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  • Down-regulation of ethylene production in carnation (Dianthus Caryphyllus L.) by an apple derived ACC-cDNA
    101-104.
    Views:
    128

    Transgenic carnations were produced with an apple derived antisense ACC-synthase cDNA. Transgenic carnation regenerants were potted in glasshouse. All transformed plants showed normal growth and were true-to-type. Ethylene production — measured at full opening stage — lowered by 30-60 %, no plant with 100 % decrease was identified. The vase-life has been observed for 5 years. 38 % of the transformant carnations showed a higher a relative value in days by more than 2 days to 6 days. Twenty six plants were found exhibiting the most marked alterations in the tested trait. In these plants ethylene production decreased by 37-67 %, they have longer vase-life (by 4 days or more). Since the fragrance variety 'Bíbor' was the plant material for genetic modification of vase-life, this trait has been conserved after transformation in spite of the fact that the position of transgene integration cannot be directed.

  • Comparison of propagation methods of different moss species used as wall and ground covering ornamental plants
    57-63.
    Views:
    470

    Mosses are traditionally used as ornamental plants, especially in Japan, USA, England (moss gardens) and Germany, French (green roofs). In shadow areas (where the members of Poaceae usually cannot grow well), mosses are potentially use as “grass”. The stocks of moss colonies maintain optimal microclimate and decrease desiccation of soils (like mulch). Additionally, mosses are evergreen, attractive all year, during winter. In our study, 18 moss species were propagated by fragments (as mixture, with the use of 16 species) and transplantation of carpets (with Brachythecium rivulare and Calliergonella cuspidata) in Szentendre. The aim was to find the most durable species and the best way of propagation. In an outdoor, irrigated garden, propagation by fragments was effective (with 63% coveration) and higher values (93% and 76%) were obtained in the cases of non-irrigated stocks of Amblystegium serpens (in trays) and moss carpets. In vertical structures (moss picture-frames with the use of mixtures), protonema of 2 species (Hypnum cupressiforme and Eurhynchium hyans) covered 24 and 33% of the 0.5 x 0.5 m sized area.

  • Floral biological investigations of apple cultivars in relation to fire blight
    9-14.
    Views:
    148

    Floral activity was studied in two apple cultivars: an Erwinia-tolerant (Treedorn') and a sensitive one (`Sampion'). Since more types of protogyny occur in apples, the period of stigma activity is different. Papillae of the exposed stigma in flowers of 'Freedom' function longer (usually more than a week) than in the delayed homogamous `Sampion'. Despite of this, cv. 'Freedom' is tolerant to Erwinia amylovora (Burr.) Winslow et al., suggesting no relationship between the floral biological type (including the exposure and longevity of stigma) and the infection by E. amylovora. According to SEM micrographs, nectary stomata in `Freedom' are already open in the flower bud, where nectar secretion starts and continues until the senescence of the stigma. However, the long period of nectar secretion does not create optimal conditions for bacterial growth, since nectar production is scant in the flowers of 'Freedom'. The surface of the nectary, its nectar-retaining capacity, and the amount and concentration of nectar may influence the susceptibility of apple cultivars. It is manifested well by the smooth nectary surface with nectary stomata rising slightly above the epidermis in flowers of cv. 'Freedom', contrasting the wrinkled, striate nectary surface with slightly sunken stomata in the flowers of 'Sampion'.

  • The inheritance and durability of scab resistance in apple progenies
    39-46.
    Views:
    128

    In order to select the appropriate parent cultivars and maintain the durability of resistance, it is important to clarify the mechanisms of inheritance of scab resistance depending on the parents. It has been known that the progeny segregation ratios based on scab-resistance do not depend only on the genotype of the resistance locus but also on the genetical makeup of the donor and recipient parents as well as on the susceptible parent.

