpi’, ’Szarvasi’ and ’Besztercei’ cultivars cracked in higher scale We found positive correlations between the cracking susceptibility and total sugar content of tested plum cultivars. Cultivars with significantly lower sugar content (‘Bluefre’ and ‘C. rodna’) showed lower fruit cracking susceptibility than cultivars (’Révfülöpi’, ’Szarvasi’ and ’Besztercei’) with higher sugar content). We found close relationship between the relative (%) absorbed water amount and the fruit cracking susceptibility. Cultivars with higher absorbed water amount (’Szarvasi’-’Révfülöpi’-’Besztercei’) had higher cracking susceptibility.
Apricot seedlings are one of the most widely used rootstocks in apricot growing of Hungary. The National List of Hungary contains 7 apricot seedling rootstocks varieties. The production of apricot graft on seedling rootstock takes 3 years from the seed production to the complete graft and requires more space. It is important to provide the trueness to variety name during this process. In the genus Prunoideae not only the plant but also the stone should have typical characteristics. It seems to be useful to examine the morphology of stone. The observed varieties were 'Tengeribarack C.1300', 'Tengeribarack C.1301', 'Tengeribarack C.1650', 'Tengeribarack' C.1652', 'Tengeribarack C.145', 'Tengeribarack C.1426' and 'Tengeribarack C.2546`.1t seems to be the most suitable characteristic to make a distinction between these varieties by stone, the ratio height of stone to lateral width of stone, the ratio of height of stone to ventral width of stone, the ratio of lateral width of stone to ventral width of stone and the ratio of ventral zone to ventral width. From not measured characteristic seems to be most utilizable to make distinction: the fusion of dorsal groove margins, the shape of apex, the presence of a mucro of the apex, the shape of stalk end in lateral view and the texture of lateral surfaces.
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of different growth inducing rootstocks on fruit drop of apple. This research was conducted for 3 years at Nagykutas, Western Hungary on apple cv. 'Arlet'. For the experiments, 3 different growth inducing rootstocks were choosen: M.9 (weak), MM.106 (moderate) and crabapple seedling (strong). There were 3 fruit shedding periods on the trees grafted M.9 and MM.106 rootstocks, but in the case of crabapple seedling, only 2 were found. The measure of fruit drop was closely related to seed count of fruits; seed number was the lowest, fruit drop was the highest. The lowest seed number was counted in fruits from trees on crabapple seedling. Seasonal changes of leaf:fruit ratio mainly depended on shoot growth and fruit drop. The rise of the curve of leaf:fruit ratio was very important during the first phase of fruit development, in especially at the end of June and in the beginning of July. The cause of this is that first and second periods of fruit drop appeared during this term. The rise of the curve was important in the beginning of June and the end of July on crabapple seedling. Decreasing tendency of quality parameters was found of fruits from trees on M.9, MM.106 and seedling rootstocks, except flesh firmness which was the highest in fruits from trees on crabapple seedling.
In this study the changes of the characteristics of Satureja hortensis herb were investigated during flowering period, in case of savories of 4 different origins. The change of drying ratio, leaf/stem ratio, essential oil content, the ratio of several essential oil components (carvacrol, y-terpinene, p-cymol, a-pinene, p-pinene and fi-caryophyllene) were studied from bud formation till seed ripening.
Our results show that the different cultivation methods have higher effect on the yield than on the grape quality. In 2007 the weather was extreme dry (from May to August only 195 mm precipitation was recorded) the straw mulch proved to be the best solution regarding the yield and the grape quality. Although no significant differences were observed in the sugar- and titratable acidity content of the must, the ratio of noble rotted berries was higher on the straw mulched plots. Straw mulch could conserve the moisture content of the soil and it seems to be contributed to the conformation of suitable microclimate for Botrytis infection, but for long distance conclusions further examinations need to be investigated. The less yield and ratio of rot was observed in case of barely covered vines and the vegetative growth of the grape was less intensive in case of these vines.
