Sap flow rate measurements were carried out during two consecutive ('on' and 'off') years in an apple orchard cv. 'Florina' M.26 to analyse the effects of various crop load on tree water use. Sap flow rate was measured by thermal dissipation method in trunks of nine trees from June to the harvest. Crop load was between 0.2-9.0 fruits • cm
Total leaf area was estimated by leaf counting or using shoot girth and leaf area relationship. In both years, fruit growth rate was determined by measuring diameter of 280 marked fruits with 7 days frequency. Fruit volume calculated as a function of fruit diameter based on a previously determined relationship.
Total leaf area of trees ranged from 4.4 to 19.5 m2 and it was closely related to trunk cross section area. At high crop load the fruit growth rate peaked in August with 0.51.tree-l.day-1 and the leaf area specific total fruit volume reached 61 m2 before the harvest.
There was a linear relationship between total leaf area and daily water use, while the leaf area specific water use was influenced by crop load rate. The relationship was described by piecewise linear regression with the breakpoint at crop load rate of 12 fruits•m2 of leaf area. At low crop load the slope of the fitted regression line was less than at high crop load rate.
In this study the transpiration properties and response to heat stress of Granny Smith and Jonagold apple species were measured. The examinations were set at an orchard near to Debrecen. The chosen trees were two years old, without fruits, in 20l container, placed in the mixture of mulch matrix, wood chips and sawdust and grown at the same clim...atic conditions. One of the most important goals was to determine the leaf area of the trees which is a basic data for transpiration modeling. Leaf area was larger (signifi cance level p<0.05) in the upper part of the canopy to achieve larger photosynthetic surface. Jonagold species with less leaf number (–18% compared to Granny Smith) reached almost the same canopy area, than Granny Smith, due to larger leaf area of Jonagold. Another aim was to measure the transpiration rate of the apple trees. The transpiration measurements were carried out by sap fl ow meter. Only a small transpiration difference can be found between species. During the investigation time there were wet and cool as well as dry and extremely hot periods. In the case of dry and extreme hot periods the transpiration is decreased, which causes decrease in transpiration and enhanced the water stress of trees.
Present paper describes an investigation concerning seasonal water use and foliage area development of apple trees. Sap flow velocity was measured in the trunks of five years old apple trees cv. `Florina'/M.26 by a thermal dissipation (Granier) method from 20th of May to the end of September in 1998. The development of foliage area was estimate...d by a method including leaf area measurements, recording of leaves and shoot length. The foliage area reached to 70% of the maximum yearly value at beginning of June. The remaining 30% developed to the end of August. The leaf area specific water use was considerable higher in June and July, than in second part of summer. The trends of ET-FAO and water use curves differed mostly in the late season: the ET-FAO curve falls quite in September compared to August, whereas the value of water use was a similar as in August. This insensitivity of ET-FAO in this period may be a great disadvantage while using the Penman-Monteith equation in irrigation scheduling of apple.
Direct sowing in 16 cm deep trench covered with perforated plastic sheet (for 3 weeks), transplant using, and uncovered direct sowing (control) was tried on 2 locations, with 2 varieties (very early Kecskeméti korai extra, and middle early Kecskeméti SC-370) in Szarvas on loamy soil, and in Kecskemét on sa...ndy soil in 1996 — after a preliminary trial concerning perforated plastic covered trench sowing in Szarvas, in 1995.
The plant height (weekly), the average leaf number/plant, the total leaf area (once), the total yield, the quality of cobs, and the earliness was measured. The results are:
- Kecskeméti korai extra during the first 6 week period the transplanted plants were the highest, but from the 7th week the plants which were sown in trench and than were covered with perforated plastic sheet (for 3 weeks) were the highest.
- SC-370: The transplanted plants were the highest-until the end of plant height development.
The plant height development stopped at the 9th week of the measurement by early, - and stopped at the 10th week by middle early variety. The average leaf number/plant varied between 9,25-10,50 and was not influenced either by variety or by the treatment. The total leaf area was (on 5th of June) the largest by transplanted plants, which was followed by plants that were sown in trench and then were covered with perforated plastic film (for 3 weeks).
- The highest yield was observed by plants, which Were sown in trench, and then were covered with perforated plastic film (for 3 weeks). Transplanted plants followed it.