    The aim of this study has been to demonstrate what factors in the Vf, Vr and VA scab-resistant cultivars — combined with susceptible and resistant parents — affect the inheritance and durability of resistance in seedlings in their first 4 year's growing four years' growth. After inoculating apple seedlings sown in 2001 with the suspension of Venturia inaequalis (Cke.) Wint. in the greenhouse, we studied the segregation ratios of the progenies into reaction classes. Seedlings showing resistance in the greenhouse were also evaluated for scab-resistance after they had been moved to the field and had naturally been infected with the pathogen in 2002 and 2004.

    The majority of our results obtained in the greenhouse test, similarly to earlier experiences, have not justified monogenic inheritance at the phenotypic level. The effect of susceptible parent cultivars on the segregation ratio of progenies have become apparent again. The high infection rate of seedlings in the field trials, which had previously exhibited varying degrees of resistance in the greenhouse test, has raised concern. Our data has raised further doubts, concerning the durability of Vf resistance in Hungary. It is assumed that the composition of natural field populations of Venturia inaequalis in Szigetcsép has changed. The complexity of Vf resistance has been confirmed. The high infection rate in the progenies derived from Vf resistant cultivars draws the attention to the importance of utilizing additional sources of resistance.

  • Production of transgenic carnation with antisense ACS (1-aminocyclopropane44-carboxy late synthase) gene
    104-107.
    Views:
    166

    Dianthus chinensis and Dianthus caryophyllus varieties were tested for shoot regeneration from leaf and petal explants and transformed with Agrobacterium tuniefaciens strains (EHA 105 and LBA 4404) harbouring an apple derived ACS cDNA in antisense orientation in order to reduce ethylene production and influence the ethylene dependant traits in carnation. After transformation regenerating shoots were selected on MS medium containing 50-75-100-125-150 mg/1 kanamycin and supplemented with 1 mg/1 BA, 0.2 mg/1 NAA. Transgene integration was proved by PCR analysis with npt II spcific primers followed by Southern hybridisation of DNA isolated from green shoots on medium containing 150 mg/1 kanamycin. Several putative transformants were subjected to RT-PCR in order to examine the npt 11 expression at mRNA level. Both the transformant and the non-transformant plants were potted into glasshouse to observe the effect of changed ethylene production on flowering time, petal senescence and vase life.

     

  • Freeze Susceptibility of Fruit Buds in 67 Apple cultivars in Hungary
    29-35.
    Views:
    121

    Frost damage is one of the most important risks of apple production. Outstanding importance has been attributed to the frost resistance of flower-buds as decisive sites of fruit production. Browning of plants parts and tissues exposed to natural weather adversities are considered as effects of frost. In Hungary, frost damage on flower buds of both the market and new cultivars has not been assessed earlier. Observations referring to the consequences of frost damages of over four critical years, marked by their peculiar winter and spring frost hazards. Parallel observations have been made in four sites of the growing area in the Great-Plain region. 67 apple cultivars have been assessed. Each cultivar was represented by 3 trees, which were sampled at about 1-1.5 m height over ground, where the buds or inflorescences were picked for the purpose to assess the injury. The buds and flowers are cut longitudinally and rated visually according to the extent of browning of the organs and tissues. Susceptibility of different organs of the flower (pistils and anthers) were rated separately. According to our results, most resistant to spring frosts are the following cultivars: 'Gloster', 'Granny Smith' and appreciable tolerance is attributed in 'Gala' and 'Jonathan' with derivatives. Preliminary results that among the scab resistant cultivars, `Baujade', 'Rewena', 'Liberty', `Resi' and 'Renora' are rather frost resistant. Information, lacking hitherto, is obtained upon 'Reka' and 'Reglindis' as for their increased susceptibility.

  • Comparative performance of traps for the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae) baited with female-targeted or male-targeted lures
    11-14.
    Views:
    195

    Results of trapping trials in Italy confirmed that the non-sticky CSALOMON® VARs+ funnel trap was highly efficient for the capture of Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), when baited with either male-targeted (trimedlure), or synthetic female-targeted (ammonium carbonate, ammonium acetate, trimethylamine, putrescine) baits. Trimedlure-baited traps caught ten times more flies (all males), than traps with synthetic female-targeted lures (which cauught predominantly females). Although less efficient, traps with the female-targeted lures had the significant advantage over trimedlure that they attracted predominantly females, so in cases when for control or experimental purposes the capture of female flies is more informative (i.e. timing of egg-laying, fertility and fecundity studies, etc.), these lures would be the best choice. The present results suggested that putrescine could be left out from female-targeted lure combinations without dramatic change in activity.

