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Above-ground dendromass of sprouted black locust energy plantations: a case study
Published April 11, 2017

Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) can be considered as one of the most suitable tree species for establishing energy plantations due to its favourable growing characteristics such as vigorous growing potential in the juvenile phase, excellent coppicing ability, a relatively high resistance to pests. Based on national and international test... results the mean annual increment of oven-dry weight of energy plantations regenerated by coppicing generally exceeds the first cycle plantations established by seedlings.

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Assessment of different rates of NPK fertilizer on the growth and yield components of two exotic okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) western urban of Sierra Leone
Published July 29, 2020

The experiment was conducted in an Inland Valley Swamp during the dry spell of 2017 laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) three replications at the Kabala Horticultural Crops Research Centre (KHCRC) cropping site, Ogoo Farm of the Sierra Leone Agricultural Research Institute (SLARI), Freetown, Sierra Leone. Raised beds measuring... 5m x 1m (6 m2) with a 1m furrow between beds. Inter and intra row spacing of 75 cm by 50 cm with two rows per bed and two seeds per hills were directly sown. The treatments constituted NPK 15:15:15 at the rate of 0, 90, 120 and 150 kg/ha designated as T1, T2, T3 & Tand Two hybrids of okra were used as experimental materials obtained from Indo-American Hybrid Seed Company, India; Okra-WASA-HyOKR-1 and Okra-WASA-HyOKR-2. Seeds were treated with Thiram Poison for longevity. Result indicates T2 (25.2; 35.1 cm) and T4 (56.9 cm) treatments recorded tallest plant heights followed by T2 (24.0, 34.4 & 50.1 cm), while T1 (18.8, 28.4 & 33.3 cm) had the shortest plant heights at 4, 8 & 10 Week After Planting respectively. Similarly, T4 & T2 (38.9, 65.5 & 44.8 cm) exhibited the largest SG and T1 (21.7, 33.0 & 52.0 cm) the least values at 4, 8 & 10 Week After Planting. While, the widest and narrowest LA at 4, 8 & 10 Week After Planting was observed in T3 (131.3, 135.0 & 158.5 cm2) and T1 (120.8, 121.8 & 128.1 cm2). With respect to yield and yield components, the longest (22.0 cm) and heaviest (112.7 g) fruit were recorded by T3 followed by T2 (19.1 cm & 101.3 g) with T1 having the shortest (11.7 cm) and lightest (52.3 g). The width of pod in T3 (31.2 cm) was greater than the rest of treatments and as usual, T1 indicated the least value (14.6 cm) respectively. The average NP produced plant-1 was shown by T2 & T3 (4.0) with the least of fruit produced by T1 (2.0). Also, 100 seed weight, T3 (106.7 g) weighted the highest followed by T2 (103.3 g), while T1 (60.3 g) accounted for the lowest seed weight. Conclusively, the two materials are adaptable to the climatic conditions of Sierra Leone (Western area). Hence further evaluation required across vegetable growing zones.

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Primers designed for the detection of grapevine pathogens spreading with propagating material by quantitative real-time PCR
Published April 12, 2015

Several grapevine pathogens are disseminated by propagating material as systemic, but latent infections. Their detection and identification have a basic importance in the production and handling of propagating stocks. Thus several sensitive and reliable diagnostic protocols mostly based on molecular techniques have been developed. Of these meth...ods quantitative real-time PCR (q-PCR) has recently got an emerging importance. Here we collected primer data for the detection and identification of grapevine pathogens which are important in the production of propagating stocks by q-PCR. Additional novel techniques that use DNA amplification, hybridization and  sequencing are also briefly reviewed.

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Comparison of apples from organic and integrated farming
Published May 10, 2010

Prima’, ‘Gala’, ‘Remo’, ‘Topáz’, ‘Idared’, ‘Releika’, ‘Resi’, ‘Rubinola’, ‘Rajka’, ‘Rewena’ and ‘Florina’ apple cultivars, both from organic and integrated farming, from Pallag and Újfehértó, were compared. Average size, weight, soluble solids, titratable acidity, total polyphenols, free radical sca...venging capacity expressed as Trolox equivalent (TEAC), copper and zinc were determined at harvest and after cool storage. Organic apples were more acidic, while integrated fruits had mostly higher copper and zinc content. Total polyphenols and TEAC values did not show a significant difference as a function of farming technology. A principal component analysis shows the separation of provenances as well as stored and fresh apples. Results are considered as preliminary.

