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Effects of activated charcoal on rooting of in vitro apple (Malus domestics Borkh.) shoots
Published March 21, 2001

Rooting of in vitro 'Royal Gala' shoots was studied under different conditions of root induction and root elongation phase. The rooting capacity was affected by both rooting phases. Very high rooting percentage could be reached with both liquid and solid root induction media. Raising the temperature from 22 °C to 26 °C during root in...duction phase increased the rooting percentage. Presence of activated charcoal in root elongation media can affect the number of roots per rooted shoots and can increase the rooting percentage, the length of roots and the rate of survival depending also on other conditions during rooting. Presence of NAA in root elongation media reduced the number and the length of roots considerably. Favourable effect of activated charcoal on rooting was mainly due to adsorption of NAA.

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Propagation of plum rootstocks by hardwood cuttings
Published April 14, 2003

Vegetative propagation by hardwood cuttings is a very simple and cheap method for production of plum rootstocks. The aim of this study was to examine if this propagation technique is suitable for practice of three plum rootstocks and find the time or period when the percent of rooted cuttings is maximal. Based on our results, hardwood cuttings ...of the rootstocks tested have the rooting potential acceptable for practice, however, for Fehér besztercei in the previous literature leafy cuttings are recommended. Fehér besztercei reached 74.0% rooting, cuttings of Sainte Julien GF 655/2 rooted in as high percentage as 78.3%, and Marianna GF 8-1 had 88.3% rooted cuttings. Rooting potential of hardwood cuttings depends on more factors, one of them can be their dissimilar sensitivity for the diverse environmental circumstances at the different propagating dates, affecting through the internal biochemical changes that can be in relation with the differences in their dormancy.

The cuttings of Marianna GF 8-1 take root easily, but in some years the conditions were less favourable for reaching maximal rooting. For taking cuttings the period from the beginning of October until December was optimal. For Fehér besztercei the optimal date of cutting collection was around the end of October, but in some years the rooting in the middle of December was also high. Sainte Julien GF 655/2 definitely rooted best in October. The treatments with different IBA concentrations in two years affected differently the rooting percentage. The rooting of Marianna GF 8-1 and Sainte Julien GF 655/2 is barely influenced by the different hormone dose in both years. Hardwood cuttings of Fehér besztercei rooted definitely better when treated with 2000 ppm IBA in comparison to untreated ones, while in 2001-2002 there was no difference between 2000 and 4000 ppm.



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Post-effects of cytokinins and auxin levels of proliferation media on rooting ability of in vitro apple shoots (Malus domestica Borkh.) 'Red Fuji'
Published September 11, 2001

Rooting ability of in vitro apple shoots of 'Red Fuji' grown on proliferation media with different hormone content were tested at three IBA levels in root induction media. Rooting percentage could be slightly increased with an increase in IBA concentration in proliferation media. The highest IBA concentration (3.0 mg 1-1) in root ind...uction media showed strong inhibitory effect on rooting capacity of in vitro shoots. The highest rooting percentage (95%) could be achieved by shoots grown on proliferation media containing TOP or BA+KIN as cytokinins before rooting.


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Effects of indole-3-butyric acid levels and activated charcoal on rooting of in vitro shoots of apple rootstocks
Published October 16, 2002

Rooting responses of rootstocks cvs. JTE-F1, M. 26 and MM. 106 were studied to different concentration of IBA in root induction media and to presence of activated charcoal in root elongation media. High rooting rate (>90%) could be achieved in cvs. JTE-H and M. 26, while cv. MM. 106 showed weak rooting ability at each IBA level tested. Incre...asing IBA content depressed the rooting only in cv. M. 26. Presence of activated charcoal decreased considerable the rooting rate in cv. M. 26 and decreased the number of roots in cvs. JTE-H and M. 26. These cultivars developed longer roots on media containing activated charcoal, while cv. MM. 106 did not showed any reaction for it.

