The specific conditions of the formation of three different types of sunburn (sunburn browning, sunburn necrosis, and photooxidative sunburn) have been recently characterized on apple fruit. However, no information is still available on leaf damage. Therefore, the aims of this study were i) to extend the knowledge on fruit damage, ii) character...ize leaf damage and iii) find relationship between fruit and leaf damage. The observations were made on 586 apple accessions in a gene bank orchard located in Hungary. The incidence of the three different types of fruit symptoms were recorded and based on the visual symptoms, two different types of leaf sunburn (sunburn yellowing and sunburn necrosis) were characterized. The most frequent type of fruit sunburn observed was sunburn browning. Photooxidative sunburn was found for less number of accessions, and only some accessions were affected by sunburn necrosis. Fruit were far more susceptible than leaves; (>60%) of the examined accessions were affected by fruit damage and (<3%) by leaf damage. Although a large number of accessions were affected, the percentage of fruit damaged within accessions was not that excessive; ~6% of the fruit assessed showed the symptoms of sunburn browning. Significantly fewer fruit were damaged by sunburn necrosis (~1%) or photooxidative sunburn (~1.4%) than sunburn browning. The percentage of leaves damaged within accessions were simlarly very low (~1%). Close relationship between fruit and leaf damage was found. Accesions with relatively heavily sunburned leaves usually had severe fruit damage as well. Leaves showing sunburn symptoms were usually closely located around those fruit which were sunburned severely. Leaf damage of sunburn was found on spur leaves in a great majority of the accessions damaged, shoot leaves did not seem to be susceptible to sunburn.
Telekia speiosa (Schreb.) Baumg. is a 100-150 cm high bushy perennial, which has yellow flowers and smells good. According to the descriptions (Farkas, 1999), it can be detected in two smaller areas within Hungary, namely in the Bükk hills and on the Szatmár-Bereg Plain. By the time of writing this paper, the population around Tiszabecs has a...lready got extinct. Therefore, it is a protected relict species. It is named in honour of Sámuel Teleki, chancellor of Transylvania.Within the frame of the experiment, the Telekia speciosa (Schreb.) Baumg. was planted to places differently illuminated (sunny, semi shadow, shade), then the morphological changes brought about the various light conditions were investigated. The experiment was launched with a stock sown in October 2008. The seedlings were planted to three beds with diverse light conditions. The area of each bed was 1 m2, and ten seedlings were planted per m2. The parameters investigated are as follows: the length of leaf blade, the width of leaf blade, the length of petiole, the number of leaves per plant, and the alterations of leaves. As a result of our research, we can state that semi shadow is the optimal habitat for the plant. Under such ecological conditions the highest leaf production was observed, the leaves were species specific, healthy and big. The mean number of leaves per plant was 6.6, the mean length of blade was 16.6 cm, the mean width of blade was 13 cm, while the mean length of petiole was 14.2 cm. In the shade the plants grew poorly and the size of leaves were smaller. The mean number of leaves per plant was 4.1, the mean length of blade was 8.6 cm, the mean width of blade was 7.1 cm, and the mean length of petiole was 9.4 cm. In the sunny habitat a similarly high leaf production was observed as in the semi shadow; however, the leaves had brownish spots, they shriveled, feel rough, so they revealed a reduced aesthetical value. The mean number of leaves per plant was 6.6, the mean length of blade was 17.8 cm, the mean width of blade was 11.3 cm, and the mean length of petiole was 13.1 cm.
