The Evaluation of Grazed Grasslands on the Hortobágy

The sward composition of different grasslands on Puszta Hortobágy has been developed according to prevailing abiotic and biotic factors. The abiotic conditions have been more or less constans for long periods of time, and the abiotic factors are determined by ecological conditions (climate, soil, topography). Among biotic factors grazing of herbivores was important in the development of Hortobágy grasslands for centuries (Sipos and Varga, 1993). Result of three-year investigations on the sward composition of grasslands utilised in different ways are presented. Data on ground cover, number of plant species, representation of different plant groups (grasses, sedge and bent-grass, herbs, legumes) and weeds are reported from six different grazed grassland types from Puszta Hortobágy.
In 1999-2001 a sward composition survey was conducted. Sample areas of 2x2 m2 were marked out in three replicates: on temporarily waterlogged grassland grazed by cattle (A), on dry grassland grazed by cattle (B), on dry grassland grazed by sheep (C), on dry grassland grazed by buffaloes (D), on dry grassland grazed by buffaloes and geese (E), on dry grassland cut for hay in May then grazed by geese (F). On the sample areas sward composition of grasslands was estimated according to Balázs (1949).
The average ground cover of different grasslands ranged between 60 and 100% (Table 2). The lowest value was found for grasslands C and E, which are grazed by sheep (C) and buffaloes and geese alternately (E). In these grasslands were some open spaces, on the other grasslands completely closed swards covers were observed.
The species diversity of these natural grasslands are high (Table 2). The grassland F, which were cut for hay in May had the lowest diversity (17-21). The highest number of species was found on grassland A and B (32-51), on other grazed grasslands (C, D, E) had 29-48 species.
The different plant groups had different representation in the total ground cover (Table 3). The number of herbs was always higher then that of grasses, but the cover of herbs was lower then that of grasses. The legumes and the sedge and bent grasses were present in high abundance in grassland A, but in the other grasslands were not.
The composition of herbs should be a warning for future utilisation systems on some grasslands of Hortobágy. Some species of herbs, e.g. Achillea millefolium, Artemisia vulgaris, Carduus acanthoides, Cirsium arvense, Cirsium vulgare Eryngium campestre, Galium mollugo, Galium verum, Ononis spinosa, Rumex crispus, Verbascum phlomoideus, Phragmites australis can be invasive on short grasslands.

Coenological and grassland management studie in different planted and renewed grasslands

We studied the vegetation of a 260 ha Hungarian Grey Cattle pasture near Páskom, which can be found in Zámoly basin. We carried out our surveyes in May 2012. The pasture can be divided into five parts. One part, approximately the half of the area (150.83 ha), is an old-field grassland, which was overseeded 20 years ago. The other half of the pasture was restored (109.17 ha) in 4 different ways in 2009 and then was mowed until 2011. Seven relevés were made in each part of the pasture (the occurence of species and their cover value were recorded). The aim of our study was to compare the effects of the different restoration methods and mowing on the botanical composition of the pasture.

The results showed, that the grassland restored with hay transfer method was the most similar to the natural conditions. The greatest number of species was recorded in that part and the species of natural grasslands become dominant. The directly sowed and the spontaneous grassland parts separated chiefly from the semi-natural 20 years old grassland.

Valuation of the National Agricultural Environmental Management Project’s Extensive Grassland Farming Target Project in Two Counties

The National Agricultural Environmental Management Project’s (NAEMP) extensive grassland farming project is aimed at extensive cultivation on of nearly 1.1 million hectares of grassland, and at improving the state of grasslands with nature- and environment protecting methods. By using the 2002 data (the NAEMP’s first year’s data), I came to the following conclusions: Within the Extensive grassland farming project, a state subsidy was applied for on 8.94% of Hungary’s total grasslands. In Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg and Hajdú-Bihar counties, applied for state subsidies covered 12% of the grassland of the counties.10.45% of the projects arrived from the county of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg, and 28.56% from the county of Hajdú-Bihar. In Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg, the support was 37.7% of the total subsidy, while in Hajdú-Bihar, it was 37.1%, unlike nationwide, which was 30.1%.The intensity of the applications is respectively 1.7 and 2.5 times more than the National (1.24) value.
In my view, in some fields, which are not between nature protected areas you’d better consider permitting intensive cultivation, simultaneously with grazing, with the observation of nature- and environmental regulations.

