Organoleptic evaluation of pear varieties grown at different sites

It was stated as a summary that a system of testing pear varieties on scale of 100 degrees, weighing 11 properties, gives a comprehensive information on qualities of pear varieties. The points of the form to be filled out, distinguishes the appreciation of accessory flavours and tastes from the main properties. Under the title of taste, sweet and acid taste are evaluated separately. The presently used system is a step forward as the composed characters do not influence the judgement of each other. In the representation of results, the 100 degree system was more efficacious than the usual 5-point system because there was no need of using fractions, and the graphic profile is more expressive, so the commodity is better visualised. The assembly of the jury was divided into two groups as below and above 35 year old persons. The two groups judged differently the acidity, sweetness and the thickness of the fruit peel. It was suggested that the choice of the produce should consider the differences in taste and give up the idea of being equally favourable for both groups. The samples of different growing sites revealed that the best quality is produced at Nagykanizsa, and this capacity would be able to supply the market also in the large super-markets and chain of department stores in Hungary.

Relationship beetwen the phenological features of pear cultivars and the main meteorological parameters in a gene bank with 555 pear

The trees observed are grown at Ujfehert6, Eastern Hungary in a gene bank with 555 pear cultivars. Each of the cultivars was monitored for its dates of: the beginning of bloom, main bloom and the end of bloom and ripe phenophasis separately between I 984 and 2002. We analyzed the statistical features, frequency, distribution of these phenophasis and its' correlation the meteorological variables bet ween the interval. During this period the meteorological database recorded the following variables: daily mean temperature (°C), daily maximum temperature (0C), daily mini m um temperature (0C), daily precipitation (mm), daily hours of bright sunshine, daily means or the differences between the day-time and night-time temperatures (0C). For the analysis of data the cultivars have been grouped according to dates of maturity, blooming period as well as types of the seasons. Groups of maturity dates: summer ripe, autumnal ripening, winter ripe cultivars. Groups of blooming dates: early blooming, intermediate blooming, late blooming cultivars. At all the separated groups we analyzed the relationship between phenophasis and meteorological variables. During the 18 years of observation , the early blooming cultivars started blooming on 10-21 April, those of intermediate bloom date started flowering bet ween 20 April and 3 May, whereas the late blooming group started on 2- 10 May. Among the meteorological variables of the former autumn and winter periods, the winter maxima were the most active factor influencing the start dates of bloom in the subsequent spring. For the research of fruit growing-weather relationships we used simple, well known statistical methods, correlation and regression analysis. We used the SPSS 1 1.0 software for the linear regression fitting and for calculation of dispersions as well. The 1ables made by Excel programme.

Fruit drop: I. Specific characteristics and varietal properties of fruit drop

The basic conditions of fruit set (synchronic bloom, transfer of pollen, etc.) still do decide definitely the fate of the flower in spite of the best weather conditions. Beyond a set quantity of fruits, the tree is unable to bring up larger load. A system of autoregulation works in the background and causes the drop of a fraction of fruits in spite of the accomplished fertilisation and the equality of physiological precedents. This study discuss this physiological process based on the international specific literature. The further development of fruits maintained on the tree depends mainly on the growing conditions (e.g. water, supply of nutrients, weather adversities, pruning, fruit thinning, biotic damages, etc.), which may cause on their own turn fruit drop especially at the time of approaching maturity.

The new era of horticultural production after the millennium

The horticultural branches turn out, in relation to their area, a very great production. value. At the same time' many useful jobs are created. The development of gardening is, therefore, an important interest of our national economy. To the continuous enhancement of quality and quantity belongs the alloyage of new methods (biotechnology, integrated and organic procedures) with our traditional feats and with the incessant raise of the professional level.


Levels of some micronutrient in dried and fresh fruit samples of apricot cultivars

Concentration of Boron (B), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn) and Zinc (Zn) was analyzed in fresh and dried fruit samples of “Jumbo cot“, “Tom cot“, “Gold strike“, “Gold bar“, “Bergeron“, “Bergrouge“, “Sweet cot“, “Yellow cot“ and “Zebra“ apricot cultivars. Concentration of the studied elements was strongly affected by cultivars. B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn content of “Tom cot“ was significantly higher than other cultivars. “Gold strike“ had the highest amount of Mg. Similar tendency was observed in “Zebra“ and “Sweet cot“ where Mn content was significantly higher than the other element contents.