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Variety specific integrated fruit production development in order to optimize inner content values
Published March 2, 2010

In this paper we introduce our results of three years (2007-2009) investigatio ns carried out in the framework of "Research and development in foodstaff chain" - project of Regional University Knowledge Center by the members of Corvi nus U niversity of Budapest - Department of Pomology and. Research Institute for Fru it growing and Ornamentals....  Budapest-Erd. The main objectives of the project were the followings: submi ssion of sour cherry candidate suitable for industrial process for state approval; determination of physica l parameter and inner content value changes of sour cherry varieties duri ng ripening; evaluation of health care attributes of sour cherry fruit; ripen ing process description by the colour and the force required to pick fruits of sour cherry. We stated that the optimal begi nning and period of the harvest can be determined wi th the fruit removal force. In this period the fruit growth stops. ju iciness rat io does not change. refractions are approximately equal.acidic content turns to decreasing trend.However the proportion of anthocyan in and polypheno l can still increase. Fruits harvested in this period fulfil a wide range of industrial process opportunities. 'Erdi jubileum ·and candidate IV-3/48 according to their inner content values arc suitable for high quality products (containing real fruit material in high proportion).

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Effect of aromatic cytokinins and explant position on shoot multiplication of Asparagus offi cinalis L.
Published July 25, 2013

Asparagus offi cinalis has been widely studied, but little information is available about its in vitro response to exogenous cytokinin during shoot multiplication. To study the effects of different cytokinins on shoot multiplication of A. offi cinalis ‘Grolim’, in vitro culture was initiated from shoot segments cultured on media with Murash...ige and Skoog medium. Effects of different aromatic cytokinins (6-benzylaminopurine, 6-benzylaminopurine riboside and meta-topolin) applied in four concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 mg/l) on shoot multiplication of ‘Grolim’ were tested. Effect of explant position (vertically or horizontally) on the shoot multiplication outcome was also studied. Both the length and the number of newly developed shoots were signifi cantly affected by explant position and cytokinin content of the medium. The highest numbers of shoots (4.9) were produced in the presence of 0.5 mg l-1 6-benzylaminopurine riboside when explants were paced horizontally onto the medium. Although the longest shoots (41.5 mm) developed on explants placed vertically onto medium supplemented with 2.0 mg l-1 meta-topolin, the lengths of shoots developed on medium with 0.5 mg l-1 6-benzylaminopurine riboside were also adequate in both explant position (29.5 and 33.6 mm placed horizontally and vertically, respectively).

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Studies on the insect pollination of fruit tree species and on closely related topics in Hungary: a bibliography of research publications
Published June 6, 2000

In the past decades fruit production has become more and more intensive and so the interest towards the bee pollination of fruit trees has increased in Hungary. Thus insect pollination research has become more intensive in the eighties and in the nineties. Recently, high density fruit orchards are planted of dwarf trees at more and more farms i...n Hungary and these need highly controlled growing practices involving insect pollination, too. This is a new challenge of insect pollination research in Hungary. So it seems to be worth to compile a list on research publications having been appeared so far to create a basis to the ongoing new research. Besides papers strictly on the insect pollination of fruit trees publications on some closely related topics, first of all on the nectar production and on other flower characteristics of fruit tree cultivars that directly influence bee activity have also been included on the list.


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Conventional PCR primers for the detection of grapevine pathogens disseminated by propagating material
Published September 7, 2014

Polymerase chain reaction driven by sequence specific primers has become the most widely used diagnostic method to detect and identify plant pathogens. The sensitive and cost-effective pathogen detection is exceptionally important in the production of propagating material. In this paper we have collected primer sequence data from the literature... for the detection of the most important grapevine pathogens disseminated by propagating stocks by conventional polymerase chain reaction. Basic protocols to obtain template nucleic acids have also been briefly rewieved.

