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  • Review of research on salt-affected soils in the Debrecen agricultural high educational institutions, with special focus on the mapping of Hortobágy
    471-484
    Views:
    66

    The history of the research of Debrecen scholars on salt-affected soils of Hortobágy and the region is very rich and diverse. 
    Focusing on mapping, the following stages can be distinguished, indicating the completeness of the maps and the purpose of the performed work
    − First, quantitative maps (Arany, 1926) for the utilization of the lands at 1:75,000 (Figure 1).
    − Second, quantitative map (Kreybig, 1943) for the utilization of the lands at 1:25,000.
    − Third, category map (Kreybig et al., 1935) testing the suitability of the classification system at  :75,000.
    − Fourth, partial category map (Szabolcs, 1954), showing the reasons of unsuccessful management at 1:10,000.
    − Fifth, partial quantitative map (Csillag et al., 1996), showing the utility of digital sampling at 1:25,000.
    − Sixth, partial quantitative map (Tamás and Lénárt, 2006), showing the capacity of multispectral  remote imagery at 1:100.
    − Seventh, partial quantitative map (Douaik et al., 2006), showing the usefulness of geostatistical  mapping at 1:10,000.
    − Eight, national quantitative maps (Pásztor et al., 2016), showing the applicability of geostatistics for administrative purposes at 1:10,000.
    − Ninth, partial quantitative/category map (authors, 2019), finding the optimal methods at 1:10,000.

  • Andrological examination of Hungarian Large White and Landrace boars
    5-10
    Views:
    211

    The Hungarian Large White and Hungarian Landrace pig breeds have outstanding lifetime performance, production parameters and crossbreeding ability. Nevertheless, during the recent decades, these breeds could not compete with the West European hybrid pigs concerning on production results. In this study, we made a complex andrological evaluation of boars in different Hungarian nucleus breeding stocks. After taking blood and semen samples, performing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge, ultrasonic and thermographic examinations were done. Laboratory tests were accomplished in reproduction labs of NARIC ABNMS. Our goal was to determine the reproductive performances of boars and collect samples for future genetic examinations, respectively.

  • Investigation of combining ability and superiority percentages for yield and some related traits in yellow maize using line × tester analysis
    5-14
    Views:
    239

    Combining ability estimation is an important genetic attribute for maize breeders in anticipating improvement in productivity via hybridization and selection. This research was carried out to investigate the genetic structure of the 27 F1 maize hybrids established from nine lines derived from Maize Research Department and three testers, to determine general combining ability (GCA), determine crosses showing specific combining ability (SCA) and superiority percentages for crosses. Nine lines, three testers, 27 F1 hybrids and two check commercial hybrids (SC162 and SC168) were studied in randomized complete block Design (RCBD) with three replications during 2016. The results of mean squares showed that significant and highly significant for most studied traits (days to 50% tasseling, days to 50% silking, plant and ear height, ear position, ear length, no. of kernels per row, 100-kernel weight and Grain yield). Estimates of variance due to GCA and SCA and their ratio revealed predominantly non-additive gene effects for all studied traits. Lines with the best GCA effects were: P2 (line 11) and P6 (line 21) for grain yield, for testers Gm174 and Gm1021 had significant GCA effects for grain yield. The hybrids P5×Gm1021, P6×Gm1021, P7×Gm1021, P8×Gm1002, P9×Gm1002 had significant and negative SCA effects for grain yield. Crosses P1×Gm174, P2×Gm1002, P5×Gm1021, P6×Gm174, P6×Gm1021, P7×Gm1021, P8×Gm1002, P9×Gm1021 were the best combinations manifested and significant superiority percentages over than check varieties (SC162 and SC168) for most studied traits. Therefore, these hybrids may be preferred for hybrid crop development.