The effect of compost made of sheep manure on the first cut of a semi-natural grassland

In an experiment, two types of compost were tested on natural grassland in order to improve the productivity of a natural sward on solonetz soil. Both composts were made of on-farm produced sheep manure, but the second one was enriched in phosphorus. These fertilizers/composts are officially authorized and can be applied in organic farming. Zero application and three rates of fertilizer were tested (10 t ha-1, 20 t ha-1, 30 t ha-1) on 30 m2 experimental plots wit four replications. Dry matter, crude protein and net energy content for maintenance were measured and determined and their yields per unit area were calculated. We found that all the treated plots produced significantly higher yield than the control ones, and in some cases the yields were almost three times higher. However, the optimal compost dose varied, depending on the examined parameter. Based on the evaluation of the experiment results along with rainfall data, it was concluded that, with higher precipitation, the positive effect of the compost application was bigger. The difference between the natural and enriched compost is remarkable, but it has to be mentioned that even the natural compost showed good results; therefore, it is also effective in improving the fertility of grassland.

Yield and sward composition responses of a native grassland to compost application

A major part of the animal products are based on the grasslands, due to the fact that the grassland ecosystems can be found all over the globe. In places where economical and successful crop production cannot be realized, the grassland based animal husbandry can be an efficient way of food production. In addition these ecosystems have an important role in carbon sequestration, and with their rich flora – and the fauna connected to it – in conservation of biodiversity. The protection of nature, and the sustainable agriculture is getting more and more attention in the European Union, but looking at the consumers’ needs, the production of healthy food cannot be neglected either. Because of these facts, the effects of two specific composts - which are officially authorized in organic farming, in Agri-environment Schemes and Natura 2000 programs – on grass yields and sward compositions were investigated in a field trial. The investigation took place in Hungary, on a natural grassland based on solonetz soil. The first type of compost was a natural one (N) without any additional material and the other one was enriched in phosphorus (E). Both was produced by the research institute, made of sheep manure. Three rates of compost (10 t ha-1, 20 t ha-1,30 t ha-1) were tested on 3 m×10 m experimental plots. Every treatments had four replications and both type of compost had four-four control plots too, this way 32 experimental plots were included in the investigations. The yield of the pasture was harvested two-times (in May and in September) and before cutting the plots measurements on botanical compositions were made. Samples for laboratory analysis were also taken. Dry matter yield and crude protein content was measured in laboratory and with the received data the yield per unit area was calculated. Based on the research results we can say that the application of compost in any dose inflicts higher dry material and crude protein yield. The changes were partly due to some positive changes in sward composition, because of the better nutrient conditions. The research results indicate, that use of organic compost can be an efficient way to increase grass yields in a sustainable way.

The Effect of Utilization Systems on the Sward Composition, Yield and Sheep Carrying Capacity of Extensive Grasslands

We analysed the effect of the sheep grazing, the grass cutting and mixed utilization methods on plant composition, yield and live-stock keeping capacity of extensive Achilleo-Festucetum pseudovinae grassland in the 1996-2000 research period. Analysing the extensive utilizations effects on chanching of the plant composition of extensive grassland established that due to the cutting utilization method the area covering rates of gramineous and usefull weeds were the highest while the grazing utilization-method caused the briggest area covering rate for legumes and unusefull weeds. Analysing the utilized fibrin-fodder yield established that the single utilization methods could not produce the maximum yield and live-stock keeping capacity on the treathea grassland type. Because of things mentioned above we must use the mixed utilization methods to save the maximum phytomass.

The effect of different genotype cattle grazing on the nutrient content of saline grasslands vegetation

Maintaining saline grasslands in good condition, preserving their yield and diversity is important not only for the purpose of nature conservation, but also for farming. Therefore, the primary purpose of our study is to analyse the effect of pasture use of the smaller weight extensive and the larger weight intensive beef cattle on the grassland vegetation and nutrient content. In this way, we can answer the question whether grazing for nature conservation can be achieved with more profitable, more economical and more intense varieties.