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The application of A HEAT SUM MODEL for the budburst of sour cherry varieties grown at Újfehértó
Published September 2, 2009

Experiences of the last decades showed univocally that the climatic changes, especially the warming up, influenced clearly the phenology, i.e. speed of growth and development of plants. To check the effects, the phenological studies became a topic of special interest. Our research has been performed at Újfehértó, the Research Institute of Fr...uit Growing and Extension, where the respective database accumulated observations during the period 1984–2005, where the meteorological data as well as the parallel phenological diary referring to the varieties ’Újfehértói fürtös’, ’Kántorjánosi’ and ’Debreceni bôtermô’ during the period 1984–1991 have been utilised. The method of calculating the sum of daily mean temperatures, “degree days”, is based on the observation that the plants are able to utilise cumulatively – in growth and development – the temperature above a set basic temperature. Our phenology model examined the correlation between the sum of degree days and the date of sprouting (budburst). The basic temperature has been determined by optimization, above which (threshold temperature) the accumulation of daily means was most active, or alternatively, below which the daily means are most sensitively expressed in the phenology. The model has been extended to the calculation of the end of rest period (endodormancy) – by optimization as well. Our phenology model will be suitable for two main purposes: for estimating the time of budburst for the Hungarian region during the next decades calculated on the basis of regionally downscaled climate models; on the other hand, by applying our model, the risk of damage caused by spring frosts could be estimated more exactly than earlier.

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Fruit production and research in Hungary - An overview
Published November 15, 2004

Hungary is traditionally a food producer country. 63% of its total land area can be cultivated. Horticulture is one of the fundamental agricultural branches. The country has a moderate continental climate, with a mean temperature of 10 °C. The average hours of sunshine ranges 1,700 to 2,100 hours. Under the geographical condition in the Carpat...hian Basin the chemical composition of the fruits has a good harmony. The total fruit acreage is 97,000 ha with a crop of 800,000 to 900,000 tons yearly. In 1982 1,934,000 tons of fruit crop were produced since then it has decreased. The most important fruits are apple, European plum, sour cherry and raspberry. The percentage of apple reaches almost up to 60%. In the new plantings sour cherry, apple and black elderberry is popular. The most important fruit-producing region is situated at the North-eastern part of the country. More than 40% of Hungary's fruit production is concentrated there. In ranking the 2nd place is taken by fruit growing area in the middle of Hungary, where the production of stone fruits and small fruits has a considerable proportion.

In the 70s and 80s of last century there was a developed research structure and wide range of research activity in Hungary. From that time the research capacity has considerably decreased first of all in the field of technological development. The main research area is fruit breeding and variety evaluation.

Fruit scientists and fruit grower specialists are held together by the Hungarian. Society for Horticultural Sciences which has a membership in ISHS. Fruit researches and scientists having academic degree are belonged to the Horticultural Board of Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

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Nutrition of the micropropagated fruit trees in vitro and ex vitro
Published June 24, 2003

Some experience or details are introduced in connection with the nutrient uptake of micropropagated fruit trees in the different phase of the in vitro or ex vitro development. It can be stated, that the plants during the micropropagation procedure are overfed. Special careful nutrient supply is necessary during the acclimatiza...tion.

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Propagation from root cuttings for black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) improvement in Hungary: a review
Published July 29, 2019

Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is a valuable stand-forming tree species introduced to Europe approximately 400 years ago from North America. Today it is widely planted throughout the world, first of all for wood production. In Hungary, where black locust has great importance in the forest management, it is mainly propagated by ...seeds. But since the seed-raised plants present a great genetic variation, this type of propagation can not be used for Robinia’s improved cultivars. In the Hungarian black locust clonal forestry, propagation from root cuttings can be used for reproduction of superior individuals or cultivars in large quantities. However, this method demands more care than raising seedlings from seeds and can be applied with success in well-equipped nurseries.

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Effect of gelling agents on in vitro development of Amelanchier canadensis ‘Rainbow Pillar’
Published July 25, 2013

In vitro shoot multiplication responses of Amelanchier canadensis ‘Rainbow Pillar’ were studied on media solidifi ed with different gelling agents. The media were gelled either with 6.8 g l-1 fi brous agar-agar, or 50.0 g l-1 wheat starch, or 20.0 g l-1 Guar gum, or 15 g l-1 Isubgol or 50.0 g l-1 wheat starch mixed with 0.5 g l-1 Phytagel. ...Shoot cultures were grown for two months, thereafter the multiplication rates (number of newly developed shoots per explant) were counted and the length of shoots were measured. We found that the highest shoot multiplication of Amelanchier canadensis ‘Rainbow Pillar’ occurred on media gelled with Guar gum, while the longest shoots developed on media with Starch. About four-fold shoot number were obtained on media with Guar gum compared to the weakest results found on media gelled with Isubgol. Finally, considering all factors (shoot growth parameters, costs) the most economical gelling agent for Amelanchier canadensis ‘Rainbow Pillar’ was proved to be wheat starch among the tested alternatives which allows a 75.6% cost reduction.