  • Study on the viruses of Petunia in Hungary
    55-59.
    Views:
    123

    Virus susceptibility of 11 varieties of vegetatively propagated petunia against 2 virus strains (TMV-C/U1 and PVYNTN) were examined. Neither resistant nor tolerant varieties of petunia were found. The virus infection of the Petunia genus was examined in Hungary. The most common pathogens were the Tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (TMV) and the Tomato mosaic tobamovirus (ToMV), but the samples also contained Alfalfa mosaic alfamovirus (AMV), Cucumber mosaic ClIC11171014171S (CMV) and Potato Y potyvirus (PVY). Potato X potexvirus (PVX) was isolated in the varieties of trailing petunia for the first time.

  • Healthcare values and potential uses of the new Hungarian apple varieties on the basis on fruit analysis
    25-28.
    Views:
    179

    Biological active compounds and valuable characteristics of some apple varieties and candidates were measured in our trials. Fruits of ’Rosmerta’, ’Hesztia’, ’Cordelia’ and ’Artemisz’ are recommended to enrich the Hungarian assortments for fresh consumption and choice of new tastes. Based on examined parameters it can be assumed that novel Hungarian resistant varieties are suitable for juice and fruit concentrate production, and due to high pectin content of their remaining pomace these varieties can be raw material of pectin production as well as they are also suitable for jam production mixed with other fruit species. Furthermore, functional food industrial product having high quality can be produced by using novel resistant varieties because of their high pectin and polyphenol content. Beside of their high market value their suitability for growing among orchard conditions is confi rmed by lower costs of production because of less plant protection treatments.

  • The effect of soil mixtures of different consistence and phosphorus content in tray transplant-growing by lettuce
    71-76.
    Views:
    115

    The transplant-growing with root balls gets more and more popular and time to time the only method even in high-quality lettuce transplant-growing. To work out the technology of transplant-growing in trays it was needed to define the accurate physical and chemical consistency of applied soils.

    The transplant production in trays could become a good method in field-grown lettuce technologies. The production of transplants of good quality with this technology could be realised only by accurate soil mixtures.

    The matter of transplant-growing substrates could be a low-moor turf. Its qualities could be positively influenced by adding minerals like bentonite in amount of 5 (or 10) V%.

    To ensure enough phosphorus for the demands of transplants we have to add more fertilisers. The best results by lettuce we got by adding 4 kg/m3 superphosphate to the soil mixture.

  • Fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) susceptibility of old Hungarian apple cultivars
    35-38.
    Views:
    141

    The aim of the Hungarian apple breeding program started in the Department of Fruit Science was to find resistant apple cultivars against major diseases (scab, powdery mildew, fire blight). The outbreak of fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) in 1996 motivated us to search new resistant sources principally from old traditional apple cultivars. First of all, cultivars have been gathered since 1997 from Carpathia (Visk) and evaluated between 2001 and 2003. In this recent study evaluation of resistance of old Hungarian genotypes to fire blight collected from the English National Fruit Collection (Brogdale, Faversham) is presented.

    13 old Hungarian apple cultivars in 2002, and 38 genotypes in 2005 have been evaluated. We used `Idared' and 'Jonathan M41' as susceptible controls and 'Liberty' and 'Remo' as resistant ones. Shoots of two-year-old potted plants were inoculated with a mixture of virulent E. amylovora isolates (Ea2, Ea60, Ea67) at a concentration of 5 x 108 cells/ml. Resistance of apple cultivars was evaluated weekly, four times after inoculation by disease severity of symptoms. Numbers of bacterial colonies in 1 cm length shoot were determined in the fourth week after infection.