    Abbreviations: GCA general combining ability; SCA specific combining ability

  • Improvement of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) growing under marginal site conditions in Hungary: case studies
    129-133
    Views:
    324

    In Hungary, black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is considered as an important exotic stand-forming tree species growing mostly under unfavourable ecological conditions for forest management. Due to climate change effects, its importance is increasing in many other countries, too. As a result of a selection programme, new black locust clones were tested in clone trials. Juvenile growth of 12 micropropagated black locust clones in two plots series established at different dates were evaluated in central Hungary under marginal site conditions. At age of 7 the clone R. p. ‘Bácska’ (‘KH 56A2/5’), at age of 10 the clones R.p. ‘Homoki’ (‘MB17D3/4’) and ‘PV201E2/4’ appeared to be especially promising for mass production. Based on the data obtained from the performed trials, it can also be concluded that tissue culture can be considered as a suitable tool for propagating superior individuals and offers new prospects for the rapid cloning of selected genotypes used for plantation forestry.

  • The European Research Area: in quest of the Lisbon goals
    73-79
    Views:
    69

    strong educational and scientific knowledge basie is one of Europe's traditional key assets that has made it possible for our continent to become world class in several research fields. Despite these great achievements, the position of the European research and technological development (RTD) potential is currently being challenged by a rapidly changing global competition, including the two main rivals, the US and Japan. The European Union (EU) is behind these countries as regards research and innovation output. Moreover, European research is faced with the
    implications of globalisation of markets and industries, digitalisation and new technologies, as well as a need to address societal issues such as an ageing population or climate change.
    At the same time, the European Union (EU) is facing the uneven distribution of RTD capacities and excellence within its own borders, especially the EU12 countries are lagging behind in this
    respect.
    In order to meet this twofold challenge the EU has to step up its efforts for the creation of a legitimate "European Research Area" that will make the EU more competitive on the international scene, and also encourage the less developed EU member states to invest more and better into research and innovation.

  • Rye plant parameters in the Westsik crop rotation experiment
    39-45
    Views:
    117

    Our research work was carried out in the Westsik crop rotation field experiment in 2018. The main research purpose was to analyse the effect of the different organic and chemical fertilizers on parameters of rye. Our results revealed some differences between the different fertilization methods. One spike weight, grain weight of one spike, rye plant height, rye plant weight per m2 and 1000 seed weight in crop rotations VII, XV and VIII were different from the data of all crop rotations. This finding can be explained by the fact that crop rotations VII and XV were non-fertilized, only 23.3 t ha-1 straw manure (VII) or green lupine manure was applied as a second crop (XV). In addition, crop rotation VIII consists of four parts where we apply chemical fertilization with green lupine manure as a main and second crop. There is a positive close correlation between rye plant height and other studied characters (rye plant weight per m2, spike length, weight of one spike, grain weight per spike, spike weight per m2, grain weight per m2 and 1000 seed weight).

  • Inheritance of Plant and Ear Height in Maize (Zea Mays L.)
    34-38
    Views:
    397

    Plant and ear height are very important characters not only for describing new varieties of maize (Zea mays L.), but for green and dry matter production, and even for grain yield. Significant positive correlations have been reported by various authors between plant height and stover yield, plant height and dry matter yield, and plant height and grain yield. The height of the main ear is also correlated to plant height. It depends on the variety or the environment, but is likely to be the same height within a population. Many environmental and agronomical factors (e.g. plant density, fertilization, pests and diseases) influence the expression of these characters, which are not quality traits. Their expression is controlled by many genes and by the interactions between these genes. The heritability of these traits is high and they show significant genotypic variability and positive heterosis, as reported in many research publications.

  • Sensitivity of maize to herbicides in experiments in Martonvásár in 2015
    47-52
    Views:
    169