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Promising black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) cultivars in Hungary
Published December 4, 2018

In Hungary, black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is one of the most important exotic stand-forming tree species, growing mostly under unfavourable ecological conditions. Considering the climate change effects its importance is increasing in many other countries. As a result of a selection programme, several black locust cult...ivars have been improved for setting up cultivar trials. In the paper four black locust cultivars were evaluated in Central Hungary under arid hydrological and brown forest soil conditions. Significant differences (P<5%) were found in height, DBH, mean tree volume and average stem form value (SFV).  At the age of 35 the cultivar ‘R.p. Jászkiséri’ appeared to be the most promising one for yield production and ‘R.p. Zalai’ for SFV.

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Effect of variety and cultivation technology on phenols and antioxidant activity of sweet and sour cherry
Published January 3, 2010

The goal of the present work was to compare different sweet and sour cherry cultivars and cultivation methods (bio/integrated) with respect to polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. The concentration of total polyphenols ranged between 880–1050 mg kg-1 of fresh fruit, whereas antioxidant activity expressed as TEAC was found to be betwee...n 5.4 and 10.3 mmol kg-1 for the sweet cherry cultivars examined. In case of sour cherry the level of polyphenols ranged between 1283 and 3490 mg/kg fresh edible part of the fruit. Antioxidant activity was recorded between 15–32 mmol kg-1 for the different sour cherry cultivars included in this work. After one-month storage at low temperature, the total phenols and antioxidant activity decreased by 2–40% in the sour cherry cultivars studied. The anthocyanin content in cherry cultivars was less (131–312 mg kg-1) than the135–1893 mg kg-1 found in sour cherries. Anthocyanin level was higher in samples produced under organic farming conditions than in those produced with integrated cultivation.

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Comparative evaluation of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) populations from different origin
Published February 8, 2006

In our research project under cultivation we examined 4 cultivars ('Soroksári 40', 'Lutea , 'Goral', 'Bona') and 28 wild populations of chamomile assuring all of them the same environmental conditions. Plant height, flower-diameter, essential-oil content, and the main terpenoid and flavonoid composition were analysed. The aim of our study was establish the genetic background of breeding a new cultivar as well as encircle those natural habitats that give chamomile drug with the best quality.

In the case of plant height populations from the Great Hungarian Plain were lower than plants from Transdanubia and the control cultivars. Between the wild and the standard individuals we found significant differences with relevance to the flower-diameter. With regard to the essential oil content the populations were very heterogeneous even those, which came from the same habitat. Populations form Transdanubia and Nagyiván reached the essential oil level of the cultivars (0.721-0.931 gi100g), and 75% of the examined plants exceeded the minimum requirement of the PhHg VIII.

According to the essential oil composition our previous statement was confirmed that in the populations of Transdanubia and Northern part of Danube—Tisza Mid Region the main component is bisabolol-oxide A (30-41.2%), while plants native to the territory cast of the river Tisza are mainly characterised by a-bisabolol (32.3-48.4). In some samples the ratio of bisabolol-oxide B was more than 10%. The chamazulene content was higher in the cultivars selected to this component (above 20%), than in the wild populations (varied between 1.22 and 17.2%). Populations originated from the central part of Hortobágy region had extremely high apigenin content (10-13 mg/g), but in the case of chlorogenic acid, hyperoside and quercitrin we did not find any differences affected by the origin.

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The role of meteorological variables of blossoming and ripening within the tendency of qualitative indexes of sour cherry
Published January 3, 2010

