From the wide range of genetic sources available in Hungary, we have chosen as objective the evaluation of those rose taxa, which — on the base of their quality and morphologic features — are suitable for selecting fruit production varieties or parent varieties for further breeding. We examined physical and inner parameters of fruits of Rosa taxa, and evaluated the correlations by mathematical statistic methods. Namely, if a correlation can be found between physical and inner parameters, fruit production value can be determined by less examinations in the future. According to our results, there is a large variability in some physical parameters (weight, diameter of fruits; weight, number of achenes) as well as in inner content values (vitamin C, glucose, fructose, K, Ca, Fe, Zn and Cu content) of rosehip, regarding production year, habitat and even the individual of examination. Twice as much ascorbic acid can be found in achene-free fruits, and nearly five times as much in their dry product as in fresh whole fruits. It was established repeatedly, that vitamin C concentrates in fruit flesh, and ascorbic acid content can be preserved better in achene-free flesh. There is no essential difference in citric acid and carbo-hydrate content of whole and achene-free rosehips. However, macro- and microelement content of whole fruits is 30-40% higher than that of achene-free fruit flesh. The connection between fresh weight and diameter, as well as achene number and seed weight of fruits can be described by the function y=axb. A significant relationship can be found in case of K-Fe, Ca-Mg, Ca-B, Ca-Mn and Zn-Cu, between fresh weight and B content of fruits. According to our examinations, fresh weight of rose species with a higher citric acid content is usually higher, while their Fe content is smaller. Glucose content of fruits of rose species is directly proportional to their Ca and Zn contents. Zn content of rose species with higher fructose content is usually smaller.
Vegetables of Brassicaceae are especially important because of their inner values, which play a provably positive role in curing and preventing diseases. Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. convar. capitata provar. capitata) is still today one of the most frequently consumed green vegetables, which is known to brake the absorption of carcinogenous substances and to obstruct cell mutation. Different cabbage cultivars were compared growing under the same circumstance. The level of different carbohydrate fractions and some biologically active quaternary ammonium compounds were determined. In all cases we analyzed the antioxidant capacity of samples characterizing the free radical scavenging capacity.
Clearly detectable significant differences were found between the varieties tested, which appeared suitable for selecting the most precious varieties for human nutrition.
The aim of this study was to evaluate lifespan values of trees in tree-row system in the streets of Debrecen in two years (2009 and 2017). Six selected taxa (Pyrus calleryana, Acer tataricum, Sorbus intermedia, Magnolia kobus, Acer platanoides and Crataegus x lavalleei) were estimated for the following lifespan parameters: i) trunk diameter (cm), ii) tree crown size (m), iii) trunk status (in 0-5 grades), iv) tree crown status (in 0-5 grades), and v) estimated tree viability (in 0-5 grades). Our results showed that the largest were achieved for Pyrus calleryana and the lowest for Acer tataricum. The largest tree crown diameters were achieved for Acer platanoides and the lowest Magnolia kobus. The best trunk statuses by 2017 were achieved for Pyrus calleryana and the worst Crataegus x lavalleei. The best tree crown statuses by 2017 were achieved for Pyrus calleryana and the worst for Acer tataricum. The best estimated tree viability status was achieved for two taxa (Pyrus calleryana and Acer platanoides). Overall tree values were 2.73 times higher in 2017 compared to 2009. In summary, this study demonstrated the role of appropriate choice of tree taxa for a tree-row system under city street conditions.
Intensity of bee visitation (honeybees and wild bees), foraging behaviour of honeybees and nectar parameters (nectar production, sugar concentration, sugar content in nectars) were inspected at 18 apple cultivars for three consecutive years. Honeybee visitation was calculated to be some 3.07 bee visits at a single apple flower a day but wild bee activity was very low, only some 0.11 wild bee visits per flower per day.