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In vitro rooting and anatomical study of leaves and roots of in vitro and ex vitro plants of Prunus x davidopersica 'Piroska'
Published March 21, 2001

The process of in vitro rooting and the anatomical characters of in vitro and ex vitro leaves and roots of Prunus x davidopersica 'Piroska' were studied. Best rooting percentage (50%) and highest root number (5.0) was achieved in spring on a medium containing 0.1 mg/I NAA + 30 g/1 glucose. At the end... of rooting the parenchyma of the in vitro leaves was more loose and spongy, than during the proliferation period. In the first newly developed leaf of an acclimatised plant, the parenchyma was much more developed, contained less row of cells and less air space too, compared to the leaves developed in the field. The in vitro developed root had a broad cortex and narrow vascular cylinder with less developed xylem elements, but at the end of the acclimatisation the vascular system became dominant in the root.

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Determination of auxine content of soft wood cutted `Marianna GF8/1' (Prunus cerasifera x P. munsoniana) by High Performance Liquid Chromatography during rooting period
Published August 13, 2004

The content of different auxins of soft-wood cutted plum rootstock 'Marianna GF8/1' (Prunus cerasifera x P. munsoniana) was determined during the rooting period. The level of auxin-concentration (exogenous and endogenous) of basic and intemodal part of cuttings was determined by WATERS HPLC equipment every 7 days during rootin...g period. The lengths soft wood cuttings were app. 30 cm long. The basal part of shoots were treated with 2000 pg/g concentrated indole-butiryc acid in talcum powder. After treatment the cuttings were placed in propagation green-house under intermittent mist. The plant hormones were extracted by methanol the solution was cleaned by paper-filter, and further cleaned by centrifuge. The effluent was examined by reversed phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography, with WATERS 2487 dual detector at 220 am on Symmetry C18 4,6x 150 column. Recovery and reproducibility assessment indicates good accuracy and acceptable relative standard deviation (RSD) 5%. Linear responses (r20.997) for calibration curve was obtained with IAA, IPA and IBA standard in range, with a limit of quantification of 0.15 g•m1-1. The concentration of IAA, IPA and IBA in the basal part of cuttings were measured, during the rooting period. We proved the external IBA was taken up by the plants. In the plants were found the IBA, and the IAA concentration of IBA treated cuttings was higher, than the untreated one.

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Influence of aromatic cytokinins on shoot multiplication and their after-effects on rooting of apple cv. Húsvéti rozmaring
Published August 23, 2000

Different aromatic cytokinins (BA, BAR, TOP and KIN) were tested alone or in combination for the shoot proliferation response of ‘Húsvéti rozmaring' apple scion. The best multiplication rate was achieved by dual cytokinin application (1 mg 1-1 BA + 1.5 mg 1-1 KIN). The rooting capacity was aff...ected considerably by the position of shoots: transfer of the three-week-old shoots to the same or other proliferation medium in vertical position inhibited the following rooting totally. Post-effects of different cytokinins (BA and TOP) on subsequent rooting could be detected: BA increased the number of roots markedly, while TOP resulted in significantly longer roots.

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In vitro propagation of 'Echo' cultivars of Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn.
Published May 18, 2005

Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn. 'Echo' Fl cultivars ('Echo White', 'Echo Rose', 'Echo Blue', 'Echo Blue Picotee') were used and multiplication of shoots was evaluated on Murashige and Skoog (1962) basal medium with 11 g/1 agar-agar and 20 g/1 sucrose. To test the effect of BA different concentrations were added: 0.10, 0.25 mg/1 and ...a culture medium without BA. Differentiation of roots was examined on Jámbor-Benczúr and Marta (1990) basal medium with the same concentration of agar-agar and sucrose. To examine the effect on rooting, various concentrations of NAA were used: 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 mg/l. The pH was adjusted to 5.6 in every case using KOH. We studied the after-effect of different concentrations of BA during the acclimatisation. During the multiplication, the cultivar 'Echo White' formed the most shoots and the smallest leaves on the medium with 0.10 mg/1 BA. Fortunately, in the case of this cultivar, the number of shoots was reduced and the length of leaves was increased succesfully on the medium without BA. The other three cultivars developed the longest leaves on the medium containing 0.10 mg/1 BA. Sometimes not only shoot regeneration but spontaneous rooting was observed during the multiplication. Examining the rooting, the highest percent of roots was found on the medium with 1.0 mg/1 NAA, and the cultivar 'Echo Rose' formed the most roots on this medium. Higher concentration (2.0 and 3.0 mg/1) of NAA already reduced the number of roots in all of the cultivars. During the acclimatisation, the percentage of survival was 76.3% and the tallest plants with the longest leaves were found on the multiplication medium with 0.25 mg/1 BA. 'Echo Blue Picotee' gave the best results with the tallest pieces and longest leaves on this medium.