We analyzed the relationship to sour cherry quality parameters of average temperature, maximum temperature, minimum
temperature, night and day-time temperature, precipitation and climatic water balance variables. Three cultivars of sour cherry were included
in the selection: “Debreceni bôtermô”, “Kántorjánosi”, and “Újfehé...rtói fürtös”.We conducted regression analyzes on the three varieties, but
present only those that proved to be the best fit.We couldn’t find any significant differences in the weather tolerance of the varieties. The data
base of sour cherry quality parameters covers the 1998 to 2008 intervals. The researched parameters were the following: dry matter content
(%), sugar content (%), C-vitamin (mg), total acid content (%). Maximum temperature, the difference of night and day-time temperature and
minimum temperature all have a significant correlation with the investigated quality parameters of sour cherry. Minimum temperature shows
a quadratic relationship with sugar content, while night and day-time temperature differences show the same with dry matter content. The
other weather parameters had a linear correlation with the quality parameters of sour cherry. The research results show that an increasing
amount of precipitation causes decreasing tendency in total acid content of sour cherry, so that increasing temperature has a positive influence
on total acid content. Big differences in night and day-time temperature also has positive effects on the dry matter and sugar content of sour
cherry while the amount of precipitation has a negative effect. High minimum temperatures cause decreasing sugar content respiratory energy
losses are significant if dawn temperatures do not drop considerably.A more favourable climatic water balance has a positive effect on vitamin
C content in cases of a large negative water balance, vitamin C content is generally low.

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Effect of late spring frost event on nutrition aspects of a sour cherry orchard in East Hungary
Published December 4, 2011

Similarly to 2007, 2011 was also critical year for fruit growers in Eastern-Hungary. Serious frost damage was observed at late blooming period (6 May (T=-1.6°C)) in this region, which caused approximately 60-65% of fruit loss. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a spring frost event on nutrient uptake and status of the ...trees of a sour cherry plantation at Újfehértó. The symptoms of frost were observed visually. This visual observation was confirmed by SPAD readings. The frost affected the macroand micronutrient contents of leaves. It was found that the frost affected the nutrient uptake negatively, but the effect of it was not significantly sometimes. It can be stated that the nutrient demand of trees can be supplied only under even worse conditions.

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Climatic indicators regarding the rest period of sour cherry
Published August 16, 2010

Sour cherry production in the world is increasing gradually. Profitable production, i.e. yield, depends largely on weather conditions. If Hungary wishes to keep up with the most successful countries, attention should be paid to the weather during the dormancy period, being definitely decisive from the points of view of quality as well as quanti...ty. In order to predict the expected risk factors, characterisation of the most important weather parameters is necessary. For that purpose, the database of the Institute of Research and Extension Service for Fruit Growing at Újfehértó Ltd. has been utilised. Records of weather conditions were collected throughout the period 1984-2005, i.e. daily minimum, maximum and mean temperatures (°C), and phenological diary of sour cherry varieties ’Újfehértói fürtös’, ’Kántorjánosi’ and ’Debreceni bôtermô’. For the future expectations study we have used the RegCM3.1 regional climate model with 10 km resolution. Data of 4 indicators have been traced: Average temperatures, Number of days without frost, Maximum length of periods without frost, Maximum length of frosty period. On the one hand, we surveyed the changes; on the other hand, estimates have been attempted for the future changes expected during the following decades.

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First evaluation of fruit quality of some new and old sour cherry cultivars in Hungarian climatic condition
Published September 2, 2009

Indeed, in the last decade a large number of new sour cherry cultivars with new notable flavor characteristics have been released. There is no enough information related to qualitative characteristics which consistently segregated based on their predominant sensory characteristics. The present study carried out at tow consecutive years (2008 an...d 2009) and examined some qualitative characters which are the main importance in the specialty cherries trade, The main objective was to determine fruits quality of Érdi bőtermő, Oblacsinszka, Debreceni bőtermő, Csengődi, Pándy 279, Éva, Kántorjánosi, Újfehértói fürtös and Petri sour cherry cultivars. Changes observed in major characteristics such as fruit detachment force, width, length, weight, peduncle length, flesh firmness, brix, citric acid, Suger/acid ratio and pit weigh.While observed no change in flesh/pit ratio and Coordinate of colour (X*, y*, x*), hue angle and chroma value, in different years. In all measured factors, there was significant difference between selected cultivars of sour cherry fruit. Debreceni bőtermő showed higher values of fruit detachment force in 2008, while had the lover of fruit detachment force in 2009. Fruit firmness of “Érdi bőtermő” were monitored at lover value in both 2-year.