- Quite the total yield (98,3%) of transplanted Kecskeméti korai extra variety plants were harvested on 4th July. 89% of the total yield was picked up of trench sown and then with perforated plastic covered plants. The harvest of uncovered control started on 15th July. The harvest of transplanted SC-370 plants started 19th July, when more than half of the total yield (57%) was picked. The uncovered control was harvested 29th July.
- The weight and the measure of cobs generally were not influenced by the treatments, but the average weight of the cobs of the transplanted Kecskeméti korai extra plants (0,21-0,18 kg) are less than the, requirement.
In this study, the objective was to report a two-year investigation on micro area based spatial distribution of apple scab in an organic apple orchard. Results showed that number of symptomatic plant part ranged between 587 and 623 on leaf and between 46 and 78 on fruit for an individual tree. Number of asymptomatic plant part ranged between 10...34 and 1321 on leaf and between 119 and 193 on fruit. Disease incidence ranged between 35 and 40% on leaf and between 27 and 33% on fruit. Disease aggregation index ranged between 0.115 and 0.298 on leaf and between 0.117 and 0.221 on fruit. Three of the four trees showed significant within canopy aggregation of disease for leaf apple scab symptoms in both years. For fruit apple scab, two of the four trees showed significant random patterns in both years.
In this study, the rate of scab infection and quality parameters (content of vitamin-C, dry matter, sugar, total acids, specific weight, quality index and flesh firmness) of some apple cultivars are given, moreover, the relation between those characters was examined in two environmental systems (organic and integrated) in a rainy season. In the... organic fruit production, scab infection of leaves was significantly higher than in the integrated system, in case of the same cultivars, which means that the rate of decrease in leaf area was heavier in the organic production. Cultivars did not differ statistically in parameters of inner content when the integrated system was compared to the organic one. Results did not show statistical difference between loss of leaf area caused by apple scab and the parameters of inner content, which is attributed to the regeneration of leaf area due to favourable weather conditions. Data on apple scab and inner content of the fruit justify essentially the environmental systems of apple production.
In the Carpathian Basin Kövidinka and White Riesling are promising wine grape varieties. As in the region continental climate dominates and dry years are not uncommon it was natural to study the water requirement and consumption of the two varieties. Morphological characters affecting transpiration were observed including lea...f area, hairiness, number and type of stomata. The amount of water transpired per unit leaf area and time and rate of water consumption were measured in a model trial in cuttings with known water supply.
The water consumption of vine cuttings depends on varieties and is determined by the genotype but it is also affected by environment. Kövidinka requires little water and uses it to its advantage White Riesling requires more water and uses it rather lavishly. The results of our model trial could be introduced directly into viticulture practice.
Artificial sweeteners have harmful effect on human health, so it is great interested in stevia extract. Our experiment was aimed to show the possibility of inland production of stevia. Different plastic mulches were used (black and white) on raised bed and were compared to uncovered (control) plots for yield and state of health of plants. Furth...ermore we evaluated the depth of cuttings (low cutting until the 6th double leaf; normal cutting until the upper ⅓ of the plant) on the yield depending on the covering method. The plants were transplanted on 9 of May, 2014 on raised bed, 3 rows on it, with 33x25 cm spacing. According to our results, the black plastic mulch produced the highest yield, which can be explained by suppressing effect on weeds, furthermore it kept the soil warm, moist and protected the lower leaves from soil wetness. But, the white sheet mulch could not eliminate weeds around the plants. The total biomass on the black plastic sheet covered plots was the highest, nearly 1000 g pro plant by low cutting. On the control plots the fungi infection reached about 25-30%, which caused leaf falling of plants, decreasing of yield by the end of vegetation period. To summarise, stevia production is possible in Hungary, but it is important to pay attention to the balanced soil moisture and low humidity in the leaf area. It is suggested to cover the soil with plastic sheet or organic materials, such as bark and chippings.
Strawberry varieties were studied in 3 different growing areas of different soil- and ecological properties in Hungary. We have measured the optical spectra of the leaves together with their nutrient content and performed sensory examinations on the deep frozen and melted fruit. The 6 varieties were Elsanta, Marianna, Spadeka, Symphony, Camaros...a, and Raurica. The 3 sites were Újfehértó, Pölöske, and Kecskemet. Colour of the leaves was characterised by their lightness and dominant wavelength. Under non-optimal soil and ecological conditions the varieties could be distinguished by their colour — the leaves became lighter and more yellow. The fruits did not produce the genetically determined taste if the plant can not grow in optimal circumstances — we found a negative correlation between the leaf colour in flowering time and the fruit flavour. Leaf colour measurements performed in flowering time make it possible to improve fruit quality by changing the nutrient supply between flowering and ripening.
The pathogen and weather components of apple scab disease progress were analysed in a three-year study, in two environmental-friendly production systems (organic and integrated) on cvs. `Idared', `Jonica' and 'Mutsu'. Linear regression analyses of transformed disease incidence and severity data and "area under the disease progress curves" (AUDP...C) were used for the analysis of the pathogen component. To evaluate the role of the weather component in apple scab epidemic, first, the weekly disease increase was determined at a certain week (n). Weekly disease increase was related to rainfall, relative humidity, Mills' wetness period, temperature and interaction between temperature and relative humidity. Five different periods were used in the analyses: i) week (n-1), ii) week n(n-1), iii) week (n-2), iv) week (n-1)(n-2) and v) week n(n-1)(n-2). In the analyses of the pathogen component, the best transformation function was the logistic one. Regression analyses showed that disease growth rates were higher for disease incidence and for the organic production system than for disease severity and for the integrated production system, respectively. Disease growth rates for leaf incidence were higher than fruit incidence on all the three cultivars. AUDPC values showed great differences in both leaf and fruit incidences among cultivars and between the two production systems. The results the of analyses of the weather component showed that the best relationships between disease increase and weather parameters were found for fruit incidence and leaf incidence in week (n-2) in the organic and integrated production systems, respectively. Results also demonstrated that in week n(n-1) temperature played a more important role in the fungus development than the water parameters (relative humidity, rainfall and leaf wetness). Consequently, infection process is significantly dependent on almost all weather parameters, but during the incubation period the most important weather parameter is the temperature. Results were compared with similar studies and biological interpretations of the analyses are discussed.
Telekia speiosa (Schreb.) Baumg. is a 100-150 cm high bushy perennial, which has yellow flowers and smells good. According to the descriptions (Farkas, 1999), it can be detected in two smaller areas within Hungary, namely in the Bükk hills and on the Szatmár-Bereg Plain. By the time of writing this paper, the population around Tiszabecs has a...lready got extinct. Therefore, it is a protected relict species. It is named in honour of Sámuel Teleki, chancellor of Transylvania.Within the frame of the experiment, the Telekia speciosa (Schreb.) Baumg. was planted to places differently illuminated (sunny, semi shadow, shade), then the morphological changes brought about the various light conditions were investigated. The experiment was launched with a stock sown in October 2008. The seedlings were planted to three beds with diverse light conditions. The area of each bed was 1 m2, and ten seedlings were planted per m2. The parameters investigated are as follows: the length of leaf blade, the width of leaf blade, the length of petiole, the number of leaves per plant, and the alterations of leaves. As a result of our research, we can state that semi shadow is the optimal habitat for the plant. Under such ecological conditions the highest leaf production was observed, the leaves were species specific, healthy and big. The mean number of leaves per plant was 6.6, the mean length of blade was 16.6 cm, the mean width of blade was 13 cm, while the mean length of petiole was 14.2 cm. In the shade the plants grew poorly and the size of leaves were smaller. The mean number of leaves per plant was 4.1, the mean length of blade was 8.6 cm, the mean width of blade was 7.1 cm, and the mean length of petiole was 9.4 cm. In the sunny habitat a similarly high leaf production was observed as in the semi shadow; however, the leaves had brownish spots, they shriveled, feel rough, so they revealed a reduced aesthetical value. The mean number of leaves per plant was 6.6, the mean length of blade was 17.8 cm, the mean width of blade was 11.3 cm, and the mean length of petiole was 13.1 cm.
