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  • The effect of short term storage on different winter wheat varieties rheological properties

    The aim of storage after harvest is to protect the quality of wheat, because after-ripening occurs in the first 5–6 weeks. During this time it very important to make the optimal storage conditions.

    We have carried out storage experiment with wheat samples from Látókép Research Farm of the University of Debrecen. We analyzed the rheological parameters of Lupus and GK Csillag varieties from the crop year 2011/2012. The experiment period was between July and August 2012 (24. 07. 2012., 31. 07. 2012., 21. 08. 2012.).We determined the rheological parameters (water absorption, dough stability time and valorigraph quality number) of Lupus and GK Csillag during short term storage. Our results showed that after-ripening increased the baking quality of Lupus and GK Csillag during storage.

  • The effects of fertilization on the protein related properties of winter wheat

    The yield and quality of wheat are mainly determined by the plant production system, thus we studied the effect of mineral fertilization.

    The field trials were set up in 1983 at the Látókép Research Institute of the University of Debrecen. We examined effect of different Nfertilizer doses (60 kg ha-1 N/P/K, 120 kg ha-1 N/P/K) on Lupus, Mv Toldi and GK Csillag's protein properties in 2012. During the tests, three quality parameters were determined: wet gluten content (%), wet gluten spread (mm/h) and gluten index (%). In the experiment the effect of different doses of N-fertilizers significantly influenced by the wet gluten content and gluten index of Lupus.

  • The effect of NPK treatments on the Cu and Fe content of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    In this study the effect of N, P and K nutrients on the Cu and Fe content of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grains was investigated in a long-term fertilization experiment set up in Nagyhörcsök. Samples were also harvested from four experimental stations of the Hungarian national long-term fertilization trials. These are the following: Bicsérd, Iregszemcse, Karcag, and Putnok. Plant samples were collected in 2005 which was very wet. Our results from Nagyhörcsök were compared with the Cu and Fe content of samples which were harvested from control plots of other experimental stations. The Cu and Fe content of grain samples were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) followed by digestion with HNO3-H2O2 solution. All data were subjected to ANOVA, and when significant differences (P<0.05) were detected, Duncan’s test was performed to allow separation of means.

    The main conclusions are as follows: Cu and Fe content of wheat grains was higher and higher in every NPK treatments. Samples were harvested from the control plots of Iregszemcse and Bicsérd have higher Cu content than the treated samples from Nagyhörcsök.

  • Investigation of genetic diversity in irradiated maize lines and its relation to hybrid performance

    Knowledge of genetic diversity among available parental lines is fundamental for successful hybrid maize breeding. The aims of this study were to estimate (1) genetic similarity (GS) and genetic distance (GD) (based on Jaccard index) in four maize inbreed lines; (2) to classify the lines according to their GD and GS; (3) to determine hybrid performance based on GD and heterosis for yield ability in 4x4 full diallel system. We used morphological description and AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphisms) for estimation genetic polymorphism in four maize inbred lines. We estimated the applicability of genetic similarity in SC and reciproc hybrids for prediction of their performance.
    Three primer combinations were used to obtain AFLP markers, producing 207 bands, 70 of whit were polimorphic. The dendogram based on genetic similarities (GS) and genetic distance (GD) and morphological description separated four inbred lines into well-defined groups. Morphological description just with AFLP analysis showed reliable results. In view of genetic distance, the UDL 1 line and their linear and reciprocal crosses showed significant heterosis effect, which was confirmed by heterosis calculation based on grain yield.

  • Connection of protein and amino acid content of forage and medium quality winter wheat varieties

    We analysed the crude protein content, amino acid content, amino acid composition of four forage and milling III. quality winter wheat varieties (Magor, Hunor, Róna and Kondor) from their samples from five following years (2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007). We found that quantity of essential and non-essential amino acids rose with increase in crude protein content. On examination of protein amino acid composition in relation to crude protein content we found that the crude protein content increased the quantities of the non-essential amino acids also rose, while those of the essential amino acids decreased as the lysine, the limiting amino acid of wheat. We also established that, as crude protein content increased, the biological value of the protein decreased.