The aim of this three-year study was to evaluate the effect of three treatments (thiophanate methyl, charcoal dust, and control) on leaf number and plant height on three Canna x generalis cultivars (City of Portland, Richard Wallace and Robert Kemp). Results showed that the 3-year means of leaf number ranged from 13.9 to 23.1 for the three cult...ivars. The largest leaf numbers were for cultivar Robert Camp (23.1 in 2010) and the lowest for cultivar City of Portland (13.9 in 2011). Thiophanate methyl treatment produced the highest number of leaves and the values were significantly different at P< 0.05 from the control for all years and for all cultivars. Numbers of leaves in charcoal dust treatments were larger than the control treatments but it was not significantly different. Results on plant height ranged from 69.2 to 160.5 cm for the three cultivars. The largest plant height was for cultivar Robert Kemp (160.5 cm in 2011) and the lowest for cultivar City of Portland (69.2 cm in 2011). Thiophanate methyl treatment produced the highest plant height and the values were significantly different at P< 0.05 from the control for all years and for all cultivars. Plant heights in charcoal dust treatments were larger than the control treatments but it was not significantly different.
In this study, the objective was to report a two-year investigation on micro area based spatial distribution of apple scab in an organic apple orchard. Results showed that number of symptomatic plant part ranged between 587 and 623 on leaf and between 46 and 78 on fruit for an individual tree. Number of asymptomatic plant part ranged between 10...34 and 1321 on leaf and between 119 and 193 on fruit. Disease incidence ranged between 35 and 40% on leaf and between 27 and 33% on fruit. Disease aggregation index ranged between 0.115 and 0.298 on leaf and between 0.117 and 0.221 on fruit. Three of the four trees showed significant within canopy aggregation of disease for leaf apple scab symptoms in both years. For fruit apple scab, two of the four trees showed significant random patterns in both years.
We have concluded the selection tests of the `Mézes körte' seedlings planted in the spring of 2006, with special emphasis on the cotyledonary, foliage leaf and the height of plant. Out of the 75 seeds planted in rows, there were 40-45 pieces growing out, so during the first cotyledonary test we had to calculate with almost 40% decay. On 12th...April 2006, we recorded some of the important characteristics of the seedlings in their cotyledonary stage which characteristics were important from the point of view of selection (cotyledonary form, cotyledonary length, cotyledonary thickness, cotyledonary colour, cotyledonary petiole length, cotyledonary petiole thickness, cotyledonary petiole colour). The above morphological characteristics are shown in Table No. 1-6. We have also tested the seedling in foliage leaf state, paying special attention on the development stage of the plants (colour of foliage leaf , height of plant). We have completed statistical calculations of the two above mentioned characteristics. The result of that is summarised in Table No. 8-9. The variation coefficient show smaller value in the case of the foliage leaf number (15-32%), while the wider range of spread of the data referring to the height of the plant is shown by the 33-61% CV values. On charts No 4-9. we present the relationship between the height of the plant and the number of foliage leaf, as well as the differences between the two graphs. Based on the above charts and graphs it can be defined that the 40% destruction of the developing seedlings during the period till the next measurement reached 70-80% level. In spite of this however some seedlings showed strong and balanced growth (A44, B42, C25, D16, E5, E39, F38), the further testing and selection of those is to be completed in the future.
Direct sowing in 16 cm deep trench covered with perforated plastic sheet (for 3 weeks), transplant using, and uncovered direct sowing (control) was tried on 2 locations, with 2 varieties (very early Kecskeméti korai extra, and middle early Kecskeméti SC-370) in Szarvas on loamy soil, and in Kecskemét on sa...ndy soil in 1996 — after a preliminary trial concerning perforated plastic covered trench sowing in Szarvas, in 1995.
The plant height (weekly), the average leaf number/plant, the total leaf area (once), the total yield, the quality of cobs, and the earliness was measured. The results are:
- Kecskeméti korai extra during the first 6 week period the transplanted plants were the highest, but from the 7th week the plants which were sown in trench and than were covered with perforated plastic sheet (for 3 weeks) were the highest.
- SC-370: The transplanted plants were the highest-until the end of plant height development.
The plant height development stopped at the 9th week of the measurement by early, - and stopped at the 10th week by middle early variety. The average leaf number/plant varied between 9,25-10,50 and was not influenced either by variety or by the treatment. The total leaf area was (on 5th of June) the largest by transplanted plants, which was followed by plants that were sown in trench and then were covered with perforated plastic film (for 3 weeks).
