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  • Genotypic difference of garlic (Allium sativum L.) cultivars for growth, bulb yield and yield related attributes at Tigray Province, Northern Ethiopia
    46-52.
    Views:
    82

    The experiment was conducted at Ofla district from June to October of 2017 and 2018 cropping season to select high yielding and adaptable garlic cultivar(s). Six garlic cultivars namely Chefe, Tsedey, Holeta local, Kuriftu and Bora-4 and one Ofla Local were evaluated. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized block design (RCBD) with three replications. Different growth, phenology, yield and yield related data were collected. Leaf length, leaf width, bulb diameter and length were significantly (p<0.05) influenced by garlic cultivars in both cropping seasons. Bulb weight and number of cloves per bulb were highly significantly (P<0.01) influenced by cultivars in both cropping seasons. Also, marketable yield, unmarketable yield and total yield ha-1 were highly significantly (P<0.01) influenced by cultivars in both seasons. During 2017 and 2018, the highest marketable bulb yield was observed from Ofla Local cultivar with an average value of (8.86 t/ha) and (9.06 t/ha) respectively. During the 2017 cropping year, the maximum and significantly higher total bulb yield of 10.21 t/ha was recorded on the Ofla Local cultivar. Moreover, in 2018, this cultivar provided the maximum total bulb yield of 9.80 t/ha. Therefore, the Ofla Local cultivar showed the greatest performance for growth, yield and yield related attributes. Thus, it is recommended for cultivation in areas having similar agro-ecology. To improve the productivity of garlic, it is important to study and identify the optimum fertilizer level and spacing in the study area.

  • Improved evaluation method for reliable distinction of poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) cultivars
    68-73.
    Views:
    161

    Investigating seven Hungarian standard cultivars (i.e. 'A1’, 'Kék Gemona', '13C-2`,'Kék Duna', `Kompolti M’, `Gödi N',

    'Kozmosz) it was proved that for the reliable distinction between cultivars a complex analysis is necessitated. Because of the large morpho­phenological and production-biological plasticity of the species qualitative and quantitative features as well as alkaloid accumulation characters have to be evaluated simultaneously applying discriminant analysis.

    It was proved by the investigations that some of the qualitative and quantitative characters included into the DUS evaluation procedure have slight importance for reliable distinction. As an example the majority of cultivars show high inhomogentity in such characters like the shape of stigmatic disc, the number of stigmatic lobes etc. Furthermore these characters never had been chosen for the goal of any practical selection and are modified by the weather conditions as well.

    In the evaluation process the alkaloid accumulation characteristics (both qualitative and quantitative ones) have to be evaluated on a higher rank. For instance the high accumulation level of morphine in cv. 'A1' (10.5 %o), exceptionally high narcotine accumulation in 'Kék Gemona' (7.8 %o), or the low morphine accumulation level in cv. 'Kozmosz' (1.1 %o) proved to be proper characters for their distinction, alone. However, at the same time the weather conditions existing at the time of experiment have to be taken into consideration. From practical point of view, the years rich in precipitation and poor in sunshine are less suitable for distinction of cultivars selected for higher alkaloid accumulation, especially for production of codeine and thebaine characterized by a higher methylation level. Based on the example of 'Kék Gemona', the accumulation level of morphine decreases from 7.4 %o to 4.1 %o under such conditions, while thebaine and codeine disappear, practically.

     

  • Polyphenol- and anthocyanin content changes effected by different fermentation- pressing and aging technologies
    65-67.
    Views:
    169

    Different grape processing, fermentation and aging technologies were compared in our study on the white wine-grape variety Grüner Veltliner between 2012 and 2014 in Hungary,Cserszegtomaj. The vines are grown on brown forest soil on dolomite bedrock, stocks were planted 3x1 m row and vine space, respectively in our experimental area. The soil has slightly alkaline pH, the orientation of the vine rows are East-West. The training system is modified Guyot cordon, with 1 m trunk height and cane pruning method. After the harvest half of the yield has been put into the de-stemmer crusher before pressing while the other half has been pressed immediately (whole bunches). From the filtered and bottled wine anthocyanin, and polyphenol content was measured in 2013 and 2014. Another enological technology testing experiment has been set on aging of Grüner Veltliner in 2013. The wine was fermented with addition of fine lees from juice sedimentation. Traditional (racking only), battonage and fast ready-made aging technologies have been set together, each treatment in three replicates were observed.