Preliminary evaluation of breeding perspectives of Ukrainian sweet cherry cultivars: nutraceutical properties and self-incompatibility

Some traditional sweet cherry cultivars of Ukrainian origin may represent perspective material for Hungarian cherry breeding. A total of eight cultivars analysed represent great diversity in several phenotypic traits including fruit ripening time or fruit flesh colour. Considerable differences in the anthocyanin content may result in different antioxidant capacity of fruits. In the present study, we used ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total phenolic content (TPC) assays to characterize fruits’ nutraceutical properties. These values were compared with the respective values measured for eight commercial cultivars grown in Hungary. The average of FRAP and TPC values was higher for the Ukrainian cherries compared with commercial cultivars suggesting they might be included in functional breeding programs. Since, cherry is a self-incompatible species, the determination of S-genotype is required for both breeding and successful cultivar association in commercial orchards. Complete or partial S-genotypes were determined for 5 and 3 cultivars, respectively.

Analyses of Hungarian sour cherry germplasm with simple sequence repeat markers

Twenty-four sour cherry cultivars (genotypes), belonging to four cultivar groups were fingerprinted using microsatellite markers. All genotypes have been arisen from the Carpathian basin, which could be secondary gene centre of sour cherry, since its progenitor species, ground cherry and sweet cherry overlap here. Five SSR primer pairs, earlier used for fingerprinting Turkish sour cherry germplasm were tested. None of the five primer pairs showed any polymorphism within the cultivar groups. The primer pairs were able to distinguish between the cultivar groups. The Oblacsinszka and the Cigánymeggy cultivar groups were the most difficult to separate, while the Pándy cultivar group was the most distinguishable.

Microclimatic studies on different aged apple plantations

The purpose of measuring parallel canopy and out of canopy microclimates was to find out in what extent climatic parameters measured in different aged canopis differ from each other and from the values characteristic to out-of-canopi areas. The importance of phytoclimatic researches seems to lie in the fact that if the reactions of fruit trees towards meteorological elements are continuously followed, we have the possibility to provide growers with information. These pieces of information are like defining the optimum time of phitotechnical interventions (summer pruning, sorting sprouts, thinning fruits, etc.), the necessity of applying mulching, defining the method and time of irrigation and applying plant protection activities. By means of phytoclimatic researches, it is possible to react to unfavourable meteorological impacts within a certain extent. It is also possible to successfully reduce the risks of late spring and early autumn frost damage, as well as the risks, content and measure of experienced heat and water stress conditions by finding out about the physical characteristics of the canopis' internal area.

Variability of the data indicating the fertility of different plum varieties

Self-fertility and fertility at conditions of open pollination in plum varieties is strictly determined by genetic factors. However, rates of fruit set are highly variable according to growing sites as well as to seasons, which may result from a couple of inner and outer conditions, but mainly from the method applied in seizing the facts of fertility in the experiments planned including the number of replications of treatments. During three successive years, 4-16 trees of each of the four plum varieties have been selected and 16-64 branches were tagged either for checking their fertility as pollinated freely or isolated excluding the access of foreign pollen. The data of fruit set have been processed in order to determine the variability of the data, subsequently, the number of replications necessary to make reliable decisions. Both autogamy and open pollination displayed multiple differences between branches and trees studied.

A number of 20 branches are needed yearly for each variety, the branches should be distributed on 5 trees at least for checking the autogamy, whereas on 10 trees for the results of open pollination. Each variety and treatment should be represented in three seasons, at least because of the different weather conditions.

Inter-incompatibility of self- incompatible apricots and their varietal properties

There are four apricot varieties grown in Hungary derived from local selections known to bear fruits of giant (60 - 100 g) size: Ceglédi óriás, Nagykőrösi óriás, Szegedi mammut and Ligeti óriás. Being morphologically similar, they seem to be closely related to each other. The detailed study of the morphology (of leaves and fruits) and phenology (of blooming and ripening dates) as well as the fertility relations was aimed to find out the degree of kinship between the varieties in question.