    8 cultivars in 2002 and 9 cultivars in 2005 displayed notable resistance to fire blight based on one-year data. Based on the coincident data of both years, out of the cultivars collected also from Carpathia ‘Pónyik', and `Sikulai' were found to be resistant and gene sources additional old Hungarian valuable apple genotypes could be selected: `Szabadkai szercsika' and `Tordai piros !davit'. The cultivar `Szemes alma' originated from Visk has proved to be recurrently resistant.

    The number of bacterial cells in shoots of the investigated cultivars correlated with the severity of symptoms. With this method, which was introduced by us earlier, we can screen cultivars displaying weak visible symptoms, which cannot be proposed as a source of resistance because of their latent infection.

  • The role and current state of gene reservation of medicinal and aromatic plants in Hungary an overview
    19-21.
    Views:
    146

    As it well known the decrease of biodiversity is a large problem all over the world. In case of medicinal plants, where the huge majority of drugs are collected from natural ecosystems, the sustainable, utilization of the populations and reservation of their gene-pools has an increased interest.

    In Hungary, the major background of 'in situ' reservation of medicinal plant species, their natural plant associations and ecosystems is the official protection by law. Successful examples are known for the controlled utilization of medicinal and aromatic plant species grown in protected areas. Assuring the naturally occuring high degree of biological and chemical diversity of species is a special task in this field: only maintenance of valuable intraspecific races can form the real genetic basis of natural biologically active compounds.

    Maintenance of chemotaxonomical gardens and gene bank collections (seed banks, tissue banks) as 'ex situ' methods of reservation is carried out on an extended range in Hungary. As the required information on storage and maintenance of many medicinal and aromatic plant species is yet missing, exhaustive research is carried out at both genebanks in Hungary, which are specialized for medicinal plant reservation (RIMAP- Budakalász, SZIU- Budapest).

    Beside the static conservation methods, 'quasi-production systems' are intended to assure an up-to-date and economically possible way of dynamic reservation with sustainable utilization.

     

  • Malus taxa and the progenies of Malus floribunda selected in Hungary, as gene sources of resistance breeding
    25-28.
    Views:
    119

    One of our objectives in the apple breeding program of the Department of Fruit Science, beside creating new varieties, is to search for new gene sources. After evaluating the disease resistance of Malus taxa available in Hungary, we put the promising selected individuals through further examinations. Their habit and growth vigor was observed, as well as productivity and fruit characteristics were evaluated. Malus fusca seems to be a new, promising gene source in Hungary among the examined taxa. Beside its optimal canopy, growth vigor and fruit characteristics, it has the advantage to be in distant relationship to Malus x domestica, therefore its resistance is based on a different genetic basis. SBG 1 selection of Malus spectabilis can be recommended as a new gene source for resistance breeding. The range of gene sources can further be widened by selected clones of Malus floriblunda (BA I), Malus x zumi (BA) and Malus baccata (SBG 6). An additional value of Malus taxa chosen by us is that they show resistance not only to apple scab, but to powdery mildew as well, and according to our results, they have optimal habit, acceptable productivity and good fruit quality. Nine hybrids were selected from first Malus progenies which proved to be resistant to apple scab and powdery mildew. These are valuable not only as gene sources of breeding, but as pollenizers or ornamental trees, while their decorative fruits can be used in inside decorations and flower arrangements.

  • Epidemiological survey of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis and Gnomonia leptostyla on natural population of walnut (Juglans regia) in eastern Transylvania
    7-9.
    Views:
    2077

    In Romania, walnut Juglans regia L. is an important fruit crop, although most of the fruit production comes from non-grafted walnut trees, which are natural hybrids. Breeding programs have been launched during last 30 years to develop new cultivars with uniform fruit quality. In addition, foreign cultivars have been introduced and tested to establish a valuable walnut genepool. To improve the present assortment of generative rootstocks in walnut and to examine the infestation level, a long term survey was carried out in Eastern Transylvania. The main physical characteristics of fruits and its variation to the infestation level were considered. The cumulative distribution of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis and Gnomonia leptostyla were relatively low and the maximum value was around 15%. The highest infestation of husk with X. arboricola pv. juglandis was observed for roundish forms and differences were statistically significant comparing with other phenotypes. Infestation with G. leptostyla was similar for roundish, elliptic and thwarting egg-shaped phenotypes, while the husk infestation for egg-shaped phenotypes was not observed. The walnut population studied in our experiment can be considered as a genetically valuable population. More than 20% of them have upper class quality fruits with at least or more than 50% of nutmeat. Do to the large scale climate variation in Eastern Transylvania and the high humidity favourable for pathogen infestations, these population can be considered resistant and well adapted to abiotic and biotic factors.

