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Investigation of soils of stubbles of winter wheat and winter peas in conventional and reduced tillage systems
Published February 3, 2016
95-99

The effect of reduced and conventional tillage on soil compaction, soil moisture status and carbon-dioxide emission of the soil was studied on a meadow chernozem soil with high clay content in the soil cultivation experiment started in 1997 at Karcag Research Institute. Our investigations were done on stubbles after the harvest of winter wheat ...and winter peas after the very droughty vegetation period of 2014/2015.

We established that the soil in both tillage systems was dry and compacted and the CO2-emission was very low. The positive effects of reduced tillage could be figured out only in the soil layer of 40–60 cm in the given weather conditions of that period.

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Investigation of the Effect of P-Supply on Maize (Zea mays L.) Development
Published September 8, 2020
171-173

Quantification of plant development is important in areas where the actual dates of certain phonological stages should be identified. The influences of different ecological factors are put into algorithms by crop modellers. In this process the effect of plant nutrients are not yet well quantified. This paper gives data on the effect of phosphor...us on maize development prior to flowering stage. The main conclusions are as follows: 1. In lack of phosphorus more degree days are needed for flowering then in case of well P-supply. 2. The effect of P is seen not on leaf initialisation (i.e. final eaf number is the same) but rather on the phyllochron interval. 3. P effect on phyllochron interval can be observed at the younger stage (prior to leaf number 10) but not later.

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Nutritive value of Timothy (Phleum pratense L.) during primary growth in 2005
Published December 21, 2009
61-67

In this paper we analysed the change of the chemical composition and nutritive value of Timothy observed during the spring of 2005. The nutritive value of Timothy was observed between the end of April and the beginning of June relating to the following parameters: crude protein, crude fibre, crude fat, ash, N-free extract, net-energy growth, ne...t-energy lactation, net-energy maintenance, Metabolizable Protein Energy dependent, Metabolizable Protein N-dependent. We also analysed whether a relationship between the environmental factors that affect the
growing period of grasses and the chemical composition can be detected or not. While testing for correlation, the number of days from 1st January, the amount of heat accumulation, solar radiation and rainfall were considered as independent coefficients.
For the estimation of weather conditions we calculated the climate index. The observed year can be described as a year with a rainfall above the average and abundant solar radiation. A correlation can be detected between the change of parameters of nutritive value and the quality of the current year. In 2005 the result of the analysis of nutritive value was showed a significance difference with respect to each chemical composition at the rate of P<0.001 depending on the time when the samples were taken.
According to the outlined data it can be stated that the change of the value of crude protein and ash show decreasing tendency agreeing the research literature. In parallel with the change of nutritive value, the amount of crude fibre and N-free extract increased. However, the value of Net-Energy maintenance showed an alteration only in the first half of the observed period. The same alteration tendency can be detected in the Net-Energy growth and the Net-Energy lactation. 

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Changes of chemical composition and nutritive values of Reed Canary Grass (Phalaroides arundinacea) in first growth
Published December 1, 2010
37-42

Change in chemical composition and nutritive value of Reed Canary Grass (Phalaroides arundinacea) were investigated in springtime in 2004-2006. The nutritive value of Reed Canary Grass was observed between the end of April and the middle of June relating to the following parameters: crude protein, crude fibre, crude fat, ash, N-free extract, ne...t-energy growth, net-energy maintenance, Metabolizable Protein Energy dependent,
Metabolizable Protein N-dependent.
It was also analysed whether a relationship between the climatic factors affecting the growing period as well the chemical composition of grasses and the annual weather were looked for. For the estimation of weather conditions the climate index was calculated. A correlation can be detected between the change of parameters of nutritive value and the quality of the current year. Between 2004 and 2006, the result of the analysis of nutritive value indicated a significant difference with respect to each chemical composition at the rate of P<0.01 depending on the time when the samples were taken. According to the outlined data it can be stated that the change of the value of crude protein and ash show decreasing  endency agreeing the research literature. In parallel with the change of nutritive value, the amount of crude fibre and N-free extract increased. However, the value of Net-Energy maintenance revealed an alteration only in the first half of the observed period. The same alteration tendency can be detected
in the Net-Energy growth. 

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Quality analysis of the near-infrared spectra of wheat samples
Published July 31, 2012
97-100

The near infrared spectroscopy is widely used in the different industries as a rapid, non-invasive analitical tool. It is suitable for identification, qualification and quantitative analysis as well. As this technique is indirect, to make accurate calibration equations we need a proper sample population. Before the quantitaive analysis, develop...ing calibiration modells we have to collect and examine the spectra. In our study we examined wheat samples with known origins to find if there is any effect of the growing area on the NIR spectra.

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Mitigation of the effect of secondary salinization by micro soil conditioning
Published May 20, 2020
115-119

This research has the general goal to meet the customization of agriculture in small scale farming. We are developing a technique using micro doses of soil conditioners and organic material applied in the root zone of vegetable crops. We expected to change the physical and chemical properties of the affected soil, which has been irrigated w...ith salty water. Two different soil conditioners were tested. A lysimeter experiment including 8 simple drainage lysimeters was set up in the Research Institute of Karcag IAREF University of Debrecen in 2017. The main goal was to study the effect of different soil conditioners on the soil endangered by secondary salinization induced by irrigation with saline water. In order to compare the difference between the treatments, we collected soil samples, water samples, and determined the yields. Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) was used as an indicator crop during one specific agricultural season. The technique called micro soil conditioning is rational because several reasons. The roles of the technique are various, for example it can serve as a source of carbon or a container for soil amendments and can minimize evaporation. We found this technique not to interfere with the chemical reaction or the interaction with the plants. However, the micro doses of soil amendments had the role to minimize the risk of soil degradation and do not significantly influence soil respiration. In addition, by improving soil properties, soil conditioning increases the leaching of the excess of salts from the root zone. In fact, this technique can decrease the cost of the inputs and improves the production of vegetables, and at the same time mitigates the effect of secondary salinization.

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