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The effect of timing and IBA treatments on the rooting of plum rootstock hardwood cuttings
Published March 2, 2010

In propagation of plum by hardwood cuttings, the success of rooting is affected by several factors. Many authors deal with the timing of cutting collections, others investigate the optimal extent of hormonal stimulation. However, there is no data, as yet, about the coherence between these two factors. The aim of this experiment was to find the ...most advantageous condition s, with regards to both timing and IBA doses, for rentable propagation of the examined varieties. Five varieties were studied: 'INRA Marianna GF 8- 1', 'Myrobalan B', 'MY-KL-A', 'INRA Saint Julien GF 655/2' and 'Feher  besztercei'. Cuttings were collected on  seven  occasions, during  late autumn  and winter, and were treated with IBA solutions of different concentrations. The optimal dose of IBA was found to be dependent both on the variety and the actual date of cutting collection . Results are reported, along with suggestions for optimal doses and collection periods.

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Rhizogenesis in in vitro shoot cultures of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.) is affected by ethylene precursor and by inhibitors
Published March 21, 2001

The effects of the ethylene precursor ACC and two inhibitors, AgNO3 and AVG, on root formation were tested in in vitro shoots of passion fruit (Passiflora Midis f.flavicalpa Deg.). The organogenic response was assessed on the basis of percentage of shoot-forming. roots, root number and length. The time course of eth...ylene production was also monitored. ACC inhibited root formation by delaying root emergence and increasine, callus formation at the basis of the shoots. In addition, ACC caused a marked increase in ethylene production, coupled to leaf chlorosis and senescence with lower rooting frequencies, number and length of roots. IAA supplementation increased ethylene production. Both ethylene inhibitors, AgNO3 and AVG, at appropriate concentrations reduced callus formation at the basis of shoots. AVG increased the number of roots per shoot, but drastically reduced length of differentiated roots. Regarding to leaf pigments, ACC promoted a marked reduction on carotenoids and total chlorophyll, whereas AVG and AgNO3 delayed explant senescence and pigments degradation, not differing from IAA supplemented and non-supplemented control treatments. The results confirm previous reports on the beneficial effects of ethylene inhibitors on in vitro rooting and suggest its reliability to be used as an alternative approach to evaluate sensitivity of Passiflora species to ethylene.


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Factors affecting rhizogenesis in vitro and acclimatisation of three cherry rootstocks
Published February 23, 2000

Factors affecting rhizogenesis in vitro and acclimatisation of three rootstocks of cherry, i.e. Mahaleb, Maxma-14 and Weiroot -10 were investigated.

Rooting was easily achieved within 2-4 weeks on MS-based liquid or agar-gelled media containing auxins IBA at conc. 0.49 or 2.45 pM or NAA at conc. of 0.49 pM. On liquid media with... 2.45 pM IBA, a maximum rooting efficiency of 95-100% was obtained. However, high concentrations of auxin delayed the time of root initiation for 3-5 days.

Rooted plantlets were transplanted into pots with a mixture of 3:1 (v/v) peat:perlite and acclimatised gradually to field conditions with efficiency of 60%.

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The role of rejuvenated and adult forms of English oak (Quercus robur) in in vitro cultures
Published May 24, 1999

In vitro plant material of clones (Q. robur) NL 100 A (adult) and NL 100 R (rejuvenated) received from Germany (A. Meier-Dinkel, 1995) were used in these experiments. WPM medium was used for the multiplication phase. Plantlets were subcultured monthly. Differences in quality and colour of the adult and rejuvenated cultures ind...uced us to follow and compare the changes of mineral- and chlorophyll content and dry weight during the propagation phase. Mineral and chlorophyll content as well as dry weight were measured weekly on three samples during the subculture period.