It was stated that the value of morphological traits is variable from the taxonomic point of view. The most important signs of common origin were the time of blooming and the leaf size. Less valuable are the date of m:iurity and the size of fruit because of their variability. In the literature Satin') & Nyeki (1991) published the first proof of inter-incompatible relation between apricot varieties. This should be considered as an argument of close genetic relation between those "giant" varieties of apricots.

The first three varieties. Ceglédi óriás, Nagykőrösi óriás and Szegedi mammut are closer related in blooming and ripening date, as well as in size of fruit to each other than the variety Ligeti óriás.


Comparison of honeybee behaviour in blooming fruit plantations

Field observations were made on the fl ower visiting behaviour of honeybee foragers in commercial fruit plantations of apricot, Japanese plums, sour cherry, apple and pear. The number of inspected cultivars was 18. The intensity of fl ower visiting by honey bees was markedly different when data of different fruit species are compared. Most intense bee activity was registered on the Japanese plums, somewhat less on apricots, the intensity diminished signifi cantly with apples and pears. Our data presented on the honeybee visitation of Japanese plums can be regarded as new fi nding because no information has been available so far on the relative attractiveness of this fruit species compared to European fruit tree species. Japanese plums were somewhat more attractive to honeybees than apricot and much more attractive than sour cherry, apple and pear. The behaviour of honeybees as visiting the blooming trees displayed specifi c differences according to the fruit species (apricot, sour cherry, pear), which coincide largely with earlier results. It is notable that the fl ower visiting behaviour of honeybees on Japanese plums has been found to be fairly similar to the same on European plums.

Applicability of 3D laser scanning in precision horticulture

Due to the technological development, remote sensing instruments and methods have become widespread in all segments of life (from precision agriculture through architecture to medicine). Among the innovative development of remote sensing instruments the 3D laser scanner is of outstanding importance. Horticultural applicability of terrestrial laser scanning technique is a new innovation in the precision agriculture. The structure of trees and branches, the canopy extension, the fruit yield, which can help to recognize some biophysical parameters, can be determined. The examination was carried out with Leica ScanStation C10 terrestrial laser scanner in the Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen near Pallag. In this article the measuring principle, the parameters and horticulture applicability of the terrestrial laser scanner are presented.

Pilot study for irrigation modelling of a pear plantation

Our investigation was carried out in the area of Fruit growing Research and Consultant non-profit company, at Újfehértó. The pear requires large water quantity, but this pear plantation hasn’t irrigation system not yet. This study reviews the drainage conditions of the area based on digital elevation model, and examined the canopy cover of pear trees by evaluating of the hyperspectral image. Our aims were to determine the exact watershed based irrigation modelling and determining of the canopy% of the pear orchard to facilitate a precision irrigation decision support system.

Simultaneousness of reproductive organs of sour cherry cultivars adaptable to Iranian climatic condition

Observations were made on simultaneousness of pollen shedding and stigma viability ratio, to clarify the phenology of reproductive organs of nine economically important sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) cultivars (‘Érdi bôtermô‘, ‘Debreceni bőtermő‘, ‘Csengődi‘, ‘Kántorjánosi 3‘, ‘Újfehértói fürtös‘, ‘Petri‘, ‘Eva‘, ‘Oblascinszka‘, and ‘Pándy 279’). The main aim was investigation the possible influence of environmental cues in timing and development of phenophases and also responses of different cultivars to seasonal cues. Likely effects of climatic changes on phenological development patterns were also considered. Results showed important aspects of the reproductive biology of sour cherry flowers. The amplitude of the phenophase “beginning of blossoming” between cultivars did not exceed 6 days. There is a maximum 3 day difference in the blooming length of different directions in each cultivar. ‘Pándy 279‘ showed high variability when the position of flowers changed on the tree shoots. ‘Újfehértói fürtös‘ was stable in all four directions of the tree. The pollen shedding period and stigma viability ratio were synchronous. Pollen shedding phenomenon simultaneously occurred with the secretary activities of stigmas in all examined cultivars. Distribution of pollen shedding over the secretary activity of stigmas is almost good. In all five cultivars maximum pollen shedding occurred when the temperature was high during the day. In general the results of this experiment and our previous studies clearly demonstrate that the Pándy groups not recommended for plantation in new orchards of Iran.