The nectar production (nectar content) of apple flowers was fairly different according to the cultivars and the nectar production (nectar content) of flowers was negatively correlated with the sugar concentration in nectar. Interestingly, at the majority of the inspected 18 cultivars the nectar production has shown minor or no changes in the morning and at the afternoon. The nectar production (nectar content) of flowers clearly encouraged the total bee activity at the inspected cultivars (r = 0.54). Bees visited abundant nectars with greater sugar concentration most intensely than lees abundant nectars with smaller sugar concentration.
Nectar parameters, however, affected the activity of honeybees with different types of gathering behaviour in different way. More intense activity by pollen gatherer and mixed behaviour honeybees was observed at cultivars producing abundant nectar (pollen gatherers: r = 0.65, mixed behaviour: r = 0.79). The activity of pollen gatherer honeybees and of mixed behaviour bees, on the other hand, was negatively correlated to the sugar concentration in nectar (pollen gatherers: r = -0.51, mixed behaviour: r = -0.73). This can be explained by the fact that their behaviour was much more affected by the amount of pollen than by any nectar parameters. Accordingly, "mixed behaviour honeybees" should probably rather be called as "pollen gatherers with nectar load" instead of "nectar gatherers with pollen load", as widely used in literature. The activity of ineffective side worker nectar gatherers was greatly encouraged by the sugar concentration in nectar (p = 0.63), similarly to the pure (top) nectar gatherer honeybees (r = 0.72). There was a negative relationship between the nectar production (nectar content) of flowers and the activity of these behaviour classes (nectar gatherers: r = -0.47, side workers: r = -0.36).
Concluding the findings we can state that the activity of pollen gatherers and mixed behaviour honeybees is strongly encouraged by greater nectar production (greater nectar content) of apple flowers. Their activity, however, is mostly dependent firstly on the amount of pollen. This is the reason why the sugar concentration is in a negative relationship to the activity of pure pollen gatherers and mixed behaviour bee. On the other hand, pure nectar gatherers and side worker nectar gatherers are greatly encouraged by the sugar concentration of apple nectar the amount of nectar was not a definite influence on their activity.
Side worker honeybees occurred at each cultivar inspected, however, their ratio varied widely among cultivars. So we can draw the conclusion that, in contradiction with earlier believes, side worker nectar gathering is a general phenomenon at apple flowers. The activity of side workers depends first of all on the relative position of stamens and petals; however, low sugar concentration of nectars can probably moderate their activity but probably do not affect pollen gatherers and mixed behaviour bees.
Wild bee visitation was very low; the wild bee species observed (Osmia cornuta, Andrena flavipes, Anthophora acervorum, Bombus terrestris, Bombus lapidarius and Halictus simplex) comprised some 3.44 per cent of the total bee visitation at apple flowers only. Wild bee visitation was in a positive correlation with the nectar production (nectar amount) of flowers (r = 0,4) and with the sugar content of nectar (r = 0.46) but it was negatively correlated with the sugar concentration in nectar (r = -0,27).
Our result calls the attention to the importance of nectar parameters in the effective honeybee pollination of apple plantations. Most effective pollinating activity of honeybees can be expected in plantations with cultivars of high nectar production because this feature seem so encourage the activity of those behaviour classes (pure pollen gatherers and mixed behaviour bees) that are the most effective pollinating agents among honeybees.
During our experiment, the effect of Ferbanat L concentrations were examined by Petunia x grandiflora ‘Musica Blue’ production. The leaf and shoot length, number of flower buds, diameter of flowers, and the date of appearing the first buds were measured. The solution of Ferbanat L in 0.1 % concentration was the most effective on shoot length (21.7 cm). Remarkable increase was observed by the other treatment groups as well comparing to the control group (5.6 cm), the plants treated with solution of Ferbanat L 0.2% (16.5 cm) and 0.3% (14.4 cm) had significant effect as well. The nano-fertilizer had not positive effect on the other examined parameters as leaf and flower size, number of flower buds or chlorophyll content. The culture period shortened five days.