Indeed, in the last decade a large number of new sour cherry cultivars with new notable flavor characteristics have been released. There is no enough information related to qualitative characteristics which consistently segregated based on their predominant sensory characteristics. The present study carried out at tow consecutive years (2008 and 2009) and examined some qualitative characters which are the main importance in the specialty cherries trade, The main objective was to determine fruits quality of Érdi bőtermő, Oblacsinszka, Debreceni bőtermő, Csengődi, Pándy 279, Éva, Kántorjánosi, Újfehértói fürtös and Petri sour cherry cultivars. Changes observed in major characteristics such as fruit detachment force, width, length, weight, peduncle length, flesh firmness, brix, citric acid, Suger/acid ratio and pit weigh.While observed no change in flesh/pit ratio and Coordinate of colour (X*, y*, x*), hue angle and chroma value, in different years. In all measured factors, there was significant difference between selected cultivars of sour cherry fruit. Debreceni bőtermő showed higher values of fruit detachment force in 2008, while had the lover of fruit detachment force in 2009. Fruit firmness of “Érdi bőtermő” were monitored at lover value in both 2-year.
As a part of an apple breeding program, we have examined the pollen effect on the fruit appearance and inner quality of different apple cultivars in the Corvinus University of Budapest Department of Fruit Science. Five apple cultivars ('Golden Reinders', 'Regal Prince', 'Rewena', 'Renora', 'Idared') have been crossed by the pollen of some new and some traditional cultivars in our experiment. The measurements were carried out in the analytic and fruit examining laboratory of the Department of Fruit Science. The diameter, height and stem length were measured by digital caliper. We have also examined the squash ratio, soluble solid- and acidic content. Sugar content was calculated by a schedule released by the International Sugar Committee (ISC). From the sugar- and acidic content, we could also count the Pomona-value.
We have observed interesting effects according to some attributes in some crossing combinations with the help of statistical analysis. Crossing 'Golden Delicious' with 'Freedom', 'Prima', and 'Baujade' have resulted in smaller fruit size than other combinations. No significant differences could be observed on `Golden Reinders' fruits according to metaxenic coloration in the year of the examination. On the other hand the color modifying effect of pollen donating cultivars have manifested on the red fruits of 'Regal Prince' (Gala Must). `Freedom' as a pollen donating cultivar has resulted outstanding value in our consistency measurements. Squash ratio was the highest in combinations pollinated by 'Prima' and `Reglindis'. We have noticed balanced values when measuring inner qualities, only `Reka' has caused lower acidic content. Significant differences have been found in combinations according to the number of frivolous seeds. No frivolous seeds were found in the combinations 'Golden Reinders' x 'Freedom' and 'Idared' x 'Prima'. Almost two frivolous seeds were found in the fruits of the combination 'Renora' x 'Sóvári' in average.
Observations were made on simultaneousness of pollen shedding and stigma viability ratio, to clarify the phenology of reproductive organs of nine economically important sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) cultivars (‘Érdi bôtermô‘, ‘Debreceni bőtermő‘, ‘Csengődi‘, ‘Kántorjánosi 3‘, ‘Újfehértói fürtös‘, ‘Petri‘, ‘Eva‘, ‘Oblascinszka‘, and ‘Pándy 279’). The main aim was investigation the possible influence of environmental cues in timing and development of phenophases and also responses of different cultivars to seasonal cues. Likely effects of climatic changes on phenological development patterns were also considered. Results showed important aspects of the reproductive biology of sour cherry flowers. The amplitude of the phenophase “beginning of blossoming” between cultivars did not exceed 6 days. There is a maximum 3 day difference in the blooming length of different directions in each cultivar. ‘Pándy 279‘ showed high variability when the position of flowers changed on the tree shoots. ‘Újfehértói fürtös‘ was stable in all four directions of the tree. The pollen shedding period and stigma viability ratio were synchronous. Pollen shedding phenomenon simultaneously occurred with the secretary activities of stigmas in all examined cultivars. Distribution of pollen shedding over the secretary activity of stigmas is almost good. In all five cultivars maximum pollen shedding occurred when the temperature was high during the day. In general the results of this experiment and our previous studies clearly demonstrate that the Pándy groups not recommended for plantation in new orchards of Iran.