    The phytotoxic effect of herbicides applied post-emergence was investigated in a herbicide sensitivity experiment set up on parental maize genotypes in Martonvásár. A total of 48 Martonvásár inbred lines and 12 single line crosses were included in small-plot experiments set up in two replications. Ten herbicides were applied at the normal authorised rate and at twice this quantity. Compounds intended for pre-emergence application were applied when maize was in the 3–4-leaf stage and post-emergence herbicides in the 7–8-leaf stage of development. The extent of phytotoxicity was scored two weeks after treatment. Some of the herbicides tested are not authorised for use in seed production fields, but it is important to know how the parental genotypes respond to all types of herbicides. Phytotoxic symptoms of varying intensity were only observed on a third of the 60 parental genotypes examined; the majority of the lines exhibited no reaction to any of the herbicides. Averaged over the 60 genotypes the level of phytotoxic damage was less than 10% for the single dose. When the double dose was applied somewhat more severe damage was induced by products containing Mesotrione + Nicosulfuron or Foramsulfuron + Isoxadifen-ethyl, but this was still below 15%. The herbicide dose had a three times stronger influence on the intensity of the symptoms than the type of herbicide. With the exception of Topramezone, there was a significant difference between the effects of the normal and double doses. The greatest dose effect differences, in decreasing order, were observed for Mesotrione + Nicosulfuron, Foramsulfuron + Isoxadifen-ethyl. Nicosulfuron and Mesotrione + Terbutylazine. The Mesotrione + Terbutylazine active ingredient combination only caused mild (<10%) symptoms on a total of 11 genotypes, while the Mesotrione + Nicosulfuron combination induced more severe phytotoxic symptoms on 26 lines. When Nicosulfuron was applied alone it caused milder symptoms on fewer genotypes than in combination with Mesotrione. Among compounds of the sulphonyl-urea type, the least severe symptoms on the fewest genotypes were recorded in the case of Prosulfuron.

  • Open Method of Coordination in the European research policy
    182-187
    Views:
    72

    Research, development and innovation (R+D) are of great importance nowadays as regards the competetiveness and economic growth of any given country. In the European Union the Lisbon Strategy considers R+D as a crutial means to enhance european competetiveness. The EU is substansially lagging behind its main competitors (USA, Japan) in this domain, furthermore developing countries (China, India) have recently been making
    great progress, thus posing additional challanges to our continent.  The EU needs to assess the present situation as soon as possible and meet the latest challenges in the most efficient way. In order to achieve this objective, the concept of the European Research Area (ERA) has been elaborated with the aim of reorganising, regrouping and integrating existing structures. The open method of coordination (OMC) is playing an important role in the implementation of this common area. It constitutes an alternative policy-making merthod to pure „intergovernmentalism” and the
    „community method”. The OMC in the field of research policy is coordinated by the Scientific and Research Committe (CREST), which provides a forum for member states to share their experience and reach their common goals.

  • Mitigation of the effect of secondary salinization by micro soil conditioning
    115-119
    Views:
    195

    This research has the general goal to meet the customization of agriculture in small scale farming. We are developing a technique using micro doses of soil conditioners and organic material applied in the root zone of vegetable crops. We expected to change the physical and chemical properties of the affected soil, which has been irrigated with salty water. Two different soil conditioners were tested. A lysimeter experiment including 8 simple drainage lysimeters was set up in the Research Institute of Karcag IAREF University of Debrecen in 2017. The main goal was to study the effect of different soil conditioners on the soil endangered by secondary salinization induced by irrigation with saline water. In order to compare the difference between the treatments, we collected soil samples, water samples, and determined the yields. Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) was used as an indicator crop during one specific agricultural season. The technique called micro soil conditioning is rational because several reasons. The roles of the technique are various, for example it can serve as a source of carbon or a container for soil amendments and can minimize evaporation. We found this technique not to interfere with the chemical reaction or the interaction with the plants. However, the micro doses of soil amendments had the role to minimize the risk of soil degradation and do not significantly influence soil respiration. In addition, by improving soil properties, soil conditioning increases the leaching of the excess of salts from the root zone. In fact, this technique can decrease the cost of the inputs and improves the production of vegetables, and at the same time mitigates the effect of secondary salinization.

  • Plant production possibilities on a heavy metal contaminated soil with the purpose of biorefinery
    215-222
    Views:
    79

    Significant part of not cultivated area of Hungary is not suitable for agricultural utilization because of industrial
    pollution. Technologies of biorefinery make reutilization of contaminated areas possible. Biomass of plants
    produced on polluted soils can be raw material of valuable products. Applicability of biorefinery was tested on a
    heavy metal polluted soil, where the contamination originated from previous mining activity. Complete biomass
    utilization was aimed to obtain cosmetic ingredients, pharmaceutical agents, and precursors. During our research
    work 88 plant species and varieties were produced and tested for potential utilizable components. Levels of
    possible contaminants in these plants were monitored, and amounts of carbohydrates, protein, organic acid and
    cellulose were determined as well. Different plant extracts were tested as potential sources of biologically effective
    components or as raw materials for lactic acid fermentation. Our results show that biorefinery is a real possibility
    for utilization of polluted areas. Numerous plants could be cultivated on contaminated areas without increased
    levels of contaminants in their tissues, thus they can be sources of valuable compounds.