Hungary is located on the northern boundary of economical apricot and peach production. The present assortment of varieties and the actual, not adequately selected growing sites cause a permanent risk of winter and spring frosts in their cultivation. The field observations are performed at Debrecen, the Experiment Station Pallag, on 20 apricot and 21 peach varieties. The flower density among the varieties attained 3-4-fold differences. Three categories have been suggested for both species. The density was inferior in Hungary established varieties compared with the new varieties of foreign origin. The minimum temperatures of January 9, 2009 was –17,6 °C , and of December 21, 2009 also –17,6 °C. In some varieties the damage of buds attained 100%. For estimating the yield security, we need to consider also the flower density and the frost damage together. For a mediocre yield, we need a flower density in both species of at least 0.2 living bud/cm. The results confirm the statement that in Hungary, the revision of growing sites is indispensable in order to develop a profitable and competitive apricot and peach growing industry.
Nowdays it is generally expressed opinion of the leading scientific circles that the purposefully planned biotechnological actions of the 21st century will be indispensable of realizing the sustainable technical development in the supplementation of the increasing population, especially those who suffer privation, thus the long-distance interests of mankind will be met without impairing the world's ecological integrity. In 1989 Robert Bud gave account of the fact that the father of the term "biotechnology" was the Hungarian agricultural engineer, Karl Ereky. Recently, we have explored and found some important biographical sources and scientific documents which had been published by Károly (Karl) Ereky, the which, however, have already been forgotten. This article expands on that more contextual treatment to explore the man and his doctrine. It draws upon Hungarian and private sources as well as on German publications.
Due to the lack of effective and non-phytotoxic materials for control of the blossom and shoot blight phase of fire blight in pome fruit trees, two novel control strategies have emerged: shoot growth retardation by bioregulators and applying resistance inducer compounds. Prohexadione calcium (ProCa) is the active ingredient of the bioregulator Regalis® registered in several European countries. The reduction of shoot growth elongation is the most obvious effect of ProCa. Furthermore, it causes significant changes in the spectrum of flavonoids and their phenolic precursors, leading to the considerable reduction of susceptibility to fire blight.
In Poland, potted one-year-old apple trees of cvs. Gala Must grafted on M.26 and Sampion on M.9 (in 2001) as well as Gala Must on P.60 (in 2002) were treated with Regalis® at a range of concentration of 250, 150 or 150 + 100 ppm, respectively. The inoculation of shoots was made with the strain No.691 of E. amylovora (107 cfu/ml), on the 7th and 21st'day after treatments with Regalis. In Hungary, during the years of 2002 and 2003 one-year-old container grown apple trees of the cvs. Idared/M.9 and Freedom/M.9 were treated with the prohexadione-Ca, the active ingredient of Regalis® 100, 150 or 200 ppm, two weeks before inoculation with the Ea 1 strain of E. amylovora (107 cfu/m1).
In Poland, the suppression of fire blight in shoots reached up to 80%, depending on concentration and application time of Regalis®. In Hungary, the effect of prohexadione-Ca treatments, determined by the length of necrotic lesion developed, proved to be better than that of streptomycin used for comparison.
European plum is an important fruit crop with complex, hexaploid genome of unknown origin. The characterization of the selfincompatibility (S) locus of 16 European plum cultivars was carried out using the PaConsI-F primer in combination with the EM-PC1consRD primer for the first intron and the EM-PC2consFD and EM-PC3consRD primers for the second intron amplification. Altogether, 18 different alleles were scored indicating high genetic diversity. These alleles were labelled using alphabetical codes from SA to SS. We identified 5 different alleles in 9 cultivars, 4 alleles in 5 cultivars, while 3 alleles were shown in two of the assayed cultivars. A total of 16 different S-genotypes were assigned, and discrimination of all plum cultivars was successful based on their unique S-genotypes. However, further research is required to reliably identify the S-alleles based on their DNA sequence and clarify complete S-genotypes.