High antioxidant - and anthocyanin contents of sour cherry cultivars may benefit the human health: international and Hungarian achievements on phytochemicals

Evidence suggests that a diet with high fruit and vegetable consumption may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Recent research has proved that sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is a valuable natural source of some bioactive compounds important in human health preservation. According to the published data, the most important biological effects of sour cherry are connected — directly or indirectly — to their endogenous antioxidant behaviour as well as to their specific pattern of anthocyanin components. In the present work, we measured the total antioxidant capacity of some Hungarian sour cherry varieties in combination with their anthocyanin-, and vitamin-C content. In 2003, twelve clones were selected and grafted from a local sour cherry population called "Bosnyák" sour cherry grown in small home gardens and farms of the village Csengod (Great-Plain Region, South Hungary). Other Hungarian sour cherry varieties, i.e. cv. Újfehértói fürtos, cv. Érdi bőterrnő, cv. Debreceni bőterrnő, cv. Csengődi and cv. Kántorjánosi served as a control.

Nectar production of pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivars

Detailed studies were made on the nectar production of 44, 16 and 18 pear cultivars, respectively, in a cultivar collection of pear during three consecutive years with highly different weather in the blooming. Results clearly show that pear does not necessarily produce small amount of nectar as stated in the world literature. In fact, pear can produce extremely high amount of nectar sometimes much higher than other temperate zone fruit trees species but its nectar production is highly subjected to weather, first of all to air temperature. Low nectar production seems to be more frequent than high one and cold weather can prevent its nectar production at all. On the other hand, results corroborate to the earlier statements on the low sugar concentration of pear nectar. There is a highly significant negative correlation between the amount of nectar produced by pear flowers and its sugar concentration (r = -0.52, n = 291, p< 0.001 for 1996, r = -0.34, n = 197, p< 0.001 for 1998). Sugar concentration in individual flowers may be up, to 40% in exceptional cases but generally it is well below 20%. Very high figures for sugar concentration in pear nectar at the literature seem to be incomprehensible. In contrast of some earlier statement in the literature no real difference could be established in the nectar production of pear cultivars, based on much more measurements than in earlier studies. Very low sugar concentration in pear nectar can explain the fact that the overwhelming majority of honeybees are pollen gatherers at pear trees even in the case of exceptionally high nectar production.


Determination of quality in stored pear fruits by chemical analysis and sensorial judgement

Aim of this research/project to determine the external and internal preferences of pear using descriptive sensory analysis, consumer preference. The research was performed on local consumers. Destructive measurements included fi rmness by puncture tests, soluble solids content (SSC), titrated acidity (TA). While there is a general positive trend for increasing preference with fi rmness, some consumers will prefer softer apples, and some will dislike the fi rmest pear. Sensorial judgement is able to classify the attractiveness, preference of properties specifi c for pear. Tests were performed by 13 persons on 4 pear varieties (Bosc kobak, Conference, Packham’s Triumph, Dessertnaia) checking 11 sensorial properties on a scale of 1 to 100 points. Relations of measurements and judgements were processed by correlation analysis. For analysis, the objects were furnished in 2011 from different growing sites (Csenger, Mérk and Nagykanizsa), taking from the store (in January) immediately. Among those the best notes were given to Bosc kobak and Conference coming from Mérk and to Packham’s Triumph grown at Nagykanizsa. It was stated that the success of sensorial judgement depends on the state of maturity, which is diffi cult to guarantee to be synchronous among samples of different varieties. Mature fruits are more praised as a sample of Bosc kobak taken from a chain of department store proved to be of balanced composition regarding its sugar/acid ratio (0.12) and the optimal fi rmness (5.75 N/cm2). Results of the correlation analysis suggest that the thickness of the skin is a decisive component of preference (r= 0.857), the typical pear flavour (r= 0.948), the taste as sweetness and acidity (r= 0.930 and r= 0.813). At the same time, no valuable relation could be detected between the data raised in the laboratory and the preference expressed by the sensorial tests, which should signalise that the opinion of consumers does not depend on any individual parameter obtained in the laboratory (sugar- or acid content, fi rmness) but rather on the complexity of several decisive components together (sweetness, acidity, fl avour, skin, etc.). The consumers’ preference cannot be measured objectively without the aid of adequate expertise and a prosperous surrounding, samples of optimal maturity and a thoughtfully edited judging form.