The tests were carried out in May 2016 and May 2017, in the Hortobágy National Park (Pap-ere and Zám puszta), where a total of 16 sample areas were analysed. These areas are grazed with extensive beef cattle (Hungarian grey) and mixed genotype of intensive cattle. The associations were selected along a moisture gradient, such as wet salt marsh (Bolboschoenetum maritimi) and drier saline meadow (Beckmannion eruciformis). All the vegetative material collected both years in May was analysed for the following parameters: dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre and life-sustaining net energy content. We compared the effects of medium grazing (0.46 livestock/ha) and abandonment on vegetation and nutrient content.

We examined the effect of (i) grazing, (ii) different grasslands (salt marsh, saline meadow) and (iii) grazing of different cattle breeds (Hungarian grey, intensive beef) on the nutrient content of the vegetation of grasslands Based on our results, it was found that grazing had an impact on crude protein and life-sustaining net energy content. The highest crude protein content (12.75 m/m%) was obtained in the year 2017 in the area where higher density had been grazed for two years. For the lifesustaining net energy, the highest value (5.05 MJ/kg d.m.) was also obtained in 2017 and the lowest in 2016. Furthermore, it was found that there was no significant difference between the effect of the two cattle breeds on the parameters examined. Significant effects were observed only in the case of life-sustaining net energy: in the area of intensive beef cattle we received a higher value (5.15 MJ/kg body weight) than in the area with extensive beef cattle (4.96 MJ/kg body weight).

Our results have also shown that cattle grazing is of the utmost importance for the maintenance of both wet and mesophilous habitats. Based on our three-year study, we can say that grazing by both extensive and intensive cattle breeds is suitable for the management of saline habitats.

Energy crops on less favoured (alkaline) soil

The reduction in fossil energy and row material sources induces growing demand for renewable resources. The growing demand for herbal raw materials has land use impacts as well. One way to reduce the conflict between the food and energy crops can be the utilization of less favored areas by growing energy crops. Among the potentially available areas for this purpose the salt affected soils (SAS) occupy a significant territories. SAS with structural B-horizon (meadow solonetz soils) represent the most wide spread group of SAS in Hungary. About half of these soils have been reclaimed and used as arable land and the remaining 50% are used as grassland. Sweet sorghum production for manufacturing of alcohol production was investigated in a long term amelioration and fertilization experiment on a salt affected soil (meadow solonetz). By means of regression analyzes the effect of sodium content of the soil and increasing mineral fertilizer doses were studied. According to the multiple regression analysis only the effect of nitrogen fertilizer was significant. On the solonetz type salt affected soil the effect of water soluble salt content of the soil was not significant, but there was a closer correlation between the ammonium-lactate sodium content and the yield of sweet sorghum. The maximum green mass was 45–50 t ha-1, in the case of low Na content and high level of nitrogen fertilization.

In order to quantify the potential yield of natural grass vegetation the relationship between the soil forming processes and the grass vegetation
was investigated. Beyond the different forms of Na-accumulation, the spatial pattern (mosaic-like characteristic) is also an inseparable feature of salt affected soils. The difference in the water regime, caused by the micro-relief is the main cause of variability. The run-on water keeps the deeper parts of the catena position wet longer. The wet situation causes more intensive leaching. In the low-laying parts of salt affected soils species preferring wet situations (mainly Alopecurus pratensis) are in majority. On the higher parts of the micro-relief species tolerating dry situations (mainly Festuca  pseudovina) are dominant. The yearly grass production of low laying areas can be 4–7 t ha-1 but because of prolonged wet  conditions the grass is not grazed and mowing can only be in old state. This old grass is not proper for feeding, but it may be suitable as energy plant. 

The Effect of Grazing Intensities on Magnesium Contents

Research was carried out on two areas of grassland in Hortobágy National Park, Hungary. Two herds of Hungarian Grey Cattle were kept in free range grazing and the effects of grazing pressure on the magnesium content of soil and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L) were determined.
Changes of plant available and total soil magnesium content under different grazing intensities did not show any evident tendency on the investigated grasslands. Different amounts of cattle faeces, urine and trampling had no effect on the magnesium concentration of ryegrass. We conclude that the magnesium content of ryegrass on both grassland sites as moderate grazing and overgrazing matches the requirements of cattle. Symptoms of magnesium deficiency of cattle will likely not appear.