Our investigation was carried out in the area of Fruit growing Research and Consultant non-profit company, at Újfehértó. The pear requires large water quantity, but this pear plantation hasn’t irrigation system not yet. This study reviews the drainage conditions of the area based on digital elevation model, and examined the canopy cover of pear trees by evaluating of the hyperspectral image. Our aims were to determine the exact watershed based irrigation modelling and determining of the canopy% of the pear orchard to facilitate a precision irrigation decision support system.
The study on the diameter and volume increment of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) stand (age 10-27 years, yield class II) have shown that in comparison to the periodic annual increment of the breast height diameter of tree in height class I, trees in height class II have reached 83.3%, while in class III only 43.9. The same relations for volume were found 59.0% and 24.5%, respectively. The mean values of the whole stand were close to those of height class II. According to the distribution of the periodic annual increment of volume between 10 and 27 years of age, 50% of the values were between 2.00 and13.88 dm3, 73% were between 2.00 and19.82 dm3, and 96% were between 2.00 and 37.64 dm3. The range of 13.88–19.82 dm3 had the highest occurrence (24.5%).
The basic objective of our study is the promotion of fresh consumption of sour cherry and the enhancement of necessary knowledge. Primer collection of data was planned in three groups of retail shops, always sour cherry being the matter of study. The sampling dates were adapted to the sour cherry season weeks in Hungary. Three samples per week have been taken. Every time a short interview and purchase was planned. Every time, it was stated that the commodity was held for a longer period on the shelf, which trespasses the optimum of the fruit. At the same time there was no concordance between quality and price. From the point of view of the consumer this cannot be accepted.
Anatomical relations of root formation are traced throughout the life cycle of the strawberry plant from the germinating seed up to the runners of the adult plant. Histological picture of the root changes a lot during the development of the plant. First the radicle of the germ grows to a main root, which makes branches into side roots and later adventitious roots are formed on the growing rootstock or rhizome. The anatomy of the different types of roots is also conspicuously different. First tiny branches appear relatively early after germination on the seedling's radicle, but soon the hypocotyl of the seedling thickens and develops side roots, which are already somewhat stronger. During this interval, the first true leaves are formed. The 4th or 5th of them being already tripartite, and the initiation of new roots extends into the epicotylar region of the shoot. The second years growth starts with the development of reproductive structures, inflorescences and runners starting from the axils of the new leaves. Near the tips of the runners below the small bunch of leaves, new root primordia are initiated. The tiny radicle of the germ develops a cortical region of 5-6 cell layers. Cells of the central cylinder are even smaller than the cortical parenchyma and include 3-4 xylem and 3-4 phloem elements as representatives of the conductive tissue. Roots originating from the shoot region are much more developed; their cortical zone contains 17-20 cell layers, whereas the central cylinder is about half as large. In the next year, new roots are formed at the base of the older leaves. These roots differ hardly from those of the last season in size and volume, however, they are recognised by colour and their position on the rhizome. The roots of the last year are dark, greyish-black, and grow on the lower third length of the rhizome, on the contrary, the new ones, on the upper region, are light brown. Roots starting from the shoot or rhizome are, independently from their age or sequence, mainly rather similar in size and diameter, thus being members of a homogenous root (homorhizous) system, i.e. without a main root. Plants developed and attained the reproductive phase develop in the axils of the leaves runners being plagiotropic, i.e. growing horizontally on the surface of the soil. The runners elongate intensely, become 150-200 mm, where some long internodes bear a bunch of small leaves and root primordia on short internodes and a growing tip. Runners do not stop growing, generally, further sections of 15-25 cm length are developed according to the same pattern, with small leaves on the tip. The growing tip of the runners is obliquely oriented, and small, conical root primordia are ready to start growing as soon as they touch the soil. The roots penetrate the soil, quickly, and pull, by contraction, the axis of the runner downwards, vertically, developing a new rhizome. The short internodes elongate a little and start developing adventitious roots. At the end of the growing season, the plantlets arisen on the rooted nods of runners are already similar to the original plants with homogenous root system. On the side of the adventitious roots, new branches (side-roots) are formed. The root-branches are thinner but their capillary zone is more developed being more active in uptake of water and nutrients. The usual thickening ensues later.