Progression of apple scab epidemic in six apple cultivars, including two current and susceptible (Gala Must, Elstar), two old (Egri Piros, Darusóvári), and two resistant cultivars (Relinda, Releika), were described and analysed in a two-year-study, in two environmental-friendly growing systems (organic and integrated). Curves of disease progr...ess, linear regression analysis of transformed disease incidence data and Area Under Disease Progress Curves (AUDPC) were used to characterise the epidemic processes of the selected cultivars. Cumulative disease progress curves showed continuous but asymmetrical scab development on the moderate or highly susceptible cultivars Gala Must, Elstar and Egri Piros, and on the tolerant or resistant cultivar Darusóvári and Relinda, in both systems. The cultivar Releika showed no symptoms either on fruit or leaf. In linear regression analysis, the best linearisation was given by logistic transformation. Adequate parameters leaf disease incidence rate, of obtained from a regression equation, were higher in the organic system than in the integrated system. Values of AUDPC showed great differences in leaf disease incidences among cultivars and between growing systems. AUDPC gave more differences for comparison of progresses of disease epidemic than growth rate of disease in different systems of disease control. Moreover, the obtained results were compared with similar studies on different pathosystems, and biological interpretations of the analyses are discussed below.
The paper gives a review on the results of the latest rootstock evaluation projects in Hungary. Several cherry rootstock evaluation projects were carried out in Hungary during the last two decades. The evaluated rootstocks are partly mahalebs selected in Hungary, but more or less all the most important new rootstocks from different countries ar...e involved. The aim of these evaluation projects was to find appropriate rootstocks in a wide range of vigour for our climate and soil conditions. The conclusion of the last 20 years of research in Hungary proved just the opposite of believes, that high density orchard can only be planted with dwarfing rootstocks. Before choosing the right rootstock the most important is to consider adaptability, precocity and productivity. Dwarfing and semi-dwarfing rootstocks showed proper results only with irrigation or very good site conditions. These rootstocks are very precocious, but branches form easily blindwood. This must be corrected by severe pruning in the first years. The relatively small leaf surface area can also be disadvantageous, but it can be controlled by pruning, fruit-thinning, irrigation and fertilization. After studying different rootstocks semi-vigorous rootstocks seem to be the most adequate for different site conditions in Hungary. Fast initial growing and competent precocity are their favourable characters. From the vigorous group of clonal mahalebs or seedlings are highly recommended first of all for poor site condition (sandy, lime soils with high pH). They turn to bearing early and easy to find them in the Hungarian nurseries. But on vigorous rootstocks trees might need stronger summer pruning.
The effect of row direction (N-S, E-W), plant density (conventional and intensive) and rootstock (M9, MM106 and crab apple) on the sensitivity of 41 apple cultivars to sunburn injury was studied at 6 locations (Derecske, Kálmánáaza, Nagykutas, Nagylapos, Siófok, Tornyospálca).
During the observations the cultivars had rootstock-spe...cific properties in respect of sunburn-susceptibility. Accordingly, the injury was decreased in the order: M9, MM106 and seedling rootstocks. The differences in sensitivity depend on the canopy of trees, caused finally by the growing vigour of rootstocks. Accordingly, the highest value of sunburn injury was observed on M9 rootstock, because this rootstock has a dwarfing effect upon the scion cultivars. Thus, vegetative area of these trees grow very slowly and the foliage is not enough compact to protect the fruit from solar radiation. The size and density of the foliage increased in the order: M9, MM 106 and crab apple seedling as rootstock. Moreover, relationships were demonstrated between the diameter of upper part of the crown, the leaf area, the number of fruits per tree and the injury of sunburn.
Authors categorized the cultivars in respect of values of sunburn incidence: 1. „Not sensitive", II. „Moderately sensitive" and HI. „Strongly sensitive" categories were constituted. Generally, Topaz and Gala cultivars showed low damage (or were free from symptoms), in contrast to this, Golden mutants suffered relatively much. The most sensitive cultivar was Jonica on all the three rootstocks. We searched for relationship between the fruit quality parameters and the frequency of sunburn. Significant correlation was found in the cases of fruit size and the extent of cover-colour. The latter is interpreted with the fact that the best coloured fruits are found on the periphery of crown as a consequence of more intense irradiation.
In this study, the objective was to report a preliminary study on micro area based spatial distribution of powdery mildew in an organic apple orchard. Results showed that number of symptomatic plant part ranged between 11 and 20 on shoot and between 9 and 24 on fruit. Number of asymptomatic plant part ranged between 85 and 109 on shoot and betw...een 133 and 206 on fruit. Disease incidence ranged between 13.8 and 17.6% on shoot and between 9.1 and 11.3% on fruit. Disease aggregation index ranged between 0.098 and 0.228 on shoot and between 0.043 and 0.108 on fruit. One of the four trees showed significant within canopy aggregation of disease for shoot powdery mildew symptoms in both years. For leaf powdery mildew, all tree exhibited random patterns in both years.