Supplementary botanical examinations for modelling the grass production of the great pasture of Hajdúbagos

Our botanical survey at the great pasture of Hajdúbagos is a part of a broad research that aims to predict the production of the grass at the given area. As the mentioned pasture is a nature conservation area, the usage of artificial fertilizers or other classic grassland management methods in its handling are prohibited. Thus grazing is an important tool for the management of this area, however the not suitably regulated grazing order and the poorly calculated carrying capacity cause serious problems at some parts of the pasture. The prediction of the grass yield is essential to
avoid both over- and both under-grazing and for determining the optimal number of the grazing animal stock and the grazing method, thus the most suitable management strategy.
The potential grass yield is easily calculable with a computer model that will be established as a basis for determining the grass production. For the sake of getting an accurate view of the plant associations of the pasture, we created examination quadrates and determined all plant species found in the quadrates. After plant determination, we compiled a coenological table in which we marked besides the scientific name and families, the life forms of each species that refer to the structure, morphology and thus the adaptability of plants to their environment. We determined the
TWR, so the thermoclimate, water and soil reaction values, the nature conservation values, as well as the covering values of each plant species (DB), and the total coverage of the examination quadrates (B%).
According to the covering values, grasses proved to be characteristic plants at the examined pasture, thus we need to consider them influential in calculating the animal carrying capacity and with the rest of the information, we need to supply the model.
The life forms and TWR indicators, all together with the nature conservation values provide further important data to the development of the management suggestion of the protected pasture. By examining these values to different parts of the area, we could get an exact view on the measure of the degradation effects. This promotes the determination of grazing methods and the forming of the boundaries of certain pasture sections, to avoid  those harmful anthropogenic effects that seriously endanger this extensive sandy pasture. 

Evaluation some important microbiological parameters of the carbon cycle in chernozem soils profiles

Some chemical and microbiological properties of the carbon cycle were investigated in three chernozem soil profiles. The soil profiles originated from a long term fertilization experiment (potato) of the University of Debrecen, Látókép, Kryvyi Rig Botanic Garden (grassland) and a large-scale farm (sunflower) of Ukraine. The results of the organic C-content, total number of bacteria, microscopical fungi, cellulose decomposing bacteria, CO2-production, microbial biomass carbon and saccharase and dehydrogenase activities were compared and evaluated with the help of correlation analyses. Close correlation was found between the organic carbon content and the number of microscopical fungi,, saccharase and dehydrogenase enzymes’ activities, as well as close correlation was found between the dehydrogenase activity and microbial biomass-C and saccharase activity.

Statistical comparison of coverage data of disturbed habitats in the Hajdúság

Between 2002 and 2006 we made the coenological survey of five disturbed habitats marked as grasslands. With our coenological examinations and the statistical analyses we wanted to make the detailed botanical survey of the given five habitats in order to verify that the maintenance of habitats amongst agricultural lands – and considered as less valuable – is of high importance and necessary from an environmental point of view, since these habitats are often living and feeding areas of many rare and/or protected plant- and animal species.
As a result of the statistical analyses we have pointed out that number of species in case of all the five habitats extreme fluctuation characterizes the statistical universe. As regards the
average of the coverage it is the highest in case of the third habitat (degraded Puccinellia grassland), and the coefficient of variation shows homogenity as well. In examining the Shannon-value the average is the highest in case of the second habitat (Alopecurus meadow), and the statistical dispersion is the smallest. The coefficient of variation shows medium variability. The median of evenness is the lower in case of the third habitat (degraded
Puccinellia meadow) and the statistical is the highest here as well. 
We have done the Hierarchical and the K-Means Cluster Analyses for the 21 plant associations of the five habitats. Both cluster analyses put the same associations into the same cluster, so
one can state that the associations in each cluster are different from the associations of the other ones according to the coverage data of the plant families. 

Upgrading breeding value estimation in beef cattle

This paper gives a summary of the possibility for applying genomic information for breeding value estimation in beef cattle breeding. This process is called genomic prediction and is now widely used in dairy cattle globally as well as in some beef and sheep populations. The advantage of genomic prediction is a more accurate estimate of the genetic merit of an individual at a young age thereby facilitating greater annual genetic gain, predominantly through shorter generation intervals. Genomic predictions are more advantageous for sex-linked (e.g., milk yield), low heritability (e.g., fertility) and difficult-to-measure (e.g., feed intake) traits. The larger the reference population, on average, the more accurate the genomic predictions; additionally, the closer genetically the reference population is to the candidate population, the greater the accuracy of genomic predictions. Research is continuing on strategies to generate accurate genomic predictions using a reference population consisting of multiple breeds (and crossbred). Retrospective analysis of real-life data where genomic predictions have been operation for several years clearly shows a benefit of this technology.