The indirect elements of the integrated plant protection can infl uence the effectiveness of the chemical control, however their significance are often extenuated. The characteristic of the plants are almost completely disregarded at the protection decisions. The condition can determinate basically the rate of the damages caused by the pests. The plant in good conditional state has higher tolerance and lower susceptibility against the pests. With the optimal general and annual condition we can establish and maintain the harmony between the growth and the bearing, what is the basis of effective plant protection.
Concentration of Boron (B), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn) and Zinc (Zn) was analyzed in fresh and dried fruit samples of “Jumbo cot“, “Tom cot“, “Gold strike“, “Gold bar“, “Bergeron“, “Bergrouge“, “Sweet cot“, “Yellow cot“ and “Zebra“ apricot cultivars. Concentration of the studied elements was strongly affected by cultivars. B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn content of “Tom cot“ was significantly higher than other cultivars. “Gold strike“ had the highest amount of Mg. Similar tendency was observed in “Zebra“ and “Sweet cot“ where Mn content was significantly higher than the other element contents.
The determination of the optimal time of the mechanical harvesting of sweet cherries has a great importance not only to prevent the fruit from mechanical injury but to find the optimal setting parameters of the harvesting machine. The primary objective of the experiments was to determine the force and work required to detach the stem from the limb and the fruit from the stem. Furthermore to measure the three main sizes (width, height, thickness) of the fruits in order to determine the sphericity, and also the pulp-stone ratio by measuring the mass of the fruit with the stone and then the mass of the stone. The average sizes of the fruits: width 19.62–27.76 mm, height 17.83–24.54 mm and thickness 17.30–23.60 mm. The stem length varied between 28.69 mm and 55.80 mm. The sphericity of each variety was above 90%. The average mass varied between 3.63 and 9.68 g. The stone mass turned to be between 0.27 g and 0.42 g. The stone-pulp ratio varied between 3.7%and 7.7%. The average pulp mass varied between 3.35 g and 9.32 g. The average values of maximum loads required to detach the sweet cherries from the stem varied between 3.23 N and, 4.12 N. The force required to detach the stem from the limb was 50–90% higher than the force needed to tear the fruit from the stem.
Giant reed (Arundo donax L.) is a perennial rhizomatous herbaceous plant, it has been widespread all over the world by human activities. It is a 2-8 meter high, polyploid, sterile species (not produce viable seeds), it can be propagated only by vegetative methods (rhizomes, stem cuttings, in vitro biotechnological methods). It has considered promising dedicated energy crop thanks to high biomass production (20-40 dry tons per hectare depending on microclimate), adaptability of different kind of soils and environment and low energy input required for its cultivation. It has been utilized for energetic purposes, biogas/bioethanol production, cellulose/paper production and ornamental purposes. The objectives of the present study were to determine morphological properties of new ornamental giant reed leaf variants originated from somatic embryogenesis and to evaluate their photosynthetic pigment content and photosynthetic activities. The most typical changes was the appearance of different colour (white, yellow, light green) longitudinal stripes on leaves (also on petiole and on leaf blade). It was significant differences (p<0.05) between green and leaf variants in case of photosynthetic pigments content and photosynthetic activity (Fv/Fm value). There was no detectable chlorophyll a or b content in the white bands of leaves and albino shoots. Total chlorophyll content of the white striped leaf variety was more than twice than the light green leaves. Photosynthetic activity and content of photosynthetic pigments also confirm and determine the morphological characteristics and growth habit of leaf variants.