  • Connection of crude protein content and amino acid content of forage and medium quality winter wheat varieties in the relation of quantity and quality

    We analysed the crude protein content, amino acid content, amino acid composition of four forage and milling III. quality winter wheat varieties (Magor, Hunor, Róna and Kondor) from their samples from five following years (2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007). We found that quantity of essential and non-essential amino acids rose with increase in crude protein content. On examination of protein amino acid composition in relation to crude protein content we found that the crude protein content increased the quantities of the non-essential amino acids also rose, while those of the essential amino acids decreased as the lysine, the limiting amino acid of wheat. We also established that, as crude protein content increased, the biological value of the protein decreased.

  • Variations in major quality parameters of forage and medium quality winter wheat varieties in storage

    We analysed five parameters (moisture-, protein content, Hagberg’s falling number, wet gluten content and alveographic W (10-4 J) values) and the microbiological changes of four forage and milling III. quality winter wheat varieties (Magor, Hunor, Róna and Kondor) during storage, to determine the tendency, type and volume of the of the change of this five qualitative parameters during storage.
    We found that the examined winter wheat varieties retained their moisture, protein content and their Hagberg’s falling number, they did not change during storage.
    A slight growth could be experienced in the values of wet gluten content for all the four winter wheat varieties in terms of the duration of storage (129 days). This result proved the theory of after-ripening, when gluten percentage improves qualitatively and quantitatively as well. The value of the quantitative growth was about 10% for all the four winter wheat varieties.
    We placed a special emphasis on measuring the alveographic W (10-4 J) values during storage. All the four winter wheat varieties showed decreasing values of about 20-40%.
    Microbiological examinations on the four winter wheat varieties showed that mould, mould flora and total germ count remained balanced with some slight variations and they did not change in terms of time under optimal storage conditions.

  • Model Experiment Analysis of the Antioxidant Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid

    Corn milled like flour was crumbled with 5% butter containing a high level of conjugated linoleic acid, then kept exposed to air on an aluminium tray at a layer of 1 cm thickness. Its acid number, peroxide number and fatty acid composition were measured weekly. It was established that during a 24 week long period, there was very little change in the composition of fatty acids, but after this, in parallel with the increasing acid number and peroxide number, the amount of unsaturated fatty acids decreased, while those values for saturated fatty acids did not change considerably. With these investigations, the authors proved the antioxidant effect of conjugated linoleic acid.

  • Changes of Quality of Winter Wheat During Maturing

    We analysed the flour of two winter wheat varieties to determine the effect of maturity state and grain position in the ear on the element composition of flour. Samples were taken from the 14th to the 42th day of anthesis. Ear samples were cut into three (basal, central and apical) parts, the trashed grains were milled, and the element compositions of the flours were determined.
    We found that the grain position within the ear has an effect on flour element content. Flours of apical grains had lower nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur contents than flours of central and basal grains. The nutrients can be divided into two parts, based on the formation of element content during maturation. Nitrogen, sulphur and copper contents changed continuously during maturity, while the P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Sr and Zn contents decreased until a specific value and became nearly constant in the second half of maturity. We found that – although the nitrogen concentration of flours changed continuously – the amount of nitrogen in the flours reached a constant value for the second half of maturity.

  • Comparative analysis of physiologically important fatty acids

    Fatty acid composition of some vegetable oils, like wheat germ, walnut, peanut, hempseed, linseed, sunflower-seed, olive, rapeseed, grape seed or pumpkin seed, analysed at Food Science Institute of Debrecen University, are summarised here. The effect of heat treatments usually used in Hungarian cuisine was examined in this paper.The influence of different fatty acids on human health is also reviewed.