  • Salt tolerance of sweet pepper seedlings
    62-66.
    Views:
    131

    Laboratory germination tests have been made with three white fruit pepper varieties and with one spice pepper in filter paper rolls wetted with KCl solutions of different concentration. Parallel tests have been conducted with the other species (lettuce, tomato, kohlrabi) to compare the salt tolerance of paprika with that of other vegetable crops.

    In greenhouse, the action of KCl has been investigated with transplants raised in soil mixture, in rockwool and with seedlings transplanted from rockwool into soil mixture. Like the trials in the laboratory, the experiments in soil mixture have been made with other plant species, too.

  • Allyl isothiocyanate baited traps to monitor cabbage flea beetles (Phyllotretra spp., Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)
    95-99.
    Views:
    152

    A new trapping concept has been proposed based on a volatile compound, allyl isothyocianate, known to be attractant to some of these insects for a long time.

    (l) The first question was whether this compound is effectively attractive to all flea beetle species attacking cabbage under our conditions? Field experiments were made at different localities with non-sticky baited traps early and late spring. Eleven Phyllotreta species attacking cabbages were captured at baited traps most of them were first observed at this bait. So the bait has proved to be sufficient for use for trapping purposes effectively.

    • Based on these findings a second question arose whether the captured samples reflected the specific composition of natural flea beetle populations at trapping localities? To reply the question field samples were taken at four different kinds of cabbage crops and at a fallow ground in the close vicinity by a manual sampler device suitable to detect the local composition of flea beetles and trapping was made parallel with baited and unbaited traps from early spring to early autumn. No significant differences were found between the specific structures of Phyllotreta assemblages sampled with the different methods applied. This means baited traps reflected the specific composition of local Phyllotreta populations fairly well.
    • Thirdly, the most effective trap design was searched for. Some sticky and non-sticky trap designs which had been developed to capture other insects were compared. The tested sticky and funnel trap designs baited with allyl isothiocyanate captured large numbers of flea beetles attacking cabbages. Results showed that non-sticky funnel traps were more effective than sticky delta traps. Accordingly, non-sticky funnel trap designs can advantageously be used and could possibly be recommended in plant protection practice to monitor flea beetles attacking cabbages as their catching capacity is considerably greater than that of the delta type and additionally captured beetles are much cleaner, more intact and consequently their identification is much easier.
  • Commercial varieties of European plums grown in Hungary, a comparison of promising foreign varieties with the widely grown traditional ones
    15-22.
    Views:
    253

    Observations and investigations performed in laboratory at several growing sites over a period of many years are summarised on established plum varieties as well as on new promising ones concerning their marketing value. The ripening period of plum varieties was enlarged substantially with the appearance of new varieties of extra late maturity (‘Elena’, ‘Tophit’, ‘Presenta’). The new varieties did not alter the traditional colour, more or less long, violet or blue character of the plum. The most known type, ‘Besztercei szilva’ with its accustomed taste was followed by the new varieties ‘Katinka’, ‘Tegera‘, ‘Hanita’ and ‘Presenta’. The fruit size are largely of the medium category, except the early ripening small ‘Katinka’, whereas the larger and attractive (~60 g) fruits are represented by the late ripening ‘Tophit’ and ‘Empress’. The stone/fruit ratio was lowest in 3% (‘Tophit’) and 6% (‘Besztercei Bt. 2’, ‘Hanita’, ‘Jojo’, ‘ ‘Čačanska rana’) at the other end of the scale. The width and thickness of the fruit fl esh between 28 mm (‘Besztercei szilva’) and 43-44 mm (‘Empress’, ‘Tophit’). The fi rmness of the fruit fl esh excelled in the late maturity varieties ‘Presenta’ and ‘Tophit’ (~4 kg/cm2). Water soluble solids were 12-13 Brix% (‘Čačanska rana’, ‘Katinka’, ‘Silvia’) and 20 Brix% (‘Presenta’, ‘Tophit’), whereas titrated acids are found between 0.2% (‘Besztercei Bt. 2’) and 1.2% (‘Tegera’).