Hungarian spice pepper powder is a unique product, a real hungaricum with its flavour and aroma compounds and seasoning effect. Its competitiveness with foreign spice peppers is ensured by its high biological value deriving from the specially Hungarian production and processing technology. Besides the traditional and highly manual labour intensive processing technology, there are some modern industrial technologies as well, where high quality can be guaranteed only by producing excellent base material (raw pepper pods). This is the reason which necessitates the rational development of the elements of the production technology, such as nutrient supply. Our objective was to offer a contribution to this aim by our trials in plant nutrition.
Experiments on the nutrient supply of spice pepper were set up in the 2003 growing season in order to decide whether yields and fruit composition parameters of pepper could be increased by means of increased K fertiliser doses with lower N:K ratios. Several forms of potassium were used, as well as applying microelement top dressings in the single treatments. It was found that the increase of N:K ratio from I:1 to 1:6 did not increase yields, but resulted in higher pigment and dry matter content. Microelement top dressing had a yield increasing effect at each N:K ratio. Higher potassium doses did not accelerate ripening.
: Our study was carried out on 23 apricot and 9 sweet cherry cultivars in February 2005. Fruiting laterals were classified into four groups (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-40 cm and >40 cm) and then the density and setting of flower buds were evaluated and expressed as bud/cm. The flower bud density of four types of fruit bearing shoots and the changes in the frost resistance were studied. Shoots were collected from a young orchard in Gone (apricot), Siófok (sweet cherry) and Nagykutas (sweet cherry). There were significant differences among the cultivars in the density of flower buds. The number of flower buds/cm shoot length ranged between 0.91 and 2.20 in the average of the different fruit bearing shoot types on apricot. Based on the results, the bud density of shorter shoots is generally higher on apricot, but this is not valid for all cultivars. For cvs. Magyarkajszi and Ceglédi bíborkajszi, the highest flower bud density was detected on shoots of medium length (10-40 cm). There were fivefold and almost twofold (1.85) differences in bud density among cultivars on shoots shorter than 10 cm length and longer than 40 cm length, respectively. The ratio of the bud densities of the different types of shoots also ranged between wide boundaries. For cvs. Bayoto, Toyesi and Toyiba this ratio was 2.5-3.5, while for cv. Magyarkajszi it was 1.3.
In the average of fruit bearing shoots on sweet cherry, cv. Bigarreau Burlat (1.10 bud/cm) and cv. Germersdorfi 45 (0.61 bud/cm) had the largest and the lowest flower bud density, respectively. Among the fruit bearing shoots, the largest flower bud density was in the group of 0-10 cm fruiting laterals. Among cultivars, cv. Bigarreau Burlat had the largest bud density. In the groups of n- i 0 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm and 30-40 cm fruiting laterals, the lowest flower bud density was for cv. Linda, cv. Germersdorfi 45, cv. Ferrovia and cv. Sunburst, respectively. On cvs. Van and Bigarreau Burlat, large numbers of double-set flower buds were observed on the fruit bearing shoots longer than 20 cm. Fruit setting differed on the different types of fruit bearing shoots, with the lowest value measured on above 40 cm shoots. The highest fruit setting was observed on cv. Katalin, while the lowest value was measured on cv. Germersdorfi 3.
One of the most important pests of the stone fruit orchards is the oriental fruit moth (Grapholitha 1110/esta B.). Chemical control targeted against the young larvae is the most effective way of protection. so the ti ming of treatments has to be based on the observation of emergence. Emergence may be monitored with sex pheromone traps. It is already known from former publications, that the traps for oriental fruit moth are also effective in the case of the plum moth (Grapholitha f1111ebra11a Tr.), which external morphology is very similar to the oriental fruit moth. As the emergence of the oriental fruit moth in peach and apricot orchards has not been observed in detaib in Hungary, we started a s1Udy in this field. Our aim was to measure the selectivity of the sex pheromone traps. On the basis of examining more than 5000 males caught and the investigation of male genital ia. it could be established that the pheromone traps. Csalomon and Deltastop, for oriental fruit moth, caught the plum moth in the same ratio. The ratio of the oriental fruit moth and the plum moth trapped in the peach orchards was I: I . while in the apricot orchards the number of the caught plum moth males was seven times as many as that of the oriental fruit moths. Consequently, it can be established that data based on oriental fruit moth trap catches can not be used without additional investigations of genitalia for the prediction of larval hatch. The selectivity of the plum moth trap. used as a control. was acceptable in both orchards.