- The highest yield was observed by plants, which Were sown in trench, and then were covered with perforated plastic film (for 3 weeks). Transplanted plants followed it.
- Quite the total yield (98,3%) of transplanted Kecskeméti korai extra variety plants were harvested on 4th July. 89% of the total yield was picked up of trench sown and then with perforated plastic covered plants. The harvest of uncovered control started on 15th July. The harvest of transplanted SC-370 plants started 19th July, when more than half of the total yield (57%) was picked. The uncovered control was harvested 29th July.
- The weight and the measure of cobs generally were not influenced by the treatments, but the average weight of the cobs of the transplanted Kecskeméti korai extra plants (0,21-0,18 kg) are less than the, requirement.
The effects of the ethylene precursor ACC and two inhibitors, AgNO3 and AVG, on root formation were tested in in vitro shoots of passion fruit (Passiflora Midis f.flavicalpa Deg.). The organogenic response was assessed on the basis of percentage of shoot-forming. roots, root number and length. The time course of eth...ylene production was also monitored. ACC inhibited root formation by delaying root emergence and increasine, callus formation at the basis of the shoots. In addition, ACC caused a marked increase in ethylene production, coupled to leaf chlorosis and senescence with lower rooting frequencies, number and length of roots. IAA supplementation increased ethylene production. Both ethylene inhibitors, AgNO3 and AVG, at appropriate concentrations reduced callus formation at the basis of shoots. AVG increased the number of roots per shoot, but drastically reduced length of differentiated roots. Regarding to leaf pigments, ACC promoted a marked reduction on carotenoids and total chlorophyll, whereas AVG and AgNO3 delayed explant senescence and pigments degradation, not differing from IAA supplemented and non-supplemented control treatments. The results confirm previous reports on the beneficial effects of ethylene inhibitors on in vitro rooting and suggest its reliability to be used as an alternative approach to evaluate sensitivity of Passiflora species to ethylene.
In this study the transpiration properties and response to heat stress of Granny Smith and Jonagold apple species were measured. The examinations were set at an orchard near to Debrecen. The chosen trees were two years old, without fruits, in 20l container, placed in the mixture of mulch matrix, wood chips and sawdust and grown at the same clim...atic conditions. One of the most important goals was to determine the leaf area of the trees which is a basic data for transpiration modeling. Leaf area was larger (signifi cance level p<0.05) in the upper part of the canopy to achieve larger photosynthetic surface. Jonagold species with less leaf number (–18% compared to Granny Smith) reached almost the same canopy area, than Granny Smith, due to larger leaf area of Jonagold. Another aim was to measure the transpiration rate of the apple trees. The transpiration measurements were carried out by sap fl ow meter. Only a small transpiration difference can be found between species. During the investigation time there were wet and cool as well as dry and extremely hot periods. In the case of dry and extreme hot periods the transpiration is decreased, which causes decrease in transpiration and enhanced the water stress of trees.
The author dealt with plum species representing different eco-geographic areas by their genetic adaptation and their hybrids, as European (P. domestica, P. italica, P. cerasifera), Asian (P. salicina, P. simonii, P. ussuriensis), American (P. ame...ricana, P. besseyi, P. munsoniana, P. tomentosa). The rootstocks of the trees examined were seedlings of C. 679 myrobalan with the exception of Laroda and Santa Rosa II, which were grown on three different stocks: seedlings of C. 174 myrobalan, C. 449 bitter almond and C. 471 sweet almond. The size of peduncle, length of pistil, stamen number per flower, relative stamen number (SN/PL) have been suitable for description and distinction of varieties. Similarly shape of leaves, length of petiole, length and width of blade helped the identification.
The ratio of the dimensions of leaves, length of petiole and of leaf blade, also contributed to the distinction of European, Asian and American plum species, notwithstanding their relations with ecological conditions as well as historical, technical properties, pomological features, etc. Computed indicators (relative stamen number and shape-index of leaves) also have been useful data.