  • Research of the elasticity of transplant - growing substrates after watering
    67-69.
    Views:
    112

    It gets more and more popular to grow transplants in different trays for the field vegetable growing. The best transplant-growing substrates in the world are made of peat. The peat is applied to provide an optimal supply of plants with water and air. To improve the water regulation and the structure of the mixtures there are often mineral matters used in different amounts. By measuring the physical properties of soil mixtures based on peat, the flexibility can be measured by Stable Micro System type table penetrometer. Our measuring confirmed the increase of bulk and flexibility of different kinds of peat by watering.

  • Pomology of gene resources bearing resistance to Erwinia amylovora
    29-33.
    Views:
    120

    The ecological farming and an increasing demand for healthy fruits free from chemical residuals necessitated the reevaluation of the existing cultivars and breeding suitable cultivars for the new requirements. We have gathered the old genotypes known in the Carpathian Basin, and we have selected the most suitable ones according to fruit quality and resistance to diseases in the last fifteen years. The main aim was the selection of resistant genotypes against fire blight and powdery mildew as gene sources for our breeding program. On the other hand, we consider the best quality traditional cultivars as extensive landscape elements (wayside tree rows or extensive squash producing plantations).

    During the pathological evaluation 'Szemes alma', 'Pónyik', 'Sikulai', 'Tordai piros 'cavil' and 'Szabadkai szercsika' cultivars proved to be good resistance sources (due to their outstanding resistance to fire blight). The latter four cultivars are not susceptible even to fungal diseases, and their quality is also acceptable so those are commendable for ecological farming or for renewing the sparse orchards. According to fruit quality and low susceptibility to diseases 'Batul' and 'Vilmos renet' can also be offered for extensive organic production.

    We have made original or renewed pomological descriptions of the selected cultivars, and we also publish their characters according to the terms of UPOV TG/14/8 based on to our evaluations.

  • Further information to the acclimatization of "in vitro" plants
    54-58.
    Views:
    146

    The experiment was carried out with in vitro propagated 'MM 106' apple-rootstock plantlets. The transpiration of the plantlets was examined, and the changes followed by SEM analysis.

    Data about the transpiration intensity of the acclimatized plants, of its value under different conditions of relative humidity and influenced by the existence of roots, as well as by the degree of acclimatization are presented.

    Leaves were also examined and it was found, that stomata of in vitro developed leaves closed slowly, and the number of stomata of newly developed leaves decreased.

    It is also shown, that in vitro propagated roots, generally, lose their hairs during acclimatization, but these roots are all the same important, as new roots of full value develop out of them.

     

  • Historical apple cultivars that display high level of resistance to fire blight
    19-23
    Views:
    126

    Following the first outbreak of fire blight caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora (Burrill) Winslow et al. in Hungary, we have started research with the aim to screen domestic gene sources, mostly historical Hungarian apple cultivars, for disease resistance as part of an apple breeding program for multiple resistance. The present study was conducted with the aim to choose the most tolerant historical apple cultivars among 25 selected cultivars by screening their behavior towards fire blight under controlled conditions. Six cultivars were shown to be the most disease tolerant: `Batul', 'London pepin', Nemes Sóvári Alma', `Sikulai', `Szemes alma', Wilmos renet'. We evaluated these cultivars by investigating both morphological- characteristics under original environmental circumstances and fruit quality. The cultivars had a remarkable degree of fire blight resistance compared to the control cultivars. These were not competitive with the commercially grown 'Jonathan M40' during cultivar tests but on the basis of certain characteristics they could serve as genetic sources for breeding new varieties.