Information of the total pigment content of table beet roots is not sufficient enough to estimate their suitability to processing. Differences in the occurrence of the red pigment components of different thermostability determine the mode of processing of the varieties. Pigment extraction methods which require heat treatment (e.g. table beet root powder) need raw materials of higher betanin content.
Of the tested varieties — Bonel, Nero, Favorit, Rubin and Detroit — Bonel and Favorit had the highest betanin content (50.03 and 49.53 mg/100g, respectively).
The isobetanin quantity varies according to varieties (13.10-26.62 mg/100g). Values between 2.92-6.63 mg/100g and 0.96-2.96 mg/100g. respectively were found for betanidin and isobetanidin.
Data revealed the highest BC/BX ratio in the variety Rubin (2.08) indicating good inner colour in sensory tests. However, the high total pigment content (81.01 mg/I00g) was associated with lower betanin content (46,26 mg/100g) and at the same time, with higher isobetanin (25.16 mg/100g), betanidin (6.63 mg/100g) and isobetanidin (2.96 nig/100g) contents. Out of the tested varieties Nero had the lowest total red pigment content (57.43 mg/100g) but the relative betanin value was the highest with nearly 70 %.
Laboratory testing of the table beet root varieties will be required to find the most suitable material to produce colouring agents.
Sour cherries are not adapted to long storage. The largest percentage of sour cherries reaches the consumer either directly or indirectly through the tin can or the frozen pack. Different concentrations of ethephon usually are used commercially to facilitate harvesting sour cherry fruits that this hormone influences on fruit quality. The objective of this study was effect of ethephon preharvest application on sour cherry fruits quality during storage period at modified atmosphere packaging was investigated. Modified atmosphere packaging used with 10, 15 and 75 percent for 02, CO, and N2 respectively that those held at 0 °C. This gas compounds synchronous to 0 °C temperature caused to increase shelf life postharvest of fruits. Fruit samples were evaluated at harvest date and after 6 weeks in storage. Skin fruit colour, pH, total soluble solids, titrateable acidity, sugar/acid ratio, firmness were monitored. Ethephon concentration influenced on total soluble solid, titrateable acidity, sugar/acid ratio and L* value. In more case, 225 ppm ethephon's concentration has no observable different to control samples. Thus, the best ethephon's concentration was 225 ppm ethephon's concentration.
The determination of the optimal time of the mechanical harvesting of sweet cherries has a great importance not only to prevent the fruit from mechanical injury but to find the optimal setting parameters of the harvesting machine. The primary objective of the experiments was to determine the force and work required to detach the stem from the limb and the fruit from the stem. Furthermore to measure the three main sizes (width, height, thickness) of the fruits in order to determine the sphericity, and also the pulp-stone ratio by measuring the mass of the fruit with the stone and then the mass of the stone. The average sizes of the fruits: width 19.62–27.76 mm, height 17.83–24.54 mm and thickness 17.30–23.60 mm. The stem length varied between 28.69 mm and 55.80 mm. The sphericity of each variety was above 90%. The average mass varied between 3.63 and 9.68 g. The stone mass turned to be between 0.27 g and 0.42 g. The stone-pulp ratio varied between 3.7%and 7.7%. The average pulp mass varied between 3.35 g and 9.32 g. The average values of maximum loads required to detach the sweet cherries from the stem varied between 3.23 N and, 4.12 N. The force required to detach the stem from the limb was 50–90% higher than the force needed to tear the fruit from the stem.
Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is one of the most important fruit crop grown in Hungary, The flowering phenology and pollen shedding/stigma viability ratio, in an effort to elucidate the reproductive phenology of nine economically important sour cherry cultivars (Érdi bőtermő, Debreceni bőtermő, Csengődi, Kántorjánosi 3. Pándy 279. Úfehértói fürtös, Petri, Éva, and Oblacsinszka) all widespread in the Hungary, was studied at Újfehertó climatic condition. The main aims were to investigate how possible environmental cues influence timing and development of phenophases and whether different cultivars have different seasonal responses to these cues. Likely effects of climatic changes on phenological development patterns were also considered. Our results revealed important aspects of the reproductive biology of sour cherry flowers. The amplitude of the phenophase "beginning of blossoming" between cultivars did not exceed 6 days. There is maximum 3 days difference in blooming length of different direction in each cultivar. Pándy 279 showed high variability when the position of flowers changed on the tree shoots. Újfehértói fürtös was stable in all four directions of tree. The pollen shedding period and stigma viability ratio was well synchronous. Pollen shedding phenomenon occurred in the range limitation of secretary activity of stigmas in all five cultivars. Distribution of pollen shedding over the secretary activity of stigmas is almost good. In all five cultivars maximum pollen shedding occurred about the high temperature part of the day.
The influence of nitrogen-fertilizer applied in 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg/ha dosages, as well as the time of the harvest carried out in full flowering and early fruit set stages were studied on the herb and essential oil production of garden thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). The small plot experiment was installed in the Experimental Field of Tarbiat Modarres University near Teheran, under sandy loam soil conditions. On the basis of the results the nitrogen-fertilizer had a significant effect on the dry-matter production of the species: the herb yield, calculated on one hectare, increased from 671.88 kg up to 1021.00 kg value as a result of 150 kg nitrogen dosage. The essential oil yield proved to have a similar tendency because neither the accumulation level of essential oil, nor the ratio of thymol were effected by the nutrient supply. Analyzing the effect of harvest time changes in both dry-mass production and essential oil accumulation were observed. The highest herb yield (1238.20 kg/hectare) was obtained in early fruit set, when about.50 per cent of fruits reached their full size in the inflorescence. The accumulation level of essential oil also reached its maximum at the sane development stage, showing 0.75 per cent value, which is about two fold higher comparing to the accumulation level was measured at the time of full flowering (0.41 %).
Sour cherry growing and consumption grows dynamically around the world. The present volume of 1 million tons will incerase within 10 years with 20-30, or even with 50%. In the world wide sour cherry production, Europe is a decisive factor, i.e. 2/3 of the volume is grown there. Prominent capacities are concentrated in East-Central Europe, mainly Poland, Germany and Hungary. In the future, new concurrent exporters are expected on the European market as Turkey, Iran, Serbia-Montenegro. Hungarian sour cherry production has rich traditions, so the growing techniques and the assortment of sour cherry varieties make Hungary a „Great Power" on this field. Fresh fruit and products developed from sour cherry represent values distinguished as „Hungaricum" on the markets. Sour cherry growing and the path of its products are one of the „pulling branches" of Hungarian fruit growing. Sour cherry occupies 15% of area for fruit growing and 40% within the stone fruits. Sour cherry was grown widely in Hungary, it was grown everywhere as for utilizing waste areas. This is the main reason that yields are low as a mean of 15 000 ha and the volume is low (50-60 000 tons) only. To that poor figure the heavy infections of Monilia contributed substantially in the last couple of years. The two most valid arguments of using the present varieties as the best solution are 1) the cross bred new varieties, and 2) the selections of local, traditional varieties, which substituted the earlier dominant 'Pándy meggy' variety, which had a good quality but yielded poorly. Sour cherry growing of Hungary shifted from the dry regions of the country toward the cooler and more humid regions, where the weather excesses secure a less risky production. The most decisive region is the Norther Great Plain Region comprising SzabolcsSzatmar-Bereg county, where more than the half of the Hungarian sour cherry volume is produced, and which is bound to increase its production in the future. The majority of sour cherry produced in Hungary is processed, moreover, an important fraction of the exported fresh fruit is also used by the industry. The main importer of Hungarian sour cherry is Germany. The industry manufactures mainly canned products, a smaller fraction will be processed to other products. The expected volumes of sour cherry grown in Hungary in the next 5 and 10-year-period was estimated from data based on the ratio of young plantations, predicted consequences of the global climatic changes, phytosanitary aspects, furthermore, on the development of the technological level. In the region, the volume grown within 5 years, 40 000 t/year will increase within 10 years to 55 000 t/y. The processing in Hungary is not sufficiently differenciated, which is attributed partly to the characters of the varieties, partly to the weaknesses of the processing industry. One of the reasons is the suitability of varieties mainly for canning products. Processed sour cherry products could not be