Nowadays the condition of the good saleability of the fruit is the application of controlled environmentally friendly technologies. Success of the growing is basically influenced by the production value of the cultivars, and their flexibility to the different technologies. In our examinations the effect of the integrated and organic farming system has been evaluated on the growing characteristics of the apple cultivars. According to our results the trunk thickness of the trees both in the initial and both in the later bearing period is higher in the integratedproduction compared to the organic farming system. This differences most likely caused by the variance of the crop load.
The global positioning system was made available for public use, which made it possible' to apply a new management tool in agriculture. Precision farming gives much more information on plant-growing than former methods, which makes it possible to use technologies more suitable for micro-sites. It is supposed that more profitable production can be realised with its aid and the strain on the environment can be reduced, not to mention other economic advantages.
The study makes economic conclusions about the method more and more widely used in plant production taking the yield mapping of Józsefmajor Experimental Farm as a basis and starts ideas about its possible application in arable land olericulture, viticulture and fruit production.
These issues are important because precision farming has existed in glass-culture for a long time from another perspective, which should be spread to open ground horticultural enterprises that are labour and asset intensive, qualitative farming forms with great plantation value.
The peach is though considered to be a self fertile fruit species, also some self sterile and male sterile varieties have been registered. The latter type seems to be frequently met in Asian varieties, whereas in the USA and Europe, J. H. Hale and Flaminia are grown. The purpose of the present study was the assessment of fertility relations of peaches and nectarines grown in Hungary. The authors studied, since 1974, more than 100 different peach and nectarine varieties as for fertility relations, especially their autogamous or geitonogamous fruit set on isolated, i.e. bagged flowers at bud stage, then set free after blooming finished. Isolated flowers of some varieties were also self pollinated, artificially. According to the results the varieties have been assigned to four alternative groups. Self sterile varieties in the proper sense have not been found, but partial self sterility (less than 10% fruit set), self fertility (10 to 20% fruit set) and high self fertility (more than 20% fruit set on selfed flovters) was generally met. The majority of the varieties belonged to the last two groups, nevertheless. the rate of fruit set displayed seasonal variation, the maximum was in one case 89.9%. The purposeful self (hand)pollination of the isolated flowers increased fruit set, substantially. Varieties rated as partially self-sterile are J. H. Hale and Fuzador (the former being partially male sterile too). Although in some years and some varieties, fruit set legged below 10% but according to the means the majority of nectarines are assigned to the self fertile category whereas most peach varieties, either for fresh consumption or industrial types, were highly self fertile.
Recently, novel strategies and chemical agents for prophylactic protection against the bacterial (Erwinia amylovora) disease fire blight are being sought. Resistance-inducing compounds, such as prohexadione-Ca represent promising alternatives. Prohexadione-Ca is the active ingredient of the bioregulator Regalis, currently being introduced in several European countries and overseas. Another product used in this study was Biomit Plussz, a leaf fertiliser providing harmonic supply of nutrient elements, the complete supply is assumed to improve the tolerance against diseases.
Treatments' effects of both of these products were compared to the effectiveness of treatments with antibiotics repeated twice, three or four times a season.
In the years of 2001 and 2002, the effectiveness of both Regalis and Biomit Plussz in reduction of incidence of shoot blight was similar, or proved to be superior to the check treatments consisting of repeated sprayings of antibiotics. Last year (2003) treatments of streptomycin resulted — although within the same magnitude — in a somewhat better control of shoot blight than sprayings with the other compounds.
As regards severity of blossom blight, inconsistent results were recorded concerning both Regalis and Biomit Plussz.
In general, prohexadione-Ca is less efficient for controlling flower infection by E. amylovora as compared to shoot infections, since successful prophylactic treatments are difficult to carry out early in the season. The highest effectiveness in fire blight management can, therefore, be achieved by using prohexadione-Ca (as preventive protection) in combination with streptomycin or other suitable antibiotics (as curative protection).
