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Tourism Competencies Development – Contradictious Perceptions of Stakeholders
Published August 6, 2020
126-141

Tourism and hospitality sector has an important role in the national economy as it has high  labour intensity, generates foreign currency income and improves the local economy by multiplier effect. Tourism labour market employs a wide range of employees from non-qualified to highqualified people. Tourism tertiary educators in Hungary conti...nue their operation by national-level legislation, and accreditation and students who complete tourism courses (should) be capable of professional occupation. The post-Bologna system offered more opportunities in tourism and hospitality education; two distinguished courses were available on the educational market to educate hospitality or tourism experts. After 2006, by launching Bologna system, institutions are allowed to commence just one, Tourism and Catering bachelor programme. A questionnairebased survey was conducted among graduating bachelor students with tourism and catering major, tutors teaching tourism and catering students and actors of tourism market, who going to be the employers of tourism graduates. The main aim of the research was to explore the personal or organizational expectations of stakeholders for professional competence development as a result of tourism and catering bachelor-level education. The bust majority of students stated that their primary aim is to gain professional competencies in tourism and hospitality to be able to fulfil managerial positions or to continue their studies on master-level. Although generic competences as communication skills in foreign languages, social sensitivity, problem solving or creativity have salient influence on job performance, students did not believe that they would be
essential. However, these factors were thought to be the most crucial by tutors and tourism service providers despite the fact that generic skill development is not in focus in tourism and catering bachelor-level education in Hungary. Not just the educational institutions but tourism companies providing work placement for students were considered to be an appropriate basis for competencies development that raised the question of monitoring and assessment. The findings can be profitable for all stakeholder group or policy decision makers in bachelor-level curriculum development. 

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Educational Tourism: a Conceptual Framework
Published August 6, 2020
30-37

Though educational tourism has already emerged in the early times in Europe, the theoretical analysis of educational tourism is relatively recent. The firts books on educational tourism were only published in 2003. In Hungary the weight of educational tourism is not hight - less then 1% of tourism arrivals and less than 4% of total tourism spen...ding - but per capita spending is the highest among tourists arrivinh in Hungary with educational purposes. Surprisingly  tourists arriving for longer than one day with an educational purpose had more than 100% higher spendig during the last couple of years than tourists arriving for more than one day with business purposes. Because this high spending educational tourism is very important for the towns, where foreign students pursue their studies. Not only foreign student mobility can be regarded as educational tourism but internal student movement as well. Students who live other towns and who come to a town to entrol at a university have important contribution to the economy of this town - just like the non-educational, traditional tourists to do.

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International agreements in the area of tourism
Published August 6, 2020
143-148

It is not a secret that tourism plays an important role in the development of not just any specific country but the global economy in general. It also promotes urban development in such sensitive areas as coasts and islands, increased water consumption and waste production, fragmentation of habitats and loss of biological diversity. Tourism ind...ustry is also one of the reasons behind higher demand for transportation, particularly those types that damage the environment most – personal vehicles and aircraft. “In 2005 in Europe, about 59% of the tourists arrived to their destination by car, 34% by airplane”. According to UNWTO International Tourism Barometer, the international tourism was growing at the rate of 5% in the first nine months of 2013. The key driving force behind this growth is Europe (mainly Central and Eastern Europe) and Asia-Pacific region. Thus, tourism, while playing a truly significant role in the global economy, at the same time causes major damage to the environment. Hence the urgent need to eliminate negative consequences of tourism activities. This can be done by promptly regulating the activities of agents in this area. However, due to the global value of tourism, this process requires not just the local regulators getting involved, but joint effort by many countries. Therefore, international agreements between countries as the primary regulators of tourism activities are becoming increasingly important.

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Sopron−Fertő, as a priority tourism development area
Published August 21, 2020
9-14

In 2016, the organizational management of tourism in Hungary has changed, the basis of which was defined in the CLVI. Tourism Development Act of 2016. The law puts the focus of tourism development on the tourist areas, which aims to make the destinations able to renew their competitive travel offers in the short term for both foreign and domest...ic guests who are looking for experiences or have higher specific spending. One of the five priority tourism development areas named by the Government until September 2017 is the Sopron-Fertő destination. Based on the 122 completed questionnaires, it can be stated that five towns (Sopron, Bük, Hegykő, Fertőd and Nagycenk) in the Sopron-Fertő priority tourism development area are known among households participating in domestic tourism.