  • Pre- and postharvest technologies to extend the shelf life of Prunus cerasus
    85-89
    Views:
    220

    Fresh tart cherry consumption cannot be increased without the development of an appropriate technology for its elongated storage. This requires the development and optimization of the pre- and postharvest treatments. Currently, we have only limited knowledge about tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) postharvest technology, however, related studies on sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) may be adopted. In this article, we have collected the most important research results in this topic.

  • Comparison of the alveographic qualification and the baking quality of winter wheat
    294-302
    Views:
    133

    On the basis of the operative French regulations, we qualified the alveographic qualification and the valorigraphic qualification respectively for each of the 10-14 winter wheat varieties grown each year between 2002-2005, and used in a field experiment at the Karcag Research Institute of the University of Debrecen. The field experiment at the Látókép Research Institute of the University of Debrecen allowed us to examine the alveographic and valorigraphic values of the samples of GK Öthalom and Fatima 2 winter wheat varieties taken from an 8 year period (1997-1999 and 2001-2005).
    Throughout the experiments on samples from the Karcag Research Institute and Látókép Research Institute of the University of Debrecen, we tried to find whether the alveographic W value or the P/L value provides the safer method for the qualification of wheat samples, instead of the qualification commonly used in Hungary. We found that in terms of the samples from the Karcag Research Institute, the baking quality and the W value in each of the examined years, while in terms of the Látókép Research Institute, most of the years showed a close positive correlation, contrary to the close negative relationship between the baking quality and the P/L value. The correlation index varied depending on the year, the variety, and fertilizer doses, which require further examinations.

  • The significance of local meteorological stations in research planning
    87-91
    Views:
    197

    The goal of research planning is to optimize human and material resources while maximizing efficiency. If there are databases that can be used as a substitute for own data collection, effective research can be facilitated by reallocating resources. In the case of environmental studies, the knowledge of the climatic conditions of the study period is known to be a key factor in research planning process.

     In the present study, the data of our meteorological station in our research area (known as “Szamárháti Tanya”, Kesznyéten, Hungary) was compared with the measurements of meteorological stations operated by the competent water authority. Stations were taken into the study within a 10 and 20 km radius over a period of 21 months, to determine which provided more relevant data from the area.

    During the evaluation of results, the relationship between the local and regional weather stations were determined, and deductions were made from the obtained results to support the decision which of the targeted investigations could be of greater benefit. 

  • Environmental Consequences of Efficient Use of Nitrogen Fertilizers
    41-46
    Views:
    75

    Nitrogen fertilizer represents major economic burden. For this reason, although the efficiency of nitrogen utilization varies highly, its actual use generally remains at low levels; these averaging between 25 and 50%. We set up an experiment at the Oradea Research Station, using 15N labeled fertilizers, in order to investigate the possibility of increasing N fertilizer efficiency in winter wheat under irrigation conditions.
    Fertilizers labeled with 15N allows us to individually determine its effect on yield formation, as well as the use efficiency of N from fertilizer following application rate and time. The amount of N derived from fertilizer as determined in straw and grain yield is high. When the labeled fertilizer is applied at tillering time, the values of this indicator rise when higher N levels we applied.
    In separate experiments, we investigated a series of aspects connected to chemical fertilizer regarding the determination of the type of fertilizer, optimum time and rates of application; all these as a function of the special pedoclimatic conditions.
    The results obtained in the field show that the effectiveness of N utilization in wheat is most variable and generally low, often ranging between 25 and 33%, owing to N loss within the system through leaching and NH3 volatilization.
    A readily achievable increase in efficiency of 5 percentage points would result in considerable savings, and can be brought about by reducing nitrogen losses. The added benefits to the environment in terms of reduced ground/water contamination and lowered nitrous oxide (N20) emissions would also be substantial.
    The figures for N fertilizer use efficiency (% N range from 35.5 to 72.6, the highest value being recorded with an N application of 120 kg/ha at tillering, when the previous crop was sunflower).
    INTRODUCTION