Importance of boron in fruit nutrition

Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient in plants especially in fruits. Despite of this fact there are very few information about its application, uptake and symptoms in Hungarian fruit growing sector. Nowadays we should consider the effects of weather conditions on soil B availability increasingly according to the climatic anomalies. Identifying of internal and external symptoms of plant parts (leaf, fruit) is help for growers to recognize the deficiency and excess symptoms in time. Methods and application rates of boron fertilization provide further information for growers to achieve qualify-oriented fruit growing among Hungarian conditions. The aim of this minireview is to focus on the importance of boron in fruit nutrition.

Conditions and outlooks of growing stone fruits

Conditions and outlooks of growing stone fruits

Determination of the cold tolerance off sour cherry cultivars with frost treatments in climatic chamber

Nowadays, sour cherry buds can be seriously damaged by spring and winter frosts. Unlike other fruit species threatened by high frost damage, sour cherry cultivars have not been assessed for frost tolerance. The aim of .our survey was to establish the relative cold tolerance of the Hungarian cultivars after treatment in a climatic chamber, and to optimize the methodology formerly elaborated for the frost treatment of apricot. Fourteen cultivars of Hungarian sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) were used in the experiments, which spanned the winters of 2005/2006 and 2006/2007. Our data were used to rank cultivars in two groups according to their levels of cold resistance. We also recommend critical temperatures and treatment times for the testing of sour cherry cultivar resistance to cold in climatic chambers.

Utilisation of data raised in blooming phenology of fruit trees for the choice of pollinisers of plum and apricot varieties

Information concerning the blooming time of stone fruit varieties is, first of all, an important condition of finding suitable pollinisers securing adequate fruit set. For that purpose, varieties are assigned to blooming-time-groups. Depending on the number (3 or 5) of the groups, i.e. the length of intervals separating the groups established, pollenisers are to be chosen for self-incompatible and partially self-fertile varieties belonging to the same blooming-time-group. The mutually most overlapping blooming periods of the respective varieties should be found by raising data of their blooming phenology, i.e. dynamics, which is compared by drawing their phenograms and calculating blooming (V) indices. Variety combinations have to be checked, however, concerning mutual fertility relations of the respective pairs of varieties. That is most important in the case of Japanese plums because of the abundant incompatible combinations. Synchronous blooming has been determined by assigning the varieties to blooming-time-groups, or comparing overlaps of blooming phenograms, or by blooming (V) indices. Synchronous blooming phenology has been studied in European plum varieties (111 varietiy combinations) Japanese plums (156 variety combinations) and apricots (153 variety combinations) under Hungarian conditions, over several seasons. In determining overlaps, the less favourable season has been considered as decisive. Polliniser combinations have been chosen with at least 70% synchronous blooming. Blooming time of varieties is an important part of the variety descriptions. Blooming dates may serve also for the estimations of frost risk or security of yield.

The effect of the limitation of insect pollination period on the fruit set and yield of temperate-zone fruit tree species

The duration of effective bee pollination period was limited by caging flowering branches for shorter or longer time in blooming fruit trees in a number of experiments during the past decades. In the case of self-sterile fruit species and cultivars (apples, pears, quinces, some plums, some sour cherries) even partial limitation of the effective duration of bee pollination period significantly reduced the fruit set and the yield. In the case of self-fertile apricots the effect of the total and also the influence of partial limitation of bee pollination period was the same as in the case of the mentioned self-sterile fruits. On the other hand, in the case of another self-fertile fruits (some plums, some sour cherries), the effect of partial limitation of bee pollination period was usually small, but complete (or incomplete but strong) limitation of be pollination usually resulted in a strong reduction of yield. This means that not only self-sterile but also self-fertile fruits clearly depend on insect (bee) pollination. This is because pollen dehiscence of anthers and the receptive period of stigmas do not overlap in time within the individual flowers. Stigmas in self-fertile trees, therefore, need pollen carried by bees from another flowers of the same tree (or compatible pollen from another trees). Accordingly, additional bee pollination (moving bee colonies to the orchards in flower) is needed to all kinds of temperate-zone fruit tree species when bee visitation of plantations is not abundant enough for some reasons.