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Interpretative Possibilities of Local Products and their Role in the Development of Tourism Destinations
Published August 6, 2020
113-116

Rural tourism is a progressively growing factor of local economy in Europe. For this, those products of rural tourism are needed that are based on direct rural at raci ons like natural facilii es, technical at ractions, demonstrai on of special aci vii es. The examinai on which is presented above is about the products of rural tourism. It exami...nes the system of interaci ons between the eff ects of the development on products of rural tourism. In addii on, it examines the eff ects of arrangements made in rural development on the development of tourism. In the future one way of the rural development can be the development of rural tourism giving a chance for alternai ve aci vii es and ways of earning money. Among the several specialized tourism it is gastronomic tourism that is mostly based on tradii on. It is very close to rural people, they can easily keep these tradii ons alive and they can think they are closed related with them. The astronomical tourisi c off ers of rural small regions and the natural curiosity of tourists can induce a development that can be a base of conscious development of products. 

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Tourism and leisure sport habits
Published August 6, 2020
118-125

According to a survey among college students, there is – however on low level – positive connection between sport tourism consumers’ general health status (Cramer’s 0,089) and satisfaction of their life (Cramer’s 0,114). Aim of this study was to explore additional correlations. The questionnaire (N=360) permitted
analysis not just ...of sport tourism but also general tourism habits. We have explored statistic data of general tourism, and inside of this physical activity habits and by additional statistic methods we could get results of further correlations such as leisure sport activities of tourists and effects of tourism sport activities for leisure activities at home.

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The Features of the Development of Rural Tourism in Russia
Published August 21, 2020
88-91

Rural tourism in Russia is determined by established traditions, the peculiarities of the agricultural sector and share of rural population in total population.
The National Association of rural tourism organizations has been created in Russia. Rural tourism clusters have also been created as a basis for developing infrastructure. The govern...ment supports the projects of small and medium-sized businesses with subsidies and preferential loans with the creation of a tourism cluster. However, the problem of information security, the standardization of the service and the evaluation of service quality in rural tourism, transport accessibility, training of qualified personnel have not been solved yet.

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Guesthouse catering facility as an experience generator in electronic communication of hungarian rural tourism supply
Published August 21, 2020
15-20

Based on the model of tourism experience components, the experience basis and experience generators allow the creation of experience promises, the formation of experience imagination and the realization of experience. The catering facilities of rural tourism cannot be considered as a part of the experience basis from the point of view of supply... due to the legislative framework i.e. the limited availability of catering services. At the same time, demand considers as an essential supply element the countryside flavours, the tasting of traditional gastronomy in terms of both the endowment and the availability and from the professional point of view, the appearance of a supply element in rural tourism in Hungary is unquestionable. The exploratory research covers the entire range of qualified accommodation based on the FATOSZ (Hungarian National Association of Rural and Agrotourism) electronic communication database, analyses the experience promises based on the aspects developed according to the topic, identifying their experience basis or experience generator characteristics, looking for the relationship between quality and the gastronomic experiences.

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A comparative study of tourism Education on vocational level in Hungary and Finland
Published August 21, 2020
1-7

The rapid growth of tourism in Hungary and the labour migration to abroad resulted in a serious labour shortage in the industry. One of the sources of skilled and motivated workforce is the system of tourism vocational education and training, which can just slowly react to market changes due to its inertness. In addition, the highly centralized... system provides low-level of freedom to respond to regional differences, as the National Core Curriculum and its related regulatory documents are compulsory for the institutions and maintainers implementing them.

This paper seeks for possible solutions to the prevailing challenges by a comparative examination of the tourism VET system in Finland and Hungary. As a result the author propounds possible alternatives to develop secondary tourism education.

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Experience seeking behaviour of generation X and Y in Hungarian health tourism
Published August 21, 2020
47-56

In tourism there is an increasing demand for those medical and wellness supplies that offer enyojable experience. The appearance of television had huge influence on the formation of leisure time amongst X generation (born between 1965 and 1976). The aim of the present study was to compare generation X and Y according to experience seeking behav...iour. We supposed that Y generation is more involved in wellness tourism and active recreation than the older X
generation. The sample consisted of 275 persons. X (n= 60) and Y (n = 89) was questionned on the internet. X (n = 84) and Y (n = 42) was questionned in Barack Thermal Hotel & Spa****. We used own, non-valid questionnaires. Amongst generation X, there were 33 persons who primarily wanted relaxation and time off. 16 persons chose recreation, 9 had medical purposes and 2 persons wanted to have amusements. Amongst generation Y, there were 55 persons who
primarily wanted relaxation and time off. 16 persons chose recreation, 1 had medical purposes and 17 persons wanted to have amusements. We did not find statistically significant differences between generation X and Y in the aspect of active recreation and wellness tourism. Further research required to differentiate experience seeking behaviour amongst generations.