  • Results of weed surveys in greening plants
    53-57
    Views:
    68

    Greening crops play an essential role in Hungary's agriculture. Weeds can also cause many problems during the development of greening plants. Our research aimed to evaluate the weed control properties of greening crops sown with different germination rates. Analysis of the effect of crop rotations on weed density. Comparison of weed growth in control, fertilised and greened areas. In October of 2021, a weed survey was carried out in lupin (Lupinus albus L.), common vetch (Vicia sativa L.), oil radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleiferus L.) and buckwheat (Fagopyrum eculentum Moench). During the weed survey, we determined the different weed species and their abundance. In terms of seed rates, the higher seed rates for lupin, oil radish, and buckwheat may be worth choosing for weed suppression. Plots in rotation III had the lowest weed incidence of all greening crops. The probable reason for this finding is that there was no prior greening in rotation III. For greening, the choice of buckwheat and oil radish will result in higher weed pressure. The most important weeds were the cereals sown before the greening crop. Fertilised plots had minimally fewer weeds than control plots. Research results show the difficulties of weed control in herbicide-free greening crops.

     

  • Application of GIS, precision agriculture and unplugging cultivation in plant breeding of Karcag
    49-56
    Views:
    157

    In the last two decades, the prevailing ecological conditions and climate change have caused negative effects. Therefore, a paradigm shift is needed in the field growing of plants. The latest inventions, digital technologies, precision cultivation are not enough, the mentality of the farmers is more important. For this reason, not only big financial sacrifices, but adequate receptivity are needed on behalf of farmers. Adequate skills and continuous self-education are necessary. The yield of plant growing farms is determined by ecological conditions to a 40% extent, genetic background of the seed has a 30% share and the applied agricultural technology has a proportion of 30%. In different agroecological conditions, bred varieties of plants have bigger tolerance to unfavorable factors of the regions and significant yield stability. Farmers, who buy and sow seeds, can only contribute to the genetic potential of the seeds with cultivation technology. Plant breeding provides stable genetic background and good quality seeds. Breeding activity – choosing variety proposants, breeding them, selection work, classical breeding process for 8-10 years – must create new landraces, which can produce balance, high yield and have good quality parameters in extreme ecological conditions, yearly excursion and have higher tolerance to unfavorable factors of the region giving significant production stability for farmers. In Karcag GIS technology, precision cultivation elements and soil-friendly agrotechnical methods have been introduced which largely support the aims of breeding and can also provide optimal cultivation conditions in extreme years. Because of the specificity of breeding the main aim is not only to increase yield but to provide harmonic growing for bred materials, to decrease the number and the cost of cultivation and to be punctual. In this study, applied new methods and technologies are introduced.

  • Measurement of the degradation of abandoned turf
    145-149
    Views:
    146

    With the decreasing number of grazing livestock in Hungary, the role of the turf cultivation is also significantly decreasing. The proportion of the under- and non-utilized turf is increasing. In the research conduced at the University of Debrecen, IAREF Research Institute Karcag, we studied four types of turf utilization in three replicates on a salt field with timothy grass. We determined the flora composition of the experimental area, measured the soil moisture and the carbon-dioxide content of the soil.

  • The structure of tertiary education, training and research potential influencing factors
    49-53
    Views:
    131

    Nowadays more and more pronounced demand for tertiary education appears as an output of the labor market and the real labor market needs coordination of intention. A necessary condition for the long-term sector strategies, conscious coordination. In Hungary – the sector management level – headed tertiary education training structure and the transformation of the institutional network. There is a close relationship between training supply and research and development potential, as an institution typically the same disciplinary education and research base continues. Based on this, we assume that the structure of the training may influence the development of the restructuring of the research and development potential as well. The institutional network reorganization (merger, liquidation, establishment of new institutions) is expected to result in a former spatial structure of tertiary education in the modification, which in itself is a training and research supply spatial rearrangement may apply. Against this background, questions have been raised as to how the objectives in the current tertiary education strategy for economic operators serving the needs of each territorial unit, how the institution fits into network transformation of economic structure and labor market needs of the regions.