  • The importance of selenium in the living world and in the scientific research

    Presently, selenium (Se) is one of the most investigated microelements. It has an important proven role in many vital processes. Directly or indirectly, selenium deficiency can play a role in the development of many diseases. On the other hand, the concentration range in which selenium is essential is narrow; there is a narrow gap between necessary and toxic content in dietary intake. In this context, selenium contamination poses a further health risk for people if they live near the industrial areas and mining activity.
    In this paper, we comprehensively introduce the very important trace element selenium. We studied the base parameters, deposit, analytic and deficiencies, problem of contamination and also the solution of contamination problems of selenium.

  • Food safety of plant origin food

    Expectation regarding changes related to food production, transportation, distribution and marketing have changed considerably in several regions of the world over the past decades. It is especially true for highly industrialized countries where not only the food security is important but the food safety is essential too. The concentration of production – processing – distribution involves the danger on the one hand products of unsuitable quality from point of view of nutritional physiology and the other hand ones that may contain substances harmful to human health will become widespread among consumers. We investigated the heavy metal, pesticide remains and mycotoxin content of different plant products.

  • Effect of the Cropping Year on the Quality of Winter Wheat

    We examined the formation of quality parameters of winter wheat in a small plot variety comparison experiment from four cropping years. Our aim was to estimate the year effect on several quality parameters of winter wheat.
    We established in relation to the distribution of precipitation of the examined years that the years 1997 and 2000 were behind the thirty year average typical precipitation of this site both in the case of the whole vegetation period and the spring and summer. It was unfavourable for qualitative wheat production. 1998 and 1999 were good for cropping considering the amount and distribution of rainfall.
    Examining the formation of quality parameters we found that the baking value was maximum in 1997, with a moderate amount of normal distributed rainfall for the examined varieties. The mid-late maturating varieties showed better baking value in drought years than in wet years. In the case of the wet gluten content, we established higher values after a rainier spring-summer period. There is a conspicuous difference between the falling number of extensive and intensive varieties and the year had significant effect on the formation of values. We established with correlation analysis that both the precipitation of vegetation period and the maturing rainfall had considerable effect on the value of falling number. Examining the effect of fertilization on the formation of wet gluten content as a quadratic equation, we found that precipitation may both increase and maximalize the value of this quality parameter.

  • Examination of extensographical parameters of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) flour

    In the trade of the European Union principally the analysis of alveographical and extensographical parameters mean the acceptance system.
    In the present study we analysed the extensographical parameters of 10 winter wheat varieties breed by the Cereal Research Non Profit Company with Brabender extensigraph and we made a comparison, correlation among the results. The examinations with Brabender the following among: show the GK Kalász and the GK Élet varieties show high resistance of extension and the GK Petur variety produces high extensibility. The GK Garaboly has shown low extensibility and energy. The other parameters had different values in the examined three years. The measurings with SMS2 Texture Analyser show middle positive correlation between extensibility and subarea. There are weak correlation between at the significantial level in the 90, 135 resistence of extension by Brabender and by SMS2 Texture Analyser and in the 45 extensibility by Brabender and by SMS2 Texture Analyser of relaxed dough. There is no correlation among other parameters. 

  • Examination of wheat rheological characteristics by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Near-infrared spectroscopy has many advantages that make it a widely used analitical method in the different areas, like agricultural and food industry as well. In wheat quality control rheological characteristics of dough made from wheat flour are as important as physical and chemical properties too. In this work we examined rheological properties of wheat flour samples by alveograph, and spectral data of the same samples were collected by FOSS Infratec 1241 instrument. Modified partial least squares analyses on NIR spectra were developed for two alveograph parameter (P/L és W) to get calibration equations.

  • Changes in the Quality of Winter Wheat Varieties in a Comparative Experiment

    The hungarian seed grain supply offers more and more varieties from the field crops for public cultivation in every year. The number of the admitted varieties by state doubled from 1996 to 2001. The question is what changes can the varieties newly inproved show in the quality parameters.
    32 varieties admitted in different years was examined on quality parameters as wet gluten content, valorigraphic value and falling number from period 1996-2001. We established that the newer varieties surpassed the traditional varieties of the variety-comparativing experiment in accordion to they wet gluten content. In connection with formation of valorigraphical value we saw that the new varieties got place in the varieties admitted for public cultivation in quality based examining. The varieties showed different reaction of fertilizer on the formation of these two parameters. In connection with the formation of the value of falling number the examined varieties suited for the requirements of quality crop production in the experimental years excepted some of them.