Effect of late spring frost event on nutrition aspects of a sour cherry orchard in East Hungary

Similarly to 2007, 2011 was also critical year for fruit growers in Eastern-Hungary. Serious frost damage was observed at late blooming period (6 May (T=-1.6°C)) in this region, which caused approximately 60-65% of fruit loss. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a spring frost event on nutrient uptake and status of the trees of a sour cherry plantation at Újfehértó. The symptoms of frost were observed visually. This visual observation was confirmed by SPAD readings. The frost affected the macroand micronutrient contents of leaves. It was found that the frost affected the nutrient uptake negatively, but the effect of it was not significantly sometimes. It can be stated that the nutrient demand of trees can be supplied only under even worse conditions.

Comparison of pear production areas from yield risk aspect

There are three main pear production regions in Hungary. The most relevant is theWest-Transdanubian (Zala, Vas and Gyôr-Moson-Sopron counties), where up to 30% of total pear production occurs. The second most productive region is Pest County, where pear is grown mostly in gardens and garden plots, resulting in 15-20% of Hungarian production. In the northern Hungarian region (Bodrog valley in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén, Heves and Nógrád counties), the microclimate is perfect for optimal pear production. In our analysis, we focused on four plantations that are dominant in pear production in Hungary. Two of them are situated in south-western Hungary, one of them is in South Transdanubia and one is in North Hungary. Considering the personal attitude of the decision maker towards risk, the best alternative is ‘Williams’ in Alsóberecki, as the yield risk is the lowest with this variety, while the second best alternative is ‘Bosc Beurre,’ also produced in Alsóberecki. This is an irrigated area, and this fact evidently decreases the yield risk. The highest risk is in Bánfapuszta and in Zalasárszeg, for the non-irrigated ‘Williams’ variety. The highest yield with the lowest risk can be obtained with irrigation. Nevertheless, in the case that relevant data are available, and by incorporating cost and expected profit data, the stochastic dominance method is suitable for financial risk assessment, as well.

Effect of reduced spray programmes on incidences of apple scab, powdery mildew and codling moth damage in environmentally freindly apple production systems

Still a large amount of pesticides and spary applications are used in environmentally friendly fruit production systems; therefore, the aim of our study was first to test the in vitro effeicacy of some fungicides against a key apple disease (apple scab), and secondly to evaulate the effectiveness of reduced spray programmes against apple scab, powdery mildew and coding moth in integrated and organic apple orchards. In vitro efficacy of 7 fungicides (Champion 50 WP, Kocide 2000, Nordox 75 WG, Olajos rézkén, Kumulus S, Rézkén, Rézoxiklorid) and another 6 fungicides (Score 25 EC, Efuzin 500 SC, Systane, Folicur Solo, Zato Plusz, Rovral) approved in organic and integrated production systems, respectively, were tested against apple scab. Altogether four spray programmes were performed i) standard integrated: sprays followed by forecasting systems during the season, ii) reduced integrated: sprays followed by forecasting systems but only 75% of the spray numbers used during the season-long spray programme, iii) standard oragnic: sprays applied every 7–14 days during the season and iv) reduced organic: 60% of the spray numbers used during the season-long spray programme. In vitro results showed that fungicides (with active ingredients of copper and sulphur) applied in organic production showed relatively high percent growth capacity of the apple scab fungus. Rézkén showed the highest and Kumilus S the lowest efficacy against apple scab. Fungicides applied in integrated production showed relatively low percent growth capacity of the apple scab fungus. Score 25 EC showed the highest and Rovral the lowest efficacy against apple scab. Field study showed that reduced spray programmes did not increase significantly scab incidence in the integrated field. However, scab incidence increased significanