The effects of kanamycin and hygromycin-based selection and co-culture temperature ranging from 22 to 28 °C upon eggplant transformation efficiency were evaluated. Both morphogenic pathways, somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis, were adopted using cotiledonary and hypocotyl explants, respectively. Somatic embryos were recovered in the presence... of both antibiotics, although lesser escapes were observed in hygromycin-supplemented medium. Indeed, selection provided by this antibiotic was more efficient compared to kanamycin, nevertheless, shoot regeneration was not observed with hygromycin. Significant difference on the frequency of cotiledonary explants displaying callus (FEC) was observed as embryogenesis was concerned, although a higher number of embryos was observed in hygromycin selective media. The frequency of explants presenting callus (FEC), embryos (FEE) and shoots or buds (FERG) did not differ statistically for the tested co-culture temperatures, although higher regenerant number was observed at 24 °C.
Broadly the success of genetic transformation of plants requires non-chimeric selection of transformed tissues and its subsequent regeneration. With rare exceptions, most plant transformation protocols still heavily utilize antibiotics for the selection of transgenic cells containing an antibiotic-degrading selectable marker gene. The morphogenic ...capacity of in vitro chrysanthemum and tobacco stem and leaf explants change with the addition of aminoglycoside antibiotics (AAs). Of 6 antibiotics tested, phytotoxicity occurred at 10-25 and 50-100 pgml-I in chrysanthemum and tobacco explants, respectively, depending on the size of the explant and the timing of application. The presence of light or darkness also had a significant effect. The use of transverse thin cell layers (tTCLs) in conjunction with high initial AA selection levels supported the greatest regeneration of transgenic material (adventitious shoots or callus) and the lowest number of escapes. Flow cytometric analyses demonstrate that regeneration can be predicted in both species, depending on the ploidy level of the callus. Endoreduplication was not observed in chrysanthemum, even at high AA levels, but occurred (8C or more) in tobacco callus, even at low AA concentrations (5-10 pgml-1). The higher the AA level, the greater the DNA degradation and the lower the 2C and 4C values.
The effects of the ethylene precursor ACC and two inhibitors, AgNO3 and AVG, on root formation were tested in in vitro shoots of passion fruit (Passiflora Midis f.flavicalpa Deg.). The organogenic response was assessed on the basis of percentage of shoot-forming. roots, root number and length. The time course of ethylene production was also monito...red. ACC inhibited root formation by delaying root emergence and increasine, callus formation at the basis of the shoots. In addition, ACC caused a marked increase in ethylene production, coupled to leaf chlorosis and senescence with lower rooting frequencies, number and length of roots. IAA supplementation increased ethylene production. Both ethylene inhibitors, AgNO3 and AVG, at appropriate concentrations reduced callus formation at the basis of shoots. AVG increased the number of roots per shoot, but drastically reduced length of differentiated roots. Regarding to leaf pigments, ACC promoted a marked reduction on carotenoids and total chlorophyll, whereas AVG and AgNO3 delayed explant senescence and pigments degradation, not differing from IAA supplemented and non-supplemented control treatments. The results confirm previous reports on the beneficial effects of ethylene inhibitors on in vitro rooting and suggest its reliability to be used as an alternative approach to evaluate sensitivity of Passiflora species to ethylene.