Significant correlations have been found between colour of nectaries and mean values of variety-groups. The potential values of non-European varieties for purposes of commercial production could be forecasted from the point of view of quality, ecological, pomological as well as market value. It is important, however, to know the effect of the rootstock and growing site as well as their interaction, on the one hand, whereas the resistance or tolerance of the varieties as limiting factors, at least to the sharka (Plum pox) virus, Xanthomonas pruni, on the other hand (cf. Surányi & Erdős, 2004a and 2004b).
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of different growth inducing rootstocks on fruit drop of apple. This research was conducted for 3 years at Nagykutas, Western Hungary on apple cv. 'Arlet'. For the experiments, 3 different growth inducing rootstocks were choosen: M.9 (weak), MM.106 (moderate) and crabapple seedling (strong). Th...ere were 3 fruit shedding periods on the trees grafted M.9 and MM.106 rootstocks, but in the case of crabapple seedling, only 2 were found. The measure of fruit drop was closely related to seed count of fruits; seed number was the lowest, fruit drop was the highest. The lowest seed number was counted in fruits from trees on crabapple seedling. Seasonal changes of leaf:fruit ratio mainly depended on shoot growth and fruit drop. The rise of the curve of leaf:fruit ratio was very important during the first phase of fruit development, in especially at the end of June and in the beginning of July. The cause of this is that first and second periods of fruit drop appeared during this term. The rise of the curve was important in the beginning of June and the end of July on crabapple seedling. Decreasing tendency of quality parameters was found of fruits from trees on M.9, MM.106 and seedling rootstocks, except flesh firmness which was the highest in fruits from trees on crabapple seedling.
During our experiment, the effect of Ferbanat L concentrations were examined by Petunia x grandiflora ‘Musica Blue’ production. The leaf and shoot length, number of flower buds, diameter of flowers, and the date of appearing the first buds were measured. The solution of Ferbanat L in 0.1 % concentration was the most effective on shoot lengt...h (21.7 cm). Remarkable increase was observed by the other treatment groups as well comparing to the control group (5.6 cm), the plants treated with solution of Ferbanat L 0.2% (16.5 cm) and 0.3% (14.4 cm) had significant effect as well. The nano-fertilizer had not positive effect on the other examined parameters as leaf and flower size, number of flower buds or chlorophyll content. The culture period shortened five days.
In 164 varieties of five stone fruit species, counts of flower buds, flowers and fruits set have been performed, regularly, between 1982 and 2002. The critical number and sample size has been determined for the purpose to estimate the yielding potential of peach plantations. For a rapid test, 10 shoots per variety are recommended. In sour cherr...y and peach varieties, the number and ratio of leaf and flower buds has been assessed on bearing shoots of different length.
The typical flower bud density of 129 peach varieties varies, as a rule, between 0.13 and 1.10 bud/cm. Three groups of flower-bud-densities could be distinguished: low (0-0.40 bud/cm), intermediate (0.41-0.60 bud/cm), high (more than 0.60 bud/cm). About 62% of varieties belong to the intermediate group. Negative correlation has been found between flower density and relative fruit set, whereas positive correlation between flower density and fruit yield.
The results are utilised in the description and choice of varieties, moreover, in choosing of optimal pruning policies. Varieties of high flower bud densities are recommended to be preferred for growing sites with frequent late frosts. Abundantly yielding varieties of low vegetative vigour are to be pruned more severely than those characterised by low yields, vigorous growth and low flower density. Sour cherry varieties, which are inclined to grow "whips" ought to be stimulated to grow longer shoots (40-50 cm per year), than varieties woid of that tendency (30-40 cm).
In this study, the objective was to report a preliminary study on micro area based spatial distribution of powdery mildew in an organic apple orchard. Results showed that number of symptomatic plant part ranged between 11 and 20 on shoot and between 9 and 24 on fruit. Number of asymptomatic plant part ranged between 85 and 109 on shoot and betw...een 133 and 206 on fruit. Disease incidence ranged between 13.8 and 17.6% on shoot and between 9.1 and 11.3% on fruit. Disease aggregation index ranged between 0.098 and 0.228 on shoot and between 0.043 and 0.108 on fruit. One of the four trees showed significant within canopy aggregation of disease for shoot powdery mildew symptoms in both years. For leaf powdery mildew, all tree exhibited random patterns in both years.
The effects of different types of cytokinins on the shoot regeneration from leaf explants of apple scion 'Royal Gala' and apple rootstock 'M.26' were evaluated. Regeneration media contained either thidiazuron, or 6-benzylaminopurine, or meta-topolin, or zeatin, or kinetin, or their N9-ribosides, respectively, in the concentration ran...ge 0.5 to 8.0 mg 1-1. Effects of 'these cytokinins were evaluated on the percentage of regeneration (R%) and that of vitrification (V%) and on the number of regenerated shoots per explant (SN). Organogenetic index (0I) calculated from these data was used for the evaluation of efficacy of cytokinins. The course of shoot organogenesis also was followed using stereomicroscope. Types and concentrations of cytokinins applied in the regeneration media influenced each parameter significantly and the regeneration answer was strongly genotype-dependent. The best regeneration (SN: 11.08, 01: 7.5) was achieved in `Royal Gala' by using TDZ in concentration of 0.5 mg 1-1 (2.271,1M). There was a clear relationship between the effect on the regeneration efficacy and the chemical structure of cytokinins considering classical cytokinins, namely N9-ribosides applied in less concentration than nonribosides have the same or best regeneration effects except for 6-benzylaminopurine riboside. However, similar relationship could not be detected in the case of 'M.26'. SN was the highest (3.22) using 6.5 mg 1-1 (18.2011M) 6-benzylaminopurine riboside or 8.0 mg 1-1 (21.44 µM) meta-topolin riboside (3.18). SN was not significantly lower (3.12) by using 2.0 mg 1-1 (9.08 1M) TDZ, however, OI was about half as big (0.63 compared to 1.29 or 1.74 with 6-benzylaminopurine riboside or meta-topolin riboside, respectively). 'Royal Gala' had higher organogenetic ability, than `M.26': 3.5-fold higher shoot number per explant and more than 4-fold higher organogenetic index was reached with this cultivar than with 'M.26'. Moreover, the similar developmental stage of shoots could be observed 3-5 days earlier than in 'M.26' and if explants of 'Royal Gala' were further cultured with 3 weeks, SN increased from 11.08 to 24.42 on TDZ-containing regeneration medium, which might suggest higher organogenetic ability, too.
In the Carpathian Basin Kövidinka and White Riesling are promising wine grape varieties. As in the region continental climate dominates and dry years are not uncommon it was natural to study the water requirement and consumption of the two varieties. Morphological characters affecting transpiration were observed including lea...f area, hairiness, number and type of stomata. The amount of water transpired per unit leaf area and time and rate of water consumption were measured in a model trial in cuttings with known water supply.
The water consumption of vine cuttings depends on varieties and is determined by the genotype but it is also affected by environment. Kövidinka requires little water and uses it to its advantage White Riesling requires more water and uses it rather lavishly. The results of our model trial could be introduced directly into viticulture practice.
The tissue structure of the vegetative organs of strawberry (root, rhizome, stolon, leaf) is discussed in this paper. The authors stated that the root structure described by Muromcev (1969) and Naumann-Seip (1989) develops further from the primary structure. It grows secondarily and the transport tissue becomes continuous having ring shape. In...the primary cortex of the rhizome periderm like tissue differentiates, but according to the examinations up to now, it does not take over the role of the exodermis. The exodermis is phloboran filled primary cortex tissue with 3-4 cell rows under the rhizodermis. The development of the transport tissue of the petiole is also a new recognition. In the lower third of the petiole the transport tissue consists of 3 collaterally compound vascular bundles. In the middle third there are 5 bundles because of the separation of the central bundle and in the upper third of the petiole 7 bundles can be observed because of the ramification of the outside bundles. Therefore attention must be taken also in the case of other plants at making sections. There might be confusions in the results of the examinations if the number of bundles increases in the petiole. The tissue structure might vary depending on the origin of the tissue segment.
The palisade parenchyma of the leaf blade has two layers and it is wider than the spongy parenchyma. Among the 5-6-angular cells of the upper epidermis do not develop stomata while in the lower epidermis there are a fairly lot of them.
Nowadays a number of lignans (arctigenin, matairesinol, pinoresinol and phillygenin) have come to the fore in research due to their various biological activities. In this paper the accumulation of these constituents in leaf extracts of Forsythia plants (F. intermedia, F. ovata 'Robusta’ and `Tetragold', F. suspensa, F. v...iridissima) was quantified using a new isolation method, supercritical CO2 fluid extraction. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents, the antioxidant capacity and the aglycone lignan profile were determined in leaf extracts of Forsythia species. Within the phenols, the flavonoids were only present in small quantities, but the amount of aglycone lignans was extremely high. F. ovata `Robusta' had the highest total lignan content (103.8 mg/g) of all the Forsythia species. The main lignan in this species is arctigenin, which normally makes up about 60% of the total lignan content, but in the case of F. ovata `Robusta' this value was 96.1%. Since this arctigenin content is outstanding compared to that of other Forsythia species, it could be promising to develop a fermentation technology for the production of this natural compound.
The Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola is one of the most expressive biogen stressors of the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Hungary. The chemical and agrotechnological defence is inefficient, so breeding is the only workable way. The conventional cultivars are susceptible to PS while most of the new industrial varieties...have genetic resistance to the pathogen. The genetic background of resistance is, however, a complex system in the bean. Leaf resistance is a monogenic system, but this gene is not expressed in juvenile stage of the host. The pathogen species can be divided into different races. After inoculation with virulent strains, typical symptoms appeared on the leaves. To understand the details of host-pathogen relationships, there were carried out experiments using bacterial strains with altered virulence. Six transposon mutants of the PS were tested. Our main objective was to test these modified bacterial strains on bean cultivars of known genetic background. First we analysed the symptoms, and then the correlation between the symptoms and the multiplication of mutant bacteria. Three cultivars (Cherokee, Inka and Főnix) were tested.
The infection by the virulent PS isolate produced typical symptoms on the three cultivars tested. Mutant bacteria (except strain 756) did not cause any significant symptoms on the hosts. The mutant 756 induced visible symptoms on the cultivars Cherokee and Inka. On Cherokee there were small watersoaked lesions, and HR (hypersensitivity reaction) was detected on Inka, but this was restricted to some cells only (mikro HR). The rate of multiplication of the wild type strain was much higher than the multiplication of the mutants. Bacteria were detected in the cotyledons and primordial leaf, but there is not any substantial number of bacteria in leaves, except for strains 757, 1212 and 1213. The rate of multiplication of strain 756 was intermediate. These, and other experiments can help to understand the genetic background of resistance and the host-pathogen relationship in the Pseudomonas-bean pathosystem.
Widespread application for herbal medicines based on Hyperici herba has been experienced in the last few years, especially in the treatment of depression syndrome. As the wild origins could not satisfy the market demands neither in quantitative nor in qualitative respect, the necessity of the development of intensive growing methods...has been raised. In the course of our investigations we intended to clear up the morphological and chemical variability among and within populations of different origin in order to start a new breeding program. According to our data, growth dynamics of populations could be characterised by a logistic curve. According to the time of flowering the populations formed early, middle and late groups. Morphological diversity among populations was measurable in differences of flower length, plant height, different leaf types and plant habit, according to which characteristics groups were distinguished. Generally, the accessions were the most homogenous in plant height (CV: 7-15%), followed by inflorescence-lengths (CV: 11-36%) and the least uniform characteristics proved to be the number of flowering shoots (CV: 14-59%). The greatest morphological heterogeneity was experienced in the accessions of wild origin as it has been expected. In the second vegetation period generally a much better homogeneity was obtained, than in the first year. The most outstanding accessions produced 1.2 t of dry flowers and 4 t of dry flowering shoots, calculating to one hectare area. The individual yields varied on a large scale in each population (CV: 18-70%).