sold at the same price levels achieved by concurrent sour cherry growing countries. The vertical structure of the path of products of sour cherry disposes of adequate processing capacity being ready to be developed or there is sufficient intention of making investments for the purpose of manufacturing special sour cherry products. Significant tasks of development are actual in the field of the ecological and biological conditions of production. Volume and yield security as well as the maturity time and diversification of processing possibilities are the main endeavours in widening the assortment of varieties to be grown in the near future. The main objective in growing techniques is the modernization of phytotechnical procedures, and new solutions of methods of mechanical harvesting and related technical innovations are necessary in the sour cherry verticum. A key question is the effectiveness of phytosanitary procedures with special reference to the Monilia fungus and to the cherry fruit fly as the most important pest. There are two points of break through in the Hungarian sour cherry verticum. On the one hand, meeting the increasing demands in fuits for fresh consumption, on the other hand, the diversification of processed sour cherry products and their introduction to the markets. Both are aiming to increase the competitiveness of the Hungarian sour cherry. For that purpose, outstanding varieties and excellent as well as internationally recognised fruit qualities are ready to be utilized. The most susceptible problems of the Hungarian sour cherry verticum are associated with marketing, alliance of the grower-and processor organisations and their co-operation because no overall integration within the sour cherry verticum has been established yet. Most urgent necessity as well as possibility of changes are felt in the Northern Great Plain Region.
Changes in the dry matter and sugar content occurring during the winter storage of Nantes type carrot hybrids grown on soils of different quality were studied in 199912000 and 200012001. The dry matter content of the varieties tested depended on the production site and on the weather conditions prevailing in the growing season. The increase in the dry matter content during winter storage reached 6 to 7 per cent in the crop grown in a dry year and 1.5 to 2 per cent in a rainy year. The sugar content was lower in the rainy year (1999) and on brown sand (Szatymaz) than in the rather dry year (2000) and on chernozem soil with residual forest (Tordas), respectively. The increase in sugar content (1 to 5 per cent) measured at the end of storage was related to the season's weather conditions.
The study was conducted to compare the improved banana technology against the local production technique to enhance demand-driven banana technology up-scaling and diffusion. Data were collected at the field and farmers' levels. Descriptive and inferential statistics, cost-benefit analysis and matrix ranking were employed for analysis. The result revealed that the average yield (38.40 ton ha-1) of improved banana technology had a significant yield advantage (47.24%) over the local practice (p<0.05). Despite the higher cost of production, its net return was by far higher than the local practice. The benefit-cost ratio also displays that 9.49 Ethiopian Birr (ETB) profit per 1.00 ETB investment in an improved technology package. The overall farmers' perceptions were laid under strongly agree and agree categories, and 95% of them believed that the improved banana technology was appropriate for their area and hence accepted with full confidence. The respective organizations working on rural livelihood improvement are therefore advised to up-scale the improved technology for the wider community based on the irrigation potential.
Budbreak anomalies in temperate fruit trees grown under mild conditions have often been described. However, only few authors approached the physiological evolution of leaf buds all along the dormancy period according to the temperature pattern. The aim of this study was to characterize the evolution of peach leaf bud dormancy through some physiological and biochemical parameters under temperate winter conditions and under total cold deprivation after the endodormancy onset. Two treatments were applied in peach trees cv. Redhaven: (i) Regular Chilling Amounts — RCA and (ii) Total Chilling Deprivation — TCD. Buds were sampled periodically from different parts of the stem (terminal, medium and basal ones). We recorded the evolution of: carbohydrate concentrations (glucose, fructose, sucrose, sorbitol and starch), respiration rate, water contents and energy metabolism (ATP and ADP ratio). The dynamics of these parameters were compared and correlated with dormancy evolution ("one node cuttings" test) and budbreak patterns in plank:. The endodormancy intensity of terminal buds was significantly lower than those of median and basal buds in early October. Under RCA treatment, this gradient faded and the bud endodormancy release was completed at the same time in all positions along the stem. Thereafter, the "cuttings" test indicated that terminal buds grew slightly faster than median and basal buds, and, consistently, budbreak in planta started with the terminals buds, followed by the medians and then by the basal ones. The carbohydrate contents showed a transitory change only when the buds began to grow after the endodormancy was released under RCA. Respiration, water content and ATP/ADP changed dynamics only under RCA and only after the end of the endodormancy (their respective changes were very parallel). The dynamics of none of the tested parameters could be related with the endodormancy dynamics, but respiration, water content and ATP/ADP could be consistent markers of the actual bud growth before bud break (in this respect, ATP/ADP could not show differences between the terminal and axillary buds while respiration and water content could).
Experiments in a cherry plantation were performed to find out that samples taken from various parts of the foliage of the tree what extent represent the whole tree. One tree from three different cherry varieties was selected. In the selection, we tried to form a good representation of the foliage of the orchard. 8 sampling locations were designated on each tree, in two different heights and four different directions according to the points of the compass.We measured the main sizes of the fruits in three orthogonal dimensions with a digital slide gauge with an accuracy of 0.01 mm; the mass of each cherry by an analytical balance, with an accuracy of 0.001 g; the mass of the stones with the same analytical balance, and then calculated the stone-pulp ratio. The measured and calculated data are used to characterize the sample in question.
A rootstock trial planted at the Szigetcsep experimental station in 1989 involved the study of two cultivars- `Germersdorfi FL 45' and 'Van' -grafted on four different rootstocks — 'Colt', `MxM 14 — Brokforest', `MxM 97 — Brokgrow' and 'Saint Lucie 64' as a control. The trees were trained to the "Modified Brunner-spindle" system and came into bearing in 1993. The yield per tree, fruit weight and fruit diameter have been measured each year since then. The refractivity, the acid content of the fruit juice, fruit cracking after four hours' dipping in water and stone weight ratio have also been measured since 1995. In 1997 and 1998 these parameters as well as fruit cracking after 24 hours' dipping were measured. Fruit firmness and fruit colour were also estimated. In almost every observed parameter significant differences were found between the scion cultivars. Yield efficiency was significantly higher on 'NUM 14' and 'Saint Lucie 64' than on the other two rootstocks. As regards fruit weight, in both cultivars and over an average of six years, it was found that trees on low yielding tree on 'Colt' rootstock had the highest fruit weight values and on heavy producing `MxM 14' the smallest. Soluble solids content was higher on 'Colt' and `MxM 97'. No significant differences between the rootstocks were found in acid content of the fruit juice. There were significant differences between the rootstocks in fruit cracking after 4 and 24 hours' dipping in water. Seemingly with respect to cultivars and rootstocks the year has a considerable effect on fruit cracking.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the ratio of blackness of the surface of stigma of sour cherry cultivars. At the full bloom time of sour cherry 100 new opened flowers were marked in the internal (Inside), external (outside), bottom and upper parts of the crown of each cultivars including sour cherry cultivars ‘Érdi bőtermő', `Debreceni bőtermő', `Kántorjánosi', 'R. clone', 'Petri', Pándy', and 'D. clone'. The trees were replicated four times. The numbers of flowers with black stigma were counted and the percentage of dead stigma was calculated. In addition, tissues of black stigmata were investigated for blossom pathogens by microscopy. After flowering time the fruit set of the marked flowers counted and then percentage fruit set was calculated. Numbers of counted flowers were between 300 and 980 depending on the four position of the tree. Black color of stigma could be seen only on three cultivars (`Debreceni bőtermő', Érdi bőtermő' and 'Petri') out of seven assessed cultivars. The highest numbers of black colored stigma were found on cultivar ‘Érdi bőtermő' which ranged between incidences of 12 and 21%. Black stigma was never able to produce a fruit set. Microscopic examination revealed no pathogens associated with black stigma. Different part of the tree resulted different amount of black stigma. Black stigma was the largest on the outer part of the tree on cv. 'Érdi bőtermő' but also bottom part of the tree also produced larger number of black stigma on cvs. `Debreceni bőtermő' and ‘Érdi bőtermő'. Though symptoms were not typical to frost damage, we believe that black stigma is probably due to environmental factors during flowering. This might be associated with late spring cold coming from the soil surface as the bottom and outer part of the tree was more suffered from the disease.