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HEALTH TOURISM AS SCENE OF FORMATION OF HELATH BEHAVIOUR – DEMONSTRATION OF POSSIBLE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
Published August 21, 2020

Over recreation health tourism – mainly wellness tourism – services also ensure knowledge acquisition by informal learning for health. Depend upon former results this study formulates such examination directions by that this sector of tourism can became effective place of health education.

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Branding Hungary as a Health Tourism Destination: Asynchrony Problems
Published August 21, 2020
68-72

Branding a country as an attractive tourism destination is an extremely complex and long-term endeavour. There are several brand assessment systems using diverse methodology for creating brand indices for countries. In the Bloomberg brand indexing system Hungary is ranked 20th in Europe and by Future Brand 23rd in 2014. These placements are ind...icators of a relatively poor performance of Hungary as a nation brand and warrant an integrated image building effort
independent from the changing political power structure. There are certain basic principles to adhere to in branding a tourism destination be it settlement, regional or country level. One of the keys to succesful branding is synchronising marketing efforts on different levels. Asynchronous communication and strategies lead to confusion in image perception, hence the weakening of the brand. The present paper aims to examine some of the asynchronies in the branding of Hungary as a health tourism destination.

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Analysis of the ways of efficiency enhancement of transportation services in tourism
Published August 6, 2020
157-159

Tourism is one of the most dynamically developing fi elds of the world economy. Owing to the relai vely low-cost capital investment necessary to set up and develop tourism business, high levels of payback rates, constantly rising magnitude of demand for tourist services, tourism business has recently been drawing the at eni on of not only its p...oteni al customers, but also of entrepreneurs. 

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TOURISM AS AN OUTBREAK POSSIBILITY FOR RURAL REGIONS
Published June 30, 2020

The aim of the article is to present the tourism as a potential developing phenomenon of the rural areas. The positive impacts of the tourism on the economy and appear in connection with the labour market and the investments. Tourism can have a postive effect on the health condtions of the citizens, mostly because of the increase of the spo...rting activity level. The employees formerly employed by the agricultural sector can easier move to the service sector because of the development of the rural areas.

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ANALYSIS THE KNOWLEDGE OF DESTINATIONS IN ITS DIVIDING CONTEXT
Published August 21, 2020
8-12

Territorial determination of the tourism development areas is crucial for professionals responsible for destination management. The direct motives are (1) the available financial development funds, (2) the expansion of tourism supra- and infrastructure, (3) the evolvement of destination image, however induced factors can be (1) the involvement ...of ancillary services or (2) using single communication. Main concern of the tourism supply is to provide sufficient information to the potential travellers, although the question arises how demand is able to follow the iterative changing in determinations. The fact that a narrower area is periodically associated with a different tourism development area and thus has different communication generates a degree of uncertainty in the tourists’ travel decision. Current article introduces a section of a research project for the assessment of the awareness of current tourism development areas by tourists. After the clarification of concepts paper details the results of pilot testing which makes foundation for a large-sample market research. Findings are instructive not just in terms of measurement correction, but for further considerations.

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Health tuurism as scene of formation of behaviour - demonstration - of possible research directions
Published August 21, 2020
41-45

Over recreation health tourism – mainly wellness tourism – services also ensure knowledge acquisition by informal learning for health. Depend upon former results this study formulates such examination directions by that this sector of tourism can became effective place of health education.

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The Regional Features of Tourism in Russia: the Formation of Clusters
Published August 21, 2020
79-87

In the present study we draw attention to the urgency of the problem related to the formation of tourism clusters. Then we describe the current state and the specific features of the object of study. We expand upon the scientific basis of the proposed research methodology. Finally we offer recommendations on the practical application of the exp...ected results. The organizational model of the regional tourist cluster based on a two-element core, in the case of its practical
application will improve the efficiency of the formation and development of clusters in a variety of service industries, and adapt them to the high variability of the environment. The improvement of scientific and methodological tools, the connection of economic and administrative resources provide a solid foundation for the development of the tourism sector, increase the investment activity of economic entities and increase the investment attractiveness of the economy at the regional level of government.