In the case of propagation rates we stated, they were similar around the year, but both clones had a high peak in April. Examining the cation-content, we detected that, the plantlets had a highest quantity of several elements during the 2nd and 3rd week of subculture. The iron content was the highest in the 1st week and after that it decreased continuously. It is supposed, that the content of iron is not enough in the media. The chlorophyll content of the rejuvenated clone was higher than that of the adult one.

In the rooting experiments it was stated that, after one-week cold treatment the rooting ability was the best.


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The effects of growth regulators in proliferation of Sorbus redliana 'Burokvölgy'
Published February 8, 2006

The Hungarian cultivar Sorbus redliana 'Burokvölgy' was proliferated on Murashige and Skoog (MS, 1962) medium with half-strength macroelements and 100 mg/1 meso-inositol, 20 g/1 sucrose, 11 g/1 agar-agar. Different combinations of kinetin (KIN), metatopolin (mT), benzyladenine (BA), benzyladenine-ribosid (BAR) and indolebutiric acid (IBA) were... tested, and pH was adjusted to 5.6 every case using KOH. The cultures were incubated at 20-24 °C in 8/16 hours dark/light photoperiod for 50-52 days. The main aim of our research was to find the optimal growth regulator and its optimum concentration. Purthermore, to determine the chlorophyll contents of the in vitro propagated plants' leaves. During the proliferation, the highest number of shoots were observed in the case of using BA + IBA, and on the medium containing 0.75 mg/I BA + 0.05 mg/1 IBA 8.93 shoots were found. The addition of KIN + IBA decreased the number of shoots and increased the sizes of leaves — the widest (11.2 mm) and longest (17.8 mm) leaves were obtained on the medium containing 1.00 mg/I KIN + 0.05 mg/1 IBA. The longest shoots (36.46 mm) were found in the case of applying 0.75 mg/1 BAR + 0.05 mg/I IBA. The BA + KIN + IBA combination resulted the shortest shoots. Sometimes not only shoot regeneration but spontaneous rooting was observed during the multiplication. The highest chlorophyll content (1.569 mg/g total chlorophyll, 1.132 mg/g chlorophyll-a, 0.437 mg/g chlorophyll-b) was obtained in the presence of 1.0 mg/I KIN + 0.05 mg/1 IBA.

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The effect of different biostimulators on morphological and biochemical parameters of micropropagated Hosta ’Gold Drop’
Published July 29, 2019

During in vitro multiplication of Hosta ‘Gold Drop’, 20 g l-1 sucrose, 5.5 g l-1 agar and 4 concentrations (0.1-0.8 ml l-1) of Ferbanat L, Kelpak, Pentakeep-V were added to half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium. As compared to the control and other biostimulators, plants with lower per...oxidase activity, larger fresh weight, more, longer shoots and roots, larger leaves were developed on medium containing Kelpak. The best concentration was 0.4 ml l-1 for in vitro rooting, shoot formation, plant weight and ex vitro chlorophyll, carotenoid level, peroxidase activity. Pentakeep was the less efficient biostimulator, increasing of its concentration mostly decreased root and shoot values (furthermore, abnormal callus formation was observed, as non-wanted effect), chlorophyll content and sizes (length, width) of leaves, not only during in vitro propagation but also (as after-effect) acclimatization because of the high mortality and weakly developed survivor plants.

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The effect of different cytokinins on chlorophyll content and morphological features of in vitro Nidularium ’Kertész Jubileum’
Published April 12, 2015

During in vitro multiplication of Nidularium ‘Kertész Jubileum’, 20 g/l sucrose, 5 g/l agar, 100 mg/l inositol, and different concentrations of benzyladenine (BA), benzyladenine-riboside (BAR), kinetin (KIN), meta-topolin (mT) were added to the MKC (Knudson, 1946) basal medium. Furthermore, 0.1 mg/l naphthaleneacetic acid was used to every... medium. Number of shoots, length of leaves, number and length of roots, chlorophyll (a+b) content were examined and evaluated with Ropstat statistical software. As compared to the other cytokinin, significantly most shoots were obtained in the case of applying BA. Increasing of BA-concentration (as far as 2 mg/l) enhanced shoot number (from 10.92 to 19.26) but 4 mg/l BA resulted only 6.63 shoot. The less efficient cytokinin was KIN, in most cases no more than about 2 shoot was achieved. Regarding the length of leaves, the higher level of BA effected averagely the shorter leaves (from 24,46 to 7.31 mm). KIN effected significantly the longest leaves (43.4-61.29) in inverse proportion to the concentration. The same cytokinin resulted the most (and the longest) roots with the highest rooting percentages, but more KIN decreased the number and length of roots (from 7.95 to 4.4 and from 38.49 to 22.73 mm). There were no definite correlation between cytokinin concentration and chlorophyll (a+b) content, but the highest doses resulted decreasing (except of meta-topolin which leads to the lowest values). Summarizing, BAR effected the highest contents (mostly more than 1400 μg/g), particularly in the case of 1 mg/l (1807.3 μg/g).

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Development of in vitro propagation system for Atriplex halimus L.
Published September 7, 2014

Explants excised from adult shrubs were surface sterilized and cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium in the presence of plant growth regulators (PGRs) at different concentrations. A high multiplication rate of 7.2-fold was achieved every four weeks on MS medium supplemented with 4.44 μM BA, 0.49 μM IBA and 0.58 μM GA3. Rooting wa...s achieved with 73% efficiency within 2-4 weeks on agar-gelled MS basal medium free of PGRs. Rooted plantlets were gradually acclimatized to field conditions over 5-6 weeks with 65% efficiency. For in vitro selection for salt tolerance, MS medium was supplemented with increasing concentrations of NaCl ranging between 25 and 1000 mM. This study has demonstrated that in vitro shoots could tolerate up to 600 mM NaCl with optimal growth at 200 mM, while higher concentrations of NaCl affected growth negatively. Growth and shoot number decreased with increasing NaCl concentration with all plantlets died at 1000 mM NaCl.

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Foliar Nutrition and Post-Harvest of Onion Seed: Effects of storage temperatures, storage period and foliar nutrition
Published March 3, 2013

The aim of onion bulb storage is to meet consumer demand for extended availability of onions whilst maintaining product quality. The principal biological factors leading to onion bulb deterioration are respiration, resumption of growth and pathogen attack. In onion bulbs a dormant period, when sprouting and rooting cannot be induced, is followe...d by a period of internal changes that prepare the bulb for breaking of dormancy and subsequent growth. Out of storage, the bulb then proceeds towards flowering and seed production. Two successive winter seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 were conducted under sandy soil conditions to study the effect of spraying with 12 commercial compounds on yield and yield components of onion seeds and storage The seed yield of each commercial compounds plot from previous experiment was divided into two groups, storage under room temperature and 5°C. Seeds transferred immediately after drying to Increasing Export Competition of Some Vegetable Crops Project Laboratory located in Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University. The effects of storage temperature, storage period and foliar with some commercial compounds on onion seed quality were considered. Storage in 5°C had the higher germination percentage than storage in room temperature. Results indicated that as storage period increased the germination percent decreased. The treatment with boron or amica in the first season had the highest germination percentage. While, the treatment with union Zn, union feer, union Mn, boron, elga 600, caboron, amica, hummer or amino X had the highest germination percentage in the second season. Storage in 5°C resulted in higher moisture content than storage in room temperature. Regarding the effect of storage period on moisture content, the water content was significantly increased with prolongation of storage period. The lowest values of water content were recorded for treatments with union feer, shams K or boron in the first season, and union feer, shams K, boron, magnesium, shetocare or hummer in the second one. Catalase activity was significantly decreased as storage period increased. The treatment with shams K, boron, shetocare or amino X had the highest catalase activity in both seasons. Peroxidase activity was significantly decreased as storage period increased. Foliar application with boron had the highest peroxidase activity in both seasons. Seed stored in room temperature had the higher malondialdehyde content than those stored in 5°C in the second season. The malondialdehyde content increased as storage period increased. The treatment with magnesium, caboron and the control in the first season, and the treatment with magnesium and the control in the second season had the highest malondialdehyde content.

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