The content of hypericin varied between 1,85 and 9,9 mg/g in 1996, and between 0,18 and 2,70 mg/g in 1997, showing high individual divergences. Flavonoid values -including first of all hyperosid, rutin and quercitrin - reached 17-39 mg/g in the first and 15-20 mg/g in the second year, respectively. Individual and seasonal variation was less than in hypericin. A joint high level of these two compound groups seems to have low frequencies.
The superior population were selected for further breeding.
The cluster thinning is a method of the yield regulation.With the removal one part of the clusters, the yield pro leaf area will be lower, hereby the grape and wine quality will be improved. The regulation of the yield can lead to further advantages: the ratio of the vegetative and generative performance of the vines will improve, the condition... of the plants will better, the number of the physiological diseases can be reduced and the growth of the shoots and roots can be promoted. The grape growers make the cluster thinning almost exclusive by creating one cluster shoots. Usually the upper clusters are removed, because the sugar content of these second or third clusters will be lower. The cluster thinning is an easy task, can be done without special skills. It is an effective method improving wine quality, but its use can lead to other problems. The grapes try to compensate the removed clusters. Therefore the clusters will be bigger and thicker, but more sensitive to bunch rot. Moreover the treatment is expensive, because it needs manual work. It is worth to get acquainted and try the new yield regulation methods, which can help to avoid the occurring problems. Our aim is to show the results of our experiment, which was carried out in Eger, examining the red grape cultivar Kékfrankos. During our 4 years long experiment we compared the effects of cluster thinning, cluster shredding, cluster tipping and defoliation at the flowering, on the vegetative and generative vine performance.
In recent work the effect of 5-aminolevulinic-acid (ALA) agent (commercial name Pentakeep-V) was examined on the chlorophyll content, growth and development of Saintpaulia ionantha. The newly re-rooted potted plants were irrigated or sprayed with 0.3‰ or 0.5‰ Pentakeep-V solution, and plus 30% long lasting fertilizer was added to half of th...e all treatments. Control plants were sprayed with tap water. Best result were obtained on the field of flowering. All the treatments promoted chlorophyll-content in the leaves especially spraying with 0.3‰concentration. Plants treated with Pentakeep-V in both concentrations and independently from the spraying or irrigation flowered more than two weeks earlier than control and those that got plus 30% fertilizer. Besides in the case of some treatments the diameter of leaf rosette, the number and surface size of leaves grew comparing to the control. The longlasting fertilizer had positive effect on the fresh weight but none of treatments had effect on the dry weight.
The effect of row direction (N-S, E-W), plant density (conventional and intensive) and rootstock (M9, MM106 and crab apple) on the sensitivity of 41 apple cultivars to sunburn injury was studied at 6 locations (Derecske, Kálmánáaza, Nagykutas, Nagylapos, Siófok, Tornyospálca).
During the observations the cultivars had rootstock-spe...cific properties in respect of sunburn-susceptibility. Accordingly, the injury was decreased in the order: M9, MM106 and seedling rootstocks. The differences in sensitivity depend on the canopy of trees, caused finally by the growing vigour of rootstocks. Accordingly, the highest value of sunburn injury was observed on M9 rootstock, because this rootstock has a dwarfing effect upon the scion cultivars. Thus, vegetative area of these trees grow very slowly and the foliage is not enough compact to protect the fruit from solar radiation. The size and density of the foliage increased in the order: M9, MM 106 and crab apple seedling as rootstock. Moreover, relationships were demonstrated between the diameter of upper part of the crown, the leaf area, the number of fruits per tree and the injury of sunburn.