    In order for the Hungarian tertiary education can meet the requirement for industry standards, an essential part of the structure of industries, and the changes occurring in the economic structure, trends and industry relations in the investigation. On the other hand, we do not ignore those factors are not, which have a determining influence on the tertiary education institutions in training and R&D supply. As part of this study in tertiary education institutions will be examined possible factors influencing education, research and development demand and supply, which gets a prominent role in the economic structure of relations between the territorial dimension in the evolution of discount factors and the nature of particular sectors.

  • Heterobeltiosis and combining ability among Egyptian cotton genotypes under well irrigated and water deficit conditions
    5-18
    Views:
    213

    Two field experiments were carried out during the 2014 and 2015 seasons to evaluate certain genotypes of Egyptian cotton under well irrigated and water stress conditions. The cross combination Giza 69 x Australy recorded the best values for better parent heterosis for all physiological measurements and earliness index under well irrigated and deficit conditions. Of the female parents, Giza 86 was found to be a good general combiner for most yield characters under both normal and stress conditions, followed by Giza 94. Data illustrated that Giza 45 was the best general combiner for most fiber quality traits under both conditions. The cross combinations Giza 86 x Dandra and Giza 69 x Pima S6 showed significant positive SCA values for seed cotton and lint yield/plant under well irrigated and water deficit conditions. However, the combinations Giza 77 x PimaS6 and Giza 94 x 10229 recorded significant positive SCA effects for seed cotton yield/plant under stress. Whilst, the cross Giza 68 x 10229 recorded significant desirable SCA effects for most fiber quality properties. In this context, the estimates significant positive general and specific combining ability effects indicated that the epistasis and/or dominance effects for F1 hybrid in cotton could be important to a certain extent.

  • Role of Sowing Time in Maize Production (Review)
    36-39
    Views:
    75

    Many authors, both in Hungary and abroad, have reported on experiments carried out to determine the role of sowing time in maize, but the results are often contradictory. This is hardly surprising, since the maize plant exhibits enormous genetic variability and the hybrids created through selection and inbreeding may have very specific requirements as to sowing date. The year effect, too, often complicates the efforts of scientists to provide clear guidance to farmers on the optimal sowing date for each hybrid.

  • Food Safety in EU Higher Education
    188-197
    Views:
    77

    Under the aegis of the Lisbon Strategy, special attention is paid to education and areas left untouched by the European integration process. Human capital and research inputs were identified as major driving forces for long-term development. The European Union is keen on meeting its target of boosting research spending to 3% of GDP by 2010. In order to contribute towards his goal, the European Commission has set aside an amount
    which is double the budget of the 7th Framework Programme. Accordingly, preferences were given to research and development projects encouraging competitiveness in the food industry and other initiatives, such as the European Technology Platforms. Major obstacles to innovation in Hungary are: lack of funds, weakness of research network, poor structural relations. Better utilization of our comparative advantages should be targeted in order to have the Hungarian food industry become a driving force sector. This is to be promoted by the newly transformed food
    engineer training (as a result of the Bologna Declaration) which can adapt better to the changing requirements of the labour market. Food science and related research could become determining factors for the food economy by setting up accredited training systems and enhancing food safety education and training in Hungary. 

  • Organic soybean production in Hungary
    45-52
    Views:
    153

    Organic soy production, particularly for feedstuff in organic animal husbandry, is needed in Hungary and the EU regions. Soybean producing crop area in Hungary has increased in the last years, however, the agroecological potential would allow for a larger soybean production area. This study presents the soybean market in Hungary, and the role of soybeans in protein supply in food and feed, summarising the critical elements of organic soybean production from variety selection to marketing. During the field research, the effects of the agronomical environment on yield potential factors were examined. We aimed to determine how different row spacing and tillage systems affect organic soybean yields of different varieties, with particular attention to the dry region, and determine the specific methods and varieties of soybean that favour these areas. We found that the tillage (plough/grubber), the spacing (wide/narrow), and the variety effects were all significant on morphological variables. The most remarkable difference was seen in plant height and the number of pods per plant, while the number of nodes was also highly impacted by tillage treatment and variety. The nutrition variables were significantly different, mainly as an effect of tillage and spacing interaction with significantly different plant responses of varieties.