  • The examination of alveographical parameters of winter wheat varieties

    Nowadays, many methods have been worked up in the interests of objective expression of winter wheat rheological quality. These define wide spectrum in view of their complexity and apparatus claim. The needs for the methods are definitely increasing in Hungary, too. It is very important to get acquainted with the alveographical quality and qualification and also their using in wide range.
    In our research we examined the alveographical parameters of 12 winter wheat varieties in Szeged (in Hungary) on the basis of the results in three years (2005-2007).
    We established with correlation analysis that there is no statistical relation between the alveaographical W and G values. The other alveographical parameters have significant correlation.

  • The composition of gluten proteins and their effect on the rheological properties of gluten

    Wheat is the major cereal component of bread in the world and is grown worldwide. Of the cereals only the bread wheats – and less the triticale – includes storage proteins that play an important role in the performance of gluten. Proteins of gluten complex may be present in two classes:
    − low molecular weight (gliadin-) components, and
    − high molecular weight (glutenin-) components.
    Gliadins shown appreciable heterogenity and can be separated into 40-50 components with gel electrophoresis. The composition of gliadins is employable for the identification the wheat varieties and to investigate the varieties. In the decreasing electrophoretic mobility sequence may be distinguish α-, β-, γ- and ω-gliadins. A glutenin subunits may be include in two classes:
    − high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS),
    − low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS).
    Wheat varieties can be identified by glutenin and their quality selection is also possible. The gliadin’s polypeptides encoding genes are located on the short arm of chromosomes 1A, 1B and 1D, 6A, 6B and 6D. Genetic coding for HMW subunits is located on the long arms of chromosomes 1A, 1B and 1D, the LMW-GS are also located on chromosomes 1A, 1B and 1D (Glu-3 loci) near the gliadin-coding loci.
    Storage proteins affect the rheological properties of gluten by two factors:
    1. The quality and quantity of the protein components of the gluten complex,
    2. The interactions between the protein fractions.

  • New possibilities to determine wheat quality parameters by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Analyses and methods in wheat quality determination require more sample, time, work and cost, thatswhy flour quality control needs rapid, reliable tools. Near-infrared spectroscopy has many advantages, which make it suitable in quality control. NIR instruments need calibrations to their work. In our study we examined gluten content, falling number, valorigrpahic waterabsorption, alveographic P/L and W value of wheat samples. Modified partial least squares analyses on NIR spectra were developed for each property. The results show that we got such calibration modells, which are able to predict the properties (expect falling number) with enough accuracy.

  • Quality management and traceability in crop production

    Today, food safety and quality is an everyday issue. Scandals in the food industry drew attention to the role and responsibility of food producers in the food chain. The European Union has set up a new integrated approach towards food safety, to which Hungary as an EU member and export-oriented country has also joined. The new “from farm to fork” principle states that food and feed production cannot be handled separately, as only feed produced from good quality raw materials can ensure safe food products. Another important issue is the traceability of products, allowing for the localization and recall of the defected item. In Hungary, there have been different documentation systems for tracking and tracing products, such as the land register in crop production, animal register in the livestock sector and hygiene registers in the food industry. In order to meet EU requirements, there is a growing number of initiatives to include primary production in the scope of food safety standards. The study introduces and compares the various management systems used in crop production.