  • Cracking susceptibility of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) in Hungary and relation to calcium application
    109-118.
    Views:
    281

    The rain induced fruit cracking is a big, serious problem especially for sour cherry growers but in some year sour cherry growers had also problem with fruit cracking caused by too much rainfall in the harvesting season. The cracked sour cherry fruits can be easily infected by different diseases like Monillinia sp. Cracked and infected fruits can not be transported for long distance and using for preservation because they lost their market value by the pour fruit quality. There are two possibilities to protect fruits against the rain induced fruit cracking. The most effective protection technique is the plastic rain cover over the tree rows. The installation of these equipments is too expensive for the growers. That is the reason why researchers tried to find other less expensive and sufficiently effective ways like sprayings different mineral salts, hormone and other type chemicals against the rain induced fruit cracking. Several calcium formulas calcium chloride (CaC12), calcium hydroxide (Ca (OH),) and calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2) can be sprayed in appropriate solution concentration.

    The aim of our trial is to determinate the fruit cracking susceptibility of wide grown Hungarian sour cherry varieties and find the most effective calcium formula and its concentration for spraying in orchards to prevent the fruit cracking. In the first trial year (2006) cracking index of tested sour cherry varieties were determined under field and laboratory conditions. Under field conditions were not found differences between cracking tendency of tested cultivars. After results of immersing fruits in distillated water for 24 hours tested sour cherry varieties were divided to three groups by the susceptibility to rain induced fruit cracking: very susceptible (`Maliga emléke', 'Piramis', 'Érdi jubileum', 'Erdi nagygyümölcsű’ and 'Meteor korai'); susceptible ‘Érdi bőtermő, Tandy 279' and Cigány 59.; moderately susceptible/tolerant ("T" and "R" clones). In the second trial year (2007) calcium chloride (CaCl2) and calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2) were sprayed in 0,35m/m%; 0,5m/m% and 1,0m/m% solution concentration. One more commercial product "Damisol-Kalcium" was also applied in the advised 1,0m/m% concentration. Like in the trial year before (2006) under field conditions we did not kept differences between the cracking susceptibility of varieties and calcium treatments. As the result of laboratory testing (immersing calcium treated fruits in distillated water) we kept that calcium chloride (CaCl2) seems the most effective against the fruit cracking in 0,5m/in% solution concentration. The other calcium formulas also decreased the cracking ratio but in less scale.

  • A fajtahasználat alakulása Magyarországon
    71-75.
    Views:
    99

    A fajtahasználat alakulása Magyarországon

  • Research Note virus transmission by grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vittfoliae Fitch)
    73-74.
    Views:
    124

    Grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae FITCH) infests immature roots of both Vitis vinifera L. and phylloxera resistant rootstocks. A capability to transmit viticultural viruses would make grape phylloxera a phytosanitary threat even under conditions where direct damage by the insect is not likely. We tested the hypothesis that phylloxera could transmit grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) by planting infected and non-infected vines in common 10 liter pots and infecting roots of the infected vine with grape phylloxera. In this test infection of a previously non-infected plant in the absence of nematode population suggests that grape phylloxera is a vector of GFLV.

  • Changing of inert content values of apricot varieties
    39-41.
    Views:
    169

    The consumers have been exigent increasingly about excellent quality. The speci fie flavour and fragrance of apricot evolve during ripening. We need to be acquainted with changing of inert content during ripening to the choosing of optimal harvest time. The Regional University Knowled ge Centre -Research and Development in Foodstuff Chain project had presented an opportun ity to study the inner content of apricot. Our aim was to study evaluation of health care attributes of apricot fruit. We investigated different ripeness samples of four apricot varieties ('Mandulakajszi', 'Pann 6nia', 'Gonci magyar kajszi'. 'Harcot') in our study of 2007-2009. Samples were taken the orchard of Sóskútfruct Ltd. Hungary. We had measured the water soluble antioxidant capacity, polyphenol-, f3-carotene content and the dissimilar sugar­ and acid-fractions during ripening. We had experienced significant different in inert content between varieties.