  • Effect of agrotechnical factors on the yield of the Grolim asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) hybrid on acidic sandy soil
    43-48
    Views:
    216

    Research of blanched asparagus has begun at the University of Debrecen Institutes for Agricultural Research and Educational Farm Research Institutes of Nyíregyháza in 2011. Establishment of the plantation took place in May 2011. The Grolim hybrid was used in the trial, 16 medium plot trial area has been formed under field conditions, with four repetitions and 36 m2 plot size. In the course of our studies, the effect of different nutriment supply methods (untreated, manure, sheep manure compost, fertilizer) has been analysed on the spear yield of the Grolim asparagus hybrid between 2013 and 2017.

    In our studies, the beginning of vegetative growth has been recorded upon the constant presence of 10 °C of average soil temperature in the case of the Grolim asparagus hybrid. The beginning and length of spear harvesting are both influenced by the time and dynamics of initial development in spring. During the analysed period, the dates of spear harvesting were various, the earliest being on 23rd March, 2014 and the latest on 23rd April, 2015; the rest of the three years have been varied within this one month interval. The total of heat units required for the vegetative development of spears has been determined; it provides important information for cultivation practice.

    Spear yields turned out to be hectic during the analysed period. In 2013 and 2014, yields have surpassed the amount of 50 kg/harvest period/plot in the case of every treatment version. However, in 2015 a significantly lower specific yield has been recorded due to the unfavourable weather conditions in spring; a yield decline of nearly 50% was recorded in the case of the control treatment compared to the previous years. Yield was also lower in the rest of the fertilization treatments compared to 2014; however, in these cases, the degree of yield decrease was around 5–10%, which suggests the yield stabilising effect of fertilization. In 2016, a slight yield increase was measured in comparison with the base year. In 2017, there was a decline of yield in the control treatment; however, the different fertilization treatments resulted in yield increase as compared to previous years.

    On the basis of our studies, it is clear that the best yield results have been provided by the artificial fertilization treatment in all of the five analysed years. It was followed by the sheep manure compost and manure treatments in terms of their effect on spear yield. During the three harvesting periods, the lowest yield on acidic sandy soil was recorded in the case of the control treatment. The most remarkable effect of nutriment treatments has been realised in terms of the decreased deviation of yield results, which perfectly represents the yield stabilising effect of nutriment supply in the case of perennial crops – asparagus – as well, even on a poor nutriment supply characteristic sandy soil.

  • Sewage sludge compost as an alternative source of phosphorus to rye in acidic sandy soil
    11-18
    Views:
    40

    Today, the use of chemical fertilisers is significantly determined by their production and purchase costs, which are high. In contrast, phosphorus (P) is present in sewage sludge in a form that is easy for plants to absorb. Good quality sewage sludge compost (SSC) could contain a high quantity of P, together with other macro- and microelements and organic matter. The effect of regular SSC application on soil characteristics as well as plant parameters has been studied since 2003 in Nyíregyháza in a small plot experiment. Focusing on the P in the soil-plant system, our hypothesis was that SSC covers plants’ P demand through enhancing soil P content and its plant availability in the acidic sandy soil. The effect of the SSC was examined at the doses of 0, 9, 18, and 27 t ha-1 on rye as a test crop. Some soil chemical parameters (pH, soil organic matter - SOM, ammonium lactate (AL) extractable P2O5), and the relationship between plant development (green weight, shoot length), physiological parameters (SPAD index), plant shoot P content, and soil available P content were studied. The obtained data indicated that the SOM content, pH, and available P content of the treated plots increased as a result of the long-term applied SSC compared to the control. Measurement of the relative chlorophyll content showed a strong correlation with the available P content of the soil, but surprisingly less correlation with shoot P content was found. The results of plant biomass and soil P content proved that SSC could be used as a low-cost and good source of P for plants.