Food waste in EU countries

The biggest challenges of our time include meeting the demand growth resulting from the explosion in population growth and achieving sustainable management. In terms of food, the most significant problem is, on the one hand, that a large part of the population is hungry and, on the other hand, excessive food waste, which results not only in wasted food but also in wasted resources used for its production, transport, packaging and storage. Do to this the unconsumed food has a profoundly negative impact on the environment and the economy. There is a pressing need to prevent and reduce food waste to transition to a resource-efficient Europe. In this study, we would like to show how food waste changes in different countries, focusing on Europe. Our results show a significant discrepancy between Member States' data and where waste is generated. We find no significant correlation between GDP per capita and total food waste, but we find a moderately strong correlation between GDP per capita and restaurant waste at the point of generation.

JEL code: M21

Emerging trends in strategic planning

In today’s rapidly changing world, there is an increased need for excellent strategic planning. A firm’s survival may indeed hinge on the firm’s planning process being exemplary. Various aspects of the strategic planning process are under review today as organizations wrestle to compete more effectively. This paper reveals and describes five emerging trends or tools being utilized today by firms to more effectively engage in strategic planning. Specifically, the emerging trends and tools to be discussed in this paper are as follows:

1) Assure vision and mission statements include desired characteristics

2) Perform SWOT (Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats) analysis using AQCD (Actionable, Quantitative, Comparative, and Divisional) factors

3) Utilize varied sources to obtain AQCD information

4) Utilize QSPM (Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix) analysis to determine the relative attractiveness of alternative strategies

5) Use excel-based software to facilitate and enhance the strategic planning process.

The purpose of this paper is to familiarize readers with basic new tools and techniques being used by organizations to effectively develop an improved strategic plan for the firm.

JEL Code: M21, O21