We report the method for the establishment of rapidly growing callus cultures of Phaseolus vulgaris and the conditions required for efficient transformation using high velocity microprojectiles and high level of transient gene expression. Using hypocotyl explant and vertical culture on B5 medium with lmg/1 kinetin and 2 mg/1 2,4-D, we can recommend to get a rapidly growing callus from bean which is a good starting material to introduce foreign DNA into bean cells. The GeneBooster particle delivery system was used for the bombardment of bean callus and the Hgm resistance gene (Hgmr) was used as a selectable marker gene. 25mg/I hygromycin (Hgm) concentration was sufficient to kill the control callus. We used the standard physical factors, the appropriate pressure of N2 gas for the bombardment of the callus tissue, the shooting distance and the size of tungsten particles used as microprojectiles. Selective and nonselective tests were made by transferring the healthy green and white calluses, subcultured for 4 months on selective and nonselective medium. Several Hgm resistant calli had been obtained. Selective pressure was maintained over a period of 10 months.
In this study, we aimed to report a preliminary study on micro area based spatial distribution of Monilinia fructigena in an organic apple orchard. Results showed that number of symptomatic fruit ranged between 22 and 42 in 2013 and between 25 and 35 in 2014. Number of asymptomatic fruit ranged between 111 and 187 in 2013 and between 119 and 167 in 2014. Disease incidence of fruit ranged between 19.7 and 23.2% in 2013 and between 19.1 and 26.5% in 2014. Disease aggregation index ranged between 0.111 and 0.335 in 2013 and between 123 and 401 in 2014. Three of the four trees showed significant within canopy aggregation of disease for fruit brown rot symptoms in both years. However, the remaining one tree exhibited random patterns during both years. Disease aggregation indicated a disease spread by fruit-to-fruit contact and/or an aggregated
pattern of insect damage.
Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn. 'Echo' Fl cultivars ('Echo White', 'Echo Rose', 'Echo Blue', 'Echo Blue Picotee') were used and multiplication of shoots was evaluated on Murashige and Skoog (1962) basal medium with 11 g/1 agar-agar and 20 g/1 sucrose. To test the effect of BA different concentrations were added: 0.10, 0.25 mg/1 and a culture medium without BA. Differentiation of roots was examined on Jámbor-Benczúr and Marta (1990) basal medium with the same concentration of agar-agar and sucrose. To examine the effect on rooting, various concentrations of NAA were used: 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 mg/l. The pH was adjusted to 5.6 in every case using KOH. We studied the after-effect of different concentrations of BA during the acclimatisation. During the multiplication, the cultivar 'Echo White' formed the most shoots and the smallest leaves on the medium with 0.10 mg/1 BA. Fortunately, in the case of this cultivar, the number of shoots was reduced and the length of leaves was increased succesfully on the medium without BA. The other three cultivars developed the longest leaves on the medium containing 0.10 mg/1 BA. Sometimes not only shoot regeneration but spontaneous rooting was observed during the multiplication. Examining the rooting, the highest percent of roots was found on the medium with 1.0 mg/1 NAA, and the cultivar 'Echo Rose' formed the most roots on this medium. Higher concentration (2.0 and 3.0 mg/1) of NAA already reduced the number of roots in all of the cultivars. During the acclimatisation, the percentage of survival was 76.3% and the tallest plants with the longest leaves were found on the multiplication medium with 0.25 mg/1 BA. 'Echo Blue Picotee' gave the best results with the tallest pieces and longest leaves on this medium.
In the Carpathian Basin Kövidinka and White Riesling are promising wine grape varieties. As in the region continental climate dominates and dry years are not uncommon it was natural to study the water requirement and consumption of the two varieties. Morphological characters affecting transpiration were observed including leaf area, hairiness, number and type of stomata. The amount of water transpired per unit leaf area and time and rate of water consumption were measured in a model trial in cuttings with known water supply.
The water consumption of vine cuttings depends on varieties and is determined by the genotype but it is also affected by environment. Kövidinka requires little water and uses it to its advantage White Riesling requires more water and uses it rather lavishly. The results of our model trial could be introduced directly into viticulture practice.