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Single and dual effects of different cytokinins on shoot multiplication of different apple scions
Published August 23, 2000

Shoot multiplication responses of three apple scions to different concentrations of BA and BAR as single source of cytokinins and in combination with two concentrations of KIN were studied. The effects of hormones depended on genotype, type and interactions of different cytokinins. Use of BAR significantly enhanced the shoot multiplication of c...v. Jonagold (6.5 shoots per explant). The multiplication rate of cv. Jonagold could not be improved by using the combination of BAR and KIN. The best proliferation was achieved by 1.0 mg 1-1 BA combined with 1.0 mg 1-1 KIN of cv. Prima..(8.1) and of cv. Galaxy (10.4).The effect of 0.5 mg 1-1 BA along with 1.5 mg 1-1 KIN was similar on multiplication rate (10.9) of cv. Galaxy.

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Comparison of varying pollen source on productivity of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) cultivars
Published January 3, 2010

Fruit set of five sour cherry cultivars (‘Újfehértói fürtös’, ‘Éva’, ‘Petri’, ‘Pándy 279‘ and ‘Csengôdi’) of eight years-old trees grown in Újfehértó, located in the Eastern north part of Hungary have been studied over two years (2008 & 2009). Following reciprocally cross-pollination, free-pollination, self-po...llination (autogamy) artificial self-pollination (geitonogamy) were studied. The results show that both maternal and paternal parent cultivates had significant effects on the percentage fruit set. Significant differences have been found in fruit set among years and among pollination treatments. Fruit set of free-pollinated Pándy 276 cultivar was low and seasonally highly variable. The yield of this cultivar on self-pollinated flowers was nearly 0%, and in this treatment the maximum yields did not reach 10% in any of the examined cultivars. There was no significant relationship in the fruit set of free-pollination and natural self-pollination treatments.

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Simultaneousness of reproductive organs of sour cherry cultivars adaptable to Iranian climatic condition
Published September 2, 2009

Observations were made on simultaneousness of pollen shedding and stigma viability ratio, to clarify the phenology of reproductive organs of nine economically important sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) cultivars (‘Érdi bôtermô‘, ‘Debreceni bőtermő‘, ‘Csengődi‘, ‘Kántorjánosi 3‘, ‘Újfehértói fürtös‘, ‘Petri‘, ...‘Eva‘, ‘Oblascinszka‘, and ‘Pándy 279’). The main aim was investigation the possible influence of environmental cues in timing and development of phenophases and also responses of different cultivars to seasonal cues. Likely effects of climatic changes on phenological development patterns were also considered. Results showed important aspects of the reproductive biology of sour cherry flowers. The amplitude of the phenophase “beginning of blossoming” between cultivars did not exceed 6 days. There is a maximum 3 day difference in the blooming length of different directions in each cultivar. ‘Pándy 279‘ showed high variability when the position of flowers changed on the tree shoots. ‘Újfehértói fürtös‘ was stable in all four directions of the tree. The pollen shedding period and stigma viability ratio were synchronous. Pollen shedding phenomenon simultaneously occurred with the secretary activities of stigmas in all examined cultivars. Distribution of pollen shedding over the secretary activity of stigmas is almost good. In all five cultivars maximum pollen shedding occurred when the temperature was high during the day. In general the results of this experiment and our previous studies clearly demonstrate that the Pándy groups not recommended for plantation in new orchards of Iran.

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The Hungarian pear germplasm as source of genetic variability for breeding programmes
Published May 10, 2010

TheHungarian pear collection (Pyrus communis L.) consists of 423 genotypes distributed over seven genebanks inHungary. This is one of themost extensive collections of native and cultivated pears found in Eastern Europe and includes a wide range of genotypes with small size fruit (referred to as “Miniature pears”). Based on the in situ and e...x situ measures taken by governmental and other institutions for fruit tree conservation in Hungary, an overview is given on some activities regarding areas of Pyrus collection and genebanks where pears are collected and grown. Descriptions of traits of miniature pears found in Hungarian genebanks for the interest of genetic characterization and breeding are presented.

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In vitro shoot multiplication of apple: comparative response of three rootstocks to cytokinines and auxin
Published February 23, 2000

Shoot multiplication responses of rootstocks cvs. M.26, MM.106 and JTE-H to different concentration of BA, BAR and IBA in eight various combinations were tested on MS-medium. The effect of hormones depended on genotype, type of cytokinin and interaction of cytokinin and auxin. Shoot multiplication was significantly enhanced with the use of BAR cytokinin. High multiplication rate could be achieved in cvs. M.26, MM.106 and JTE-H: 7.7, 6.9 and 9.9 shoots per explant, respectively.

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