Feeding questions of organic lamb fattening

Organic farming has done in line with conventional farming in the Karcag Research Institute of DU CASE since 2001. Our organic farming activities were enhanced with sheep farming and
grassland management in 2005. We started our study of technology development of organic lamb fattening and the treatment of its economic effect this year. Our goal was to develop
the elements of the technology to reach a more efficient organic lamb fattening. We also studied what economic advantages the organic sheep farming could realize in the present economic environment. Our studies were carried out between 2005 and 2007. We established that the excellent ewe feeding (good quality of fodder and silage) can decrease the lamb feeding cost between the 2nd and 8th weeks of the lambs’ life. We established that the
yield of convention lambs are significantly higher than the yield of organic lambs. The cost of organic lamb fodder is significantly lower than the cost a convention lamb fodder, but the profit was higher in the case of convention lamb fattening. The organic lamb fattening technology (without extra price) is not competitive to the conventional lamb fattening technology. We think that the profitability of organic lamb fattening is significantly less than of the convention one. The organic lamb price should be 20-30% higher than the other price to be competitive.  Unfortunatly there is only a little demand for organic lamb and there is no difference between the prices of organic and convention lambs, so organic sheep farmers have worse economic circumstances than conventional sheep farmers. 

Regulation in Hungary of the Use of Waste Water and Sewage Sludge in Agriculture

Regulating the use of waste water and sewage sludge in agriculture in such a way as to prevent harmful effects on soil, vegetation, animals and man.
In European Union there is a Council Directive (86/278/EEC) on the protection of the environment, and in particular of the soil, when sewage sludge is used in agriculture.
In the enlargement process of the European Union the Hungarian Government created a new rule (50/2001. (IV. 3.) Government regulation) which regulate using of waste water and sewage sludge in agriculture. This Hungarian rule is legal and reconcilable with the Council Directive.
The Regulation lays down limit values for concentrations of heavy metals in the soil, in waste water, in sludge and for the maximum annual quantities of heavy metals which may be introduced into the soil.
Waste water, sludge and soil on which it is used must be sampled and analysed.
Sewage sludge must be treated for six months before being used in agriculture.
The use of waste water and sludge prohibited on grassland, on nature reserved areas, in ecological farming, and soil in witch fruit and vegetable crops are growing, with the exception of fruit trees.
The states soil conservation authority must keep records registering the following:
– the quantities of waste water and sludge produced;
– the composition and properties of sludge;
– the type of treatment carried out;
– the names and addresses of the recipients of the sludge and places where the sludge is to be used.
The Government every four years must prepare a consolidated report on the use of sludge in agriculture, specifying quantities used, criteria followed and any difficulties encountered. This report must be forwarded to the Commission.
Last but not least in the light of Member States reports, the Commission will if necessary submit appropriate proposals for increased protection of the soil and the environment.

The effect of crop coverage on the daily dynamism of the soil’s CO2 emission

Nowadays one of main goals of international ecosystem research the measurement of greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O and CH4) in different places. The fluctuation of these greenhouse gases – quantity and trend in the case of CO2 and CH4 – could be diverse with atmosphere because it depends on several effects of factors like climate, soil type, vegetation. In grassland out of the three greenhouse gases which fill a part in gas emission, in the case of CO2 soil and vegetation are the most important factors (Soussana et al., 2007).
In the aspect of global carbon balance grasslands are very important by their large area extension, total carbon content, organic content store (10% of the global carbon storage) (Lemmens et al., 2006). In this summer measurements were carried out to determine CO2 emission of the soil from different soil surfaces like grass covered and bare soil surface during a whole day.

The effect of grazing of various cattle breeds on botanical composition of low-lying pasture in Hortobágy

Coenological surveys were conducted in the Hortobágy National Park (Pap-ere and Zám-puszta) in May 2015 and 2016. During the tests,a total of 40 permanent plots were analyzed on grasslands grazed by extensive cattle (Hungarian Grey) and mixed genotype intensive cattle. The presence of plant species, percentages of total coverage of species and vegetation cover were recorded. Two habitat types were chosen according to their moisture content: wet salt marsh meadow (Bolboschoenetum maritimi) and drier salt meadows (Beckmannion eruciformis).