Authors categorized the cultivars in respect of values of sunburn incidence: 1. „Not sensitive", II. „Moderately sensitive" and HI. „Strongly sensitive" categories were constituted. Generally, Topaz and Gala cultivars showed low damage (or were free from symptoms), in contrast to this, Golden mutants suffered relatively much. The most sensitive cultivar was Jonica on all the three rootstocks. We searched for relationship between the fruit quality parameters and the frequency of sunburn. Significant correlation was found in the cases of fruit size and the extent of cover-colour. The latter is interpreted with the fact that the best coloured fruits are found on the periphery of crown as a consequence of more intense irradiation.
The process of in vitro rooting and the anatomical characters of in vitro and ex vitro leaves and roots of Prunus x davidopersica 'Piroska' were studied. Best rooting percentage (50%) and highest root number (5.0) was achieved in spring on a medium containing 0.1 mg/I NAA + 30 g/1 glucose. At the end... of rooting the parenchyma of the in vitro leaves was more loose and spongy, than during the proliferation period. In the first newly developed leaf of an acclimatised plant, the parenchyma was much more developed, contained less row of cells and less air space too, compared to the leaves developed in the field. The in vitro developed root had a broad cortex and narrow vascular cylinder with less developed xylem elements, but at the end of the acclimatisation the vascular system became dominant in the root.
In our experiments, we have chiefly tested the salt sensitivity of sweet pepper varieties. In cold forcing, 0.3 1/plant nutrient solutions of different NaCI content were given twice weekly. EC of the nutrient solutions containing 0.25% Volldünger Linz complex fertilizer was made up to 6, 10, 14 and 18 mS/cm, respectively, by 2.51/9.17/17.97/26....76 g/m2 doses of pharmacopeal NaCI every week. The solution used for the control treatment contained Volldünger only (EC 4.4 mS/cm). Irrigation was made with pure water (EC 0.6 mS/cm) when necessary.
The varieties chosen for the experiments were the following: Feherözön, HRF F1, Syn. Cecei (of white, conical fruit), Boni (of white, blunt, infolded fruit), Titan F1 (of pointed, hot fruit) and Pritavit F1 (of tomato shaped fruit).
In general, the symptoms caused by NaCI treatments (with doses higher than 10 g/m2 weekly) have been the following:
- They have reduced the leaf area, the height of the plants, the total and the early yield, the number of fruit set per square meter, the average weight of the fruit (and, in some measure, fruit length, too) and the thousand seed weight.
- They have increased the calcium and the chlorine content of the leaves and fruits and the dry matter content of the fruits.
- They haven't affected the dry matter content of the leaves, the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content of the leaves and fruits, and the germinating ability of the seed.
- The effect on stem diameter and on seed production per fruit has been contradictory in some cases.
The effects of the intermediate treatments haven't been explicit in several cases.
The results of the examination of cuticular secretion have indicated the increase of the sodium and chlorine content of the leaves. This can be important in field growing where the rainwater may wash out a part of sodium and chlorine from paprika leaves.
The hot, pointed variety and the tomato shaped paprika haven't shown clearly higher salt tolerance than the varieties of white fruit colour.
Recent interest to avoid use of agrochemicals in fruit growing to safeguard environmental and human health has stimulated interest in organic fruit production (OFP) all over the world. Organic production requires a holistic approach to agricultural ecosystem management. Because of the perennial nature of orchards, this is not a great departure...from conventional orchard management, except that corrective techniques are limited primarily to naturally derived materials. Organic mineral nutrition management hinges on two principles: 1) practices that lead to the build up and maintenance of soil that is biologically active and high in organic matter; 2) supplementing the mineral nutrients provided by the soil with fertilizers from approved sources. Organic orchards should be sited on land with superior soils and preplant soil preparation to increase organic matter and correct any sub-optimal soil characteristics. For successful organic fruit growing the following statement should be considered:Weed management is critical to reduce competition for nutrients and water. Soil and leaf analysis provide the basis for correcting mineral nutrient deficiencies or imbalances in organic production. It may be necessary to use a number of strategies to supply mineral nutrients over the life of the orchard. The slower, natural methods applied require a management approach that is simultaneously patient and dynamic.