Thirty-one old Hungarian grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars were investigated on 7 microsatellite loci to characterize them, to separate the cultivars from synonym names, and to confirm parent-offspring connections. Conculta (group of cultivars or bud sports) members, such as `Goher' and Tajor' representatives, we...re studied to find a suitable locus for the separation. Synonyms, conculta members, subcultivars and clones of Turmine, which was the most important cultivar of Tokaj, were also analyzed to separate the members of the different taxonomic levels. Pedigree of 'Kiralyleanyka' was examined to find the missing ancestor, because the parent-offspring connection between the natural hybrid and `Koverszolo' is questionable.
Apple (Malus x domestica) is considered practically self-incompatible, polleniser is essential for its economical cultivation. When choosing a polleniser many biological and economical parameters should be taken into consideration. Scab resistant apple varieties and multi-resistant candidates — bred in Hungary — were investigated i...n our experiment in 2007-2008. Blooming time groups were created according to the overlap of the blooming of the varieties and candidates. Observations were set up in Szigetcsép — the Research Station of Faculty of Horticultural Science. The orchard was planted in 1997. Trees were trained to slender spindle on Rootstock M9. Varieties have been assigned four blooming time groups. 'Reglindis' started blooming in both years. Candidate MR-09 belonged to the early group in 2007 and to the mid-early group in 2008. Latest varieties are 'Freedom' and `Baujade'. Candidate MR-10 belonged to the mid-late group.
Fruit quality of cross pollinated apples (Malus x domestica) influenced by the metaxenic pollen effect of the pollinizer was observed in Hungary. Flowers of three resistant cultivars (`Baujade', `Rewena') were hand pollinated with other resistant apple cultivars. Fruits were harvested on 25 September, 2005. Fruit quality was investigat...ed in the laboratory of the Department of Pomology; Corvinus University of Budapest. Not only size and morphological parameters (diameter, height, stem length), but also refraction and acidic content of the fruits were measured.
According to the statistical analysis significant differences were determined on fruits among the groups as an effect of the pollen provider. In consideration of size parameters (diameter, height, weight) of `Rewena' fruits pollination partner 'Freedom' and 'Prima' caused outstanding results but `Florina' caused flatter fruits. Pollen of `Florina' and `Freedor-,' caused a higher percent refraction in the fruits of `Rewena'. In the case of `Baujade' fruits `Reglindis' — among cultivars we used as pollinizer — caused the biggest fruits medium flesh firmness and harmonic inner content values. `Rajka' caused on one hand smaller fruits and on the other hand higher flesh firmness and inner content values in the case of `Relinda' fruits. According to our data measured pollinizers varied the stem length as well.
Most of the cultivars grown before the disaster of phylloxera in Tokaj can be found only in grapevine collections. The aim of our study was to determinate the cultivation values of six old grapevine cultivars of the wine-region, namely 'Balafánt', 'Budai gohér', 'Purcsin', 'Török gohér, 'Piros (red) furmint' and 'Változó (altering) furmi...nt'. Based on the results of the investigations from 2004 to 2006 it can be concluded that among from the examined cultivars of Tokaj `Budai gohér', Turcsin' and 'Változó furmint' match the best with the technological and consumer requirements of recent days. However the yield of 'Budai gohér' in certain vintages is not acceptable and red wine cultivars are not permitted at this time in the wine-region, but in qualitative responses these presented steadily good data. On the other hand the lowest sugar content was measured and development of noble rot was not registered at all in case of Piros furmint' and `Balafánt'. Their spread in Tokaj is not probable.
As a part of an apple breeding program, we have examined the pollen effect on the fruit appearance and inner quality of different apple cultivars in the Corvinus University of Budapest Department of Fruit Science. Five apple cultivars ('Golden Reinders', 'Regal Prince', 'Rewena', 'Renora', 'Idared') have been crossed by the pollen of some new a...nd some traditional cultivars in our experiment. The measurements were carried out in the analytic and fruit examining laboratory of the Department of Fruit Science. The diameter, height and stem length were measured by digital caliper. We have also examined the squash ratio, soluble solid- and acidic content. Sugar content was calculated by a schedule released by the International Sugar Committee (ISC). From the sugar- and acidic content, we could also count the Pomona-value.
We have observed interesting effects according to some attributes in some crossing combinations with the help of statistical analysis. Crossing 'Golden Delicious' with 'Freedom', 'Prima', and 'Baujade' have resulted in smaller fruit size than other combinations. No significant differences could be observed on `Golden Reinders' fruits according to metaxenic coloration in the year of the examination. On the other hand the color modifying effect of pollen donating cultivars have manifested on the red fruits of 'Regal Prince' (Gala Must). `Freedom' as a pollen donating cultivar has resulted outstanding value in our consistency measurements. Squash ratio was the highest in combinations pollinated by 'Prima' and `Reglindis'. We have noticed balanced values when measuring inner qualities, only `Reka' has caused lower acidic content. Significant differences have been found in combinations according to the number of frivolous seeds. No frivolous seeds were found in the combinations 'Golden Reinders' x 'Freedom' and 'Idared' x 'Prima'. Almost two frivolous seeds were found in the fruits of the combination 'Renora' x 'Sóvári' in average.
The growth rate of three rosemary clones, `Harmat', 'Salem' and `Horvát', their essential oil content and its components as well as the total phenol content and total antioxidant capacity in their aqueous and ethanolic extracts were compaired. Total phenol content (determined by Folin-Ciocalteau reagent) and antioxidant power (FRAP-value) of a...queous and ethanolic rosemary extracts were measured by spectrophotometric method. The essential oil content was determined from drug by water-steam distillation. `Harmat' showed the most intensive growth through the vegetation period. The total antioxidant power of the ethanolic extracts from all the three clones was similar: a decrease was observed at the end of the season. In most cases more antioxidant compounds were dissolved in the aqueous extracts. The total quantity of phenolic compounds shows a good correlation with the potential extent of stress effects. The difference among the phenol contents of the various clones can be derived from the difference in their tolerance, because phenols have antioxidant effects contributing to protection against harmful impacts. Difference between the two extraction methods (aqueous and ethanolic) is due to the distinct solubility of compounds. Some other components, like essential oil compounds also possess antioxidant effect and in this way they may influence the antioxidant power of extracts.
The analyses of various host-pathogen relationships have established the response reaction roles of carbohydrates — especially monosaccharides — measurable in the vegetal parts of the host. Published results also provide information concerning the way various pathogens utilize carbohydrates and concerning the carbohydrates pathogens prefer ...out of the "selection" provided by the host plant. The role of carbohydrates in the response reactions to abiotic stress has been studied on several plant species as well — currently, too, it is an often discussed area of research. The above-mentioned results form the basis of our intention to study the connection between susceptibility to grey mould and the quantity of measurable carbohydrates in the leaves of grape varieties of various stress tolerance levels.
Aim of the present investigations was the optimalization of the production of the annual cultivar `Napfény' of Verlxiscum phlomoides L. Quantitative data on morphology (growth, leaf and flower size, branching) yield and content of active materials (mucilages, flavonoids) were studied at six sowing times.
We establishe...d, that sowing time may be one basic factor in the production of the annual variety. The major yield was obtained by sowing either late autumn (end of October) or early spring (middle March). At these plots the fresh mass of the flowers was 257-288 g/plant, the drug mass 28-29 g/plant, by 45-70% more than that of the mean of other treatments.
It was established, that under optimal cultivation conditions the annual form of mullein may reach higher individual yields than the plants of the indigenous wild growing population.