We compared the impact of increased number of animals (2016 years) and the low number of animals (2015 years, initial state) and the grazing exclusion on vegetations.
We tested: (i) what is the impact of grazing on the vegetation, (ii) how do species composition and vegetation charachteristics differ in the two habitat types (iii) and is there a difference in the impact of different cattle breeds (Hungarian gray, intensive beef cattle) grazing on the grasslands species composition? During the investigation we found, (i) that the greatest number of species was recorded in 2015, on the area that received moderate to intensive grazing (14.3 species per m2). Somewhat the number of species was reduced in 2016 due to more intensive grazing. The control group had the lowest number of species (11.7 species per m2). The undergrass and legumes cover significantly increased on intensive grazed lands. (ii) Our results indicate that the effects of different grazing differ in the two studied habitat types. On the drier grasslands greater number of species were found (16.2 species per m2), oppositely to the wet grassland (11.2 species per m2). The cover of the undergrasses was higher in the drier habitat than in the wet. (iii) The extensive beef cattle left a bigger number of species (16 species per m2) than the intensive beef cattle (11.4 species per m2). The grass cover was more intense on areas grazed by intensive cattle. The absolute and potential weeds cover showed a higher value on areas grazed by Hungarian Grey. Our two-year results suggest that grazing by both extensive and intensive cattle breeds can be a proper tool for the conservation management of alkali grasslands.

Pest-fauna of grasslands and seed-grass varieties

The present paper deals with various herbivorous species living in grassland ecosystems. The research focused not only on the complexity of pests in grasslands but also on individual pest species; their biology and the severity of damage, with special regard to seed feeders of some frequent herd’s grass species. The observed pests are showed in two ways, both taxonomically and according to their localization on the crop that is where they cause damage. An attempt was made to present the results being easily understandable for practitioners.

Botanical Survey of a Seminatural Saline Meadow

We made a botanical survey of a seminatural meadow situated in the vicinity of Hajdúnánás-Tedej in Hungary, using traditional phytocenological methods. The habitat, based on its soil-, and botanical characteristics, can be classified into the category of saline meadows. One of the landscape ecological values of this area is its mosaic-like structure and, as a consequence, this habitat can be divided into six characteristic associations with blurry borderlines and characteristic overlaps. Because of its rare plant species and species richness this area can be considered to be a valuable „seed bank” and a „stepping stone” in the ecological network among the larger, intensively cultivated fields. The area can be evaluated as moderately recovered, the natural species are dominant, but there are few disturbance tolerant species. Except for the two saline associations, the high grass associations, which make up about two-thirds of the habitat, are cut once a year; therefore, the agricultural utilisation of the area and its prevention against weediness are being assured at the same time.

Strategic Steps in the Sheep and Goat Branches

The balance of the sheep and goat branches can be summarised as follows:
If the increase in stock size, specific yields, genetic improvement and modernisation are not realised, several thousand shepherds will lose their jobs and possibilities to work, and their families will lose their only source of livelihood.
Several hundred hectares of grassland will become weedy and the costs of crop protection will increase in these regions. Pollen pollution, the number of allergic ailments and medical costs will increase, mentioning only the main disadvantages. Its financial requirement is nearly equal to the one required for development without any essential compensation or production.
In order to develop a competitive branch, a subsidisation of 10-20 billion HUF is needed until the accession of Hungary to the EU, depending on the scale and progressivity of development. The subsidisation and realisation of the strategic steps would result in:
– the establishment of a registered livestock with 1.5 million ewes, which would ensure better market position for the branch in the EU (5%),
– the establishment of a competitive and marketable branch with a production value of 15-25 billion HUF, calculated using the present price level (after accession, the branch would be self-operating and profitable, with the 6-8 billion HUF/year normative subsidisation by the EU),
– the establishment of a genetic potential which would ensure our participation in profitable international breeding animal market, which provides extra profit,
– the establishment of a sheep husbandry with better genetic potential and phenotypic performance, producing a quality of international level,
– the maintenance of the workplace of more than 10.000 people (saving 3-5 billion HUF/year of the budget),
– the maintenance of the condition of growing areas of grasslands with their advantages (crop protection and public health) whose financial effect is considerable.