One of the biggest professional challenges of the following years is to develop the water resource management for apple trees. In order to know the water consumption of plants, some traditional and modern methods could useful. In our research the sap flow measurement of the plants were carried out. We have analyzed the transpiration properties...of the trees in the investigation period. In order to compare the transpiration of the trees, the leaf areas were scanned and evaluated. Beside these measurements, soil water properties were determined by tensiometers, thus it makes possible to observe the soil-plant-atmosphere system.
In our experiments, we have chiefly tested the salt sensitivity of sweet pepper varieties. In cold forcing, 0.3 1/plant nutrient solutions of different NaCI content were given twice weekly. EC of the nutrient solutions containing 0.25% Volldünger Linz complex fertilizer was made up to 6, 10, 14 and 18 mS/cm, respectively, by 2.51/9.17/17.97/26....76 g/m2 doses of pharmacopeal NaCI every week. The solution used for the control treatment contained Volldünger only (EC 4.4 mS/cm). Irrigation was made with pure water (EC 0.6 mS/cm) when necessary.
The varieties chosen for the experiments were the following: Feherözön, HRF F1, Syn. Cecei (of white, conical fruit), Boni (of white, blunt, infolded fruit), Titan F1 (of pointed, hot fruit) and Pritavit F1 (of tomato shaped fruit).
In general, the symptoms caused by NaCI treatments (with doses higher than 10 g/m2 weekly) have been the following:
- They have reduced the leaf area, the height of the plants, the total and the early yield, the number of fruit set per square meter, the average weight of the fruit (and, in some measure, fruit length, too) and the thousand seed weight.
- They have increased the calcium and the chlorine content of the leaves and fruits and the dry matter content of the fruits.
- They haven't affected the dry matter content of the leaves, the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content of the leaves and fruits, and the germinating ability of the seed.
- The effect on stem diameter and on seed production per fruit has been contradictory in some cases.
The effects of the intermediate treatments haven't been explicit in several cases.
The results of the examination of cuticular secretion have indicated the increase of the sodium and chlorine content of the leaves. This can be important in field growing where the rainwater may wash out a part of sodium and chlorine from paprika leaves.
The hot, pointed variety and the tomato shaped paprika haven't shown clearly higher salt tolerance than the varieties of white fruit colour.
Trees of three plum cultivars (Stanley, Cacanska Lepotica and Althann's Gage) were planted at Szigetcsép experimental station in Spring 1994 and trained to slender spindle with the aim to test their growth, effect of productivity under not irrigated conditions and to evaluate the adaptability of rootstock/scion combinations to intensive orchar...ds. As control, trees on Myrobalan C 162/A (P. cerasifera) seedling are planted. In the trial two rootstocks are from Slovakia: Myrobalan MY-KL-A (red leaf) and Myrobalan MY-BO-1, vegetatively propageted. Further on two French rootstocks, the Marianna GF 8-1: Marianna plum (P. cerasifera x P munsoniana) and the Sainte Julien GF 655/2 (P. insititia) were involved. The Hungarian bred plum Fehér besztercei (P. domestica), which is recommended as apricot rootstock is also tested. Rootstocks MY-BO-1 and Fehér besztercei were planted with cultivar Stanley only. Trees were planted to a spacing of 5x3 m trained to slender spindle with 3-4 permanent basal branches. After yield start (1997) trees have been pruned only in summer, after harvest. In the alleyway the natural plant vegetation is mown, the orchard is not irrigated.