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Innovative aspects of tourism development in Russia
Published August 6, 2020
157-160

The author applies three main approaches to examine the tourism development in Russia, which has a variety of climatic zones and rich tourist resources, namely, cluster, special economic zones and targetoriented approaches. The specifi city of their implementati on is further observed at regional level. Conclusions and recommendations are aimed... at performance improvement of the tourism industry.

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Application of mathematical and statistical paradoxes in tourism
Published August 6, 2020
230-239

The paradox is a well-founded statement / method, derived from a specific area of science and the application possibilities worth to try a different area of the farm in their respective fields. The world of chances and its mathematics is abound of paradoxes. Mathematics and statistics are separate disciplines and related sciences of many areas ...at the same time. Application of advanced education and research is essential. The study presents analyzing evaluation options in
the field of tourism based on two paradoxes (regression and maximum-likelihood) factor analysis and multidimensional scaling analysis.

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Application of decision-tree on wellness tourism visitors~ health behaviour changes
Published August 21, 2020
35-40

In the case of social science research, the link between observation and theory can cause difficulties for researchers. Direct observation and measurement are rarely possible. Because the processes are constantly changing, it is possible to observe the phenomena once. Some of the models of mathematical, statistical methods are made in uncertain... circumstances, which take into account the more important factors, but also the probable variables can be expressed. The technique used to make such a model is the decision tree method, which is a graphical model used in decision making, in which several choices are available and their outputs are uncertain. The study illustrates the use of this model, focusing on the health behavior of individuals involved in health tourism travel.

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Differential supply management by age in hotel tourism products
Published August 21, 2020
27-33

In the development of hotel product strategies, the proportion of diversification and differentiation is a major decision that the hotel offers a wider range of services, which will help to find most suitable for guests, or narrows down its targeted segments and provides them with specific supply elements. One segmentation aspect could be the a...ge of guests. The most prominent and identifiable age group in the supply is the senior, which has always been important for hotels. They have the off-season demand, predictable and well-known needs, their satisfaction is easily accessible. The research is looking for the answer to the question of whether the hotels have the opportunity of acquire the senior segment and what are the special features of the products recommended for them. Parts related to the topic of tourism marketing literature have been reduced to the accommodation services in the secondary information processing section of this paper. This is followed by the identification of the segment's booking and residence habits. Primary analysis of supply will be by observation of collecting and comparing the hotels' offerings to senior guests

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SUPPLY MANAGEMENT IN TOURISM WITH GENERATION SPECIFICITY
Published August 21, 2020

Both tourist service providers and tourism developers it is becoming increasingly important to take into account the generational aspects. Generation’s problem is classically related to the activity of human resource management as a factor for employees involved in providing personal services appearing an integral part of the supply. The seco...nd one, but not the secondary aspect is related to the generational characteristics of demand that should be reflected in the supply of services. Generational demand characteristics are identified by a primary, question-based method, and the supply was analysed by observation generations’
specific tourist products. Comparing the obtained results leads to the conclusion about the adaptation to the generation needs.

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SHORT TERM EFFECT OF HEALTH RELATED BEHAVIOUR INTENTION’S FORMED DURING WELLNESS TRAVELLING ON HEALTH BEHAV-IOUR
Published August 21, 2020
36-43

The short and long-term effect of tourism on behavior can be verified by empirical studies mainly in ecotourism. The results of present research focus on the short-term impact of be-havioral attitudes on health tourism and post-journey health behavior. The study is basically based on the guidelines of international literature, showing a discrep...ancy in the applied sta-tistical calculations. The analysis was performed in the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test, for further confirmation from the descriptive statistical calculations using median and mode tests. According to the responses, the health tourism trips appeared in a field of support for the maintenance and development of health.

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The Problems of Adaptive Tourism’s Development in Russia
Published August 21, 2020
92-95

In the article the problems of development of tourism for people with disabilities. Special attention is paid to the organization of transportation and accommodation services. Integration into society of persons with disabilities is part of the implementation of social responsibility of the tourism business.

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Innovative aspects of tourism development in Russia
Published August 6, 2020
153-156

The author applies three main approaches to examine the tourism development in Russia, which has a variety of climai c zones and rich tourist resources, namely, cluster, special economic zones and target-oriented approaches. The specifi city of their implementai on is further observed at regional level. Conclusions and recommendai ons are aimed... at performance improvement of the tourism industry.

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