  • The relationship between gluten proteins and baking quality

    Wheat, one of the most important cereals, is grown on the largest area in Hungary. During hydration of storage proteins of wheat – gliadin and glutenin – the gluten complex is evolved. The gliadin is responsible for the extensibility of gluten complex as well as the glutenin for the strength of gluten. The structure, composition and rheological properties of gluten proteins influence significantly the baking quality. The gliadin/glutenin ratio and the quality and structure of glutenin fraction play the most important role in evolving gluten complex. Changes in the steps of breadmaking technology also have effect on the quality of product. Several tests proved that the higher glutenin content increases the strength of dough while the higher gliadin content increases the extensibility of dough and decreases maximum resistance to extension. The monomer gliadins play a great part in plasticity of glutenin polymer. The quality of glutenin fraction significantly influences the evolving gluten complex, because of the spiral structure of glutenin which deforms under stress conditions, then the β-spiral structure resumes their original conformation by releasing from stress.
    The final quality of product evolves as a result of complex characteristics of wheat proteins, so detailed knowledge on the roles of different protein compounds is the base of the quality oriented product development.

  • Element Content of Herbaceous Plants in the Floodplain Meadows

    Animals require well-balanced nutrition. The elemental content of the vegetation of meadows is influenced by as many factors such as heat, rainfall, irrigation, soil type and nutrients, meadow types, species, aspects of the vegetation period and cultivation.
    Natural meadows used extensively are common sights on river floodplains. Since chemicals are banned and the species number is high, measuring the elemental composition of plants on these meadows is beneficial. Cenological survey and element content measurements were held on the rich flora of four natural meadows in the year 2001.
    Weeds, in a wider sense, are plants not directly involved in growing, although their nutritional values make them important costituents of feed. Meadows are enriched by their relatively high microelement content.
    On the sampling sites, the ratio deviated from the ideal 2/3 parts monocotyledon and 1/3 part dicotyledon, but this did not mean a Mn deficiency as it would have been assumed.

  • Studying of quality parameters of Hungarian and Greek honey samples

    Honey has been a valuable food for mankind since ancient times. It was the only sweetener until the start of industrial sugar mass production. Honey plays an important role in our nutrition and its positive effects on health are well-known. The quality of Hungarian honey is perfect, so it is very important to safeguard and monitor its quality continuously and to build up a good traceability and quality assurance system. For such a system, it is necessary to study the nutritional properties and the origin of different honey samples. In our study, we study Hungarian and Greek honey.

  • Comparison of macroelement and microelement contents of conventionally and organically grown crops

    Nowedays one of the most important issues to discuss is the healthy nutrition: feeding our bodies with high quality nutrients, which is free of chemical residues. The demand for healthy and nutritious food is increasing worldwide, that results in the growing popularity of consumption of organic food. Several studies dealing with the nutrient content of traditional and organic food have been published lately, since it became clear that eating food contaminated with chemical residues damage to health, food and the environment. Therefore it would be desirable to find out if organic food is really superior to conventional one. In our study we analyzed the dry matter, ash, macroelement and trace element content of organically and conventionally grown crops (carrot root, potato tuber and parsnip). Our results provide further information to consumers about the nutritional value of organic and conventional crops.

  • Investigation of the Quality of Winter Wheat in a Sulphur Fertilisation Experiment, 2001/2002

    We have started a small parcell and a factorial S fertilization experiment with winter wheat in the 2001/2002 cropping year to examine its effect on yield and quality. The scene of experiment was the Latokep Experimental Station of the DE ATC (calcareous chernozeem) in case of small parcell examination and the Agricultural Company of Felsőzsolca (brown forest soil) in case od factorial examination.
    The protein and gluten content of the grain was investigated with PerCon Inframatic 9001 NIR Analyser, then we have measured these parameters with PerCon 8620 infra appliance. After the milling we measured the following parameters: glutenindex, farinographic parameters (farinographic index, water absorption capacity, dough development time, stability, softening, extension) and valorigraphic index.
    Based on the results there’s no justified relation between the fertilization and the protein and gluten content. The valorigraphic index of the samples taken from Felsőzsolca factory characteristically increased as a result of the S-fertilization. In the small-parcell experiment the values of the water absorption capacity, the dough development time and the softening parameters from the valorigrphic parameters depended significantly from the mineral treatments. Signifikant quality improvement wasn’t experieced.
    There was sampling in all of critical phenophase (…). The green plant samples were examined on element content with ICP-OES. These measurements are currently in progress.