Based on tree size, vigorous rootstocks are Marianna GF 8-1 and Myrobalan C 162/A seedling, medium vigorous are MY-BO-I and MYKL-A; vegetative propageted myrobalan plums from Slovakia, while St. Julien GF 655/2 and Feller Besztercei proved to be growth reducing rootstocks. No significant difference between the rootstocks was found in turning to bearing. Under non-irrigated condition at Szigetcsép, cultivar Stanley produced the highest yield per area unit on vigorous rootstock (GF 8-1). The cultivar Althann's Gage produced the highest yield efficiency on Marianna GF 8-1 and they were healthy in the last 10 years. The symptoms of Althann's Gage trees on MY-KL-A rootstock indicate a possible incompatibility. The average fruit weight was significantly influenced by crop load on cultivar Cacanska lepotica, while no statistically proved differences were found on Stanley and Althann's Gage. The Cacanska lepotica trees produced significantly lower yield and larger fruit weight on St. Julien GF 655/2 rootstock. Adaptability to spindle training system depends on vigour of scion/rootstock combination: low or medium vigour cultivars (C. lepotica, Stanley) are good choice for spindle training systems even on vigorous rootstock; while the St. Julien GF 655/2 can be recommended only for vigorous Althann's Gage under our soil and climate conditions.
The cluster thinning is a method of the yield regulation.With the removal one part of the clusters, the yield pro leaf area will be lower, hereby the grape and wine quality will be improved. The regulation of the yield can lead to further advantages: the ratio of the vegetative and generative performance of the vines will improve, the condition... of the plants will better, the number of the physiological diseases can be reduced and the growth of the shoots and roots can be promoted. The grape growers make the cluster thinning almost exclusive by creating one cluster shoots. Usually the upper clusters are removed, because the sugar content of these second or third clusters will be lower. The cluster thinning is an easy task, can be done without special skills. It is an effective method improving wine quality, but its use can lead to other problems. The grapes try to compensate the removed clusters. Therefore the clusters will be bigger and thicker, but more sensitive to bunch rot. Moreover the treatment is expensive, because it needs manual work. It is worth to get acquainted and try the new yield regulation methods, which can help to avoid the occurring problems. Our aim is to show the results of our experiment, which was carried out in Eger, examining the red grape cultivar Kékfrankos. During our 4 years long experiment we compared the effects of cluster thinning, cluster shredding, cluster tipping and defoliation at the flowering, on the vegetative and generative vine performance.
One of the most difficult challenge in the everyday practice to describe the canopy growing of fruit trees in an orchard. The photosynthetic activity is the basic of the primer production of plants. The measurement of leaf area and determination of the photosynthetic activity could be occurred with some elaborated methods between experimental c...onditions. In this article we present such an integrated methodology, which is ideal to determine the geometric and spectral characteristic of fruit trees between field conditions.We have carried out laser scanning technology to investigate the geometric-topological characteristics and parallel the active infra-red sensor to collect spectral data about an apple orchard. The surveys were worked out in an intensive apple orchard with drip irrigation system, protected by hail net in Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen near Pallag. This study shows the filtering and interpretation methods of created data. The produced high accuracy data can be directly used in the precision horticulture. It could serve as a guiding data to implementation a future “virtual horticulture”. Higher spatial and temporal resolution could help for a better recognition of water balance of orchards.
Widespread application for herbal medicines based on Hyperici herba has been experienced in the last few years, especially in the treatment of depression syndrome. As the wild origins could not satisfy the market demands neither in quantitative nor in qualitative respect, the necessity of the development of intensive growing methods...has been raised. In the course of our investigations we intended to clear up the morphological and chemical variability among and within populations of different origin in order to start a new breeding program. According to our data, growth dynamics of populations could be characterised by a logistic curve. According to the time of flowering the populations formed early, middle and late groups. Morphological diversity among populations was measurable in differences of flower length, plant height, different leaf types and plant habit, according to which characteristics groups were distinguished. Generally, the accessions were the most homogenous in plant height (CV: 7-15%), followed by inflorescence-lengths (CV: 11-36%) and the least uniform characteristics proved to be the number of flowering shoots (CV: 14-59%). The greatest morphological heterogeneity was experienced in the accessions of wild origin as it has been expected. In the second vegetation period generally a much better homogeneity was obtained, than in the first year. The most outstanding accessions produced 1.2 t of dry flowers and 4 t of dry flowering shoots, calculating to one hectare area. The individual yields varied on a large scale in each population (CV: 18-70%).
The content of hypericin varied between 1,85 and 9,9 mg/g in 1996, and between 0,18 and 2,70 mg/g in 1997, showing high individual divergences. Flavonoid values -including first of all hyperosid, rutin and quercitrin - reached 17-39 mg/g in the first and 15-20 mg/g in the second year, respectively. Individual and seasonal variation was less than in hypericin. A joint high level of these two compound groups seems to have low frequencies.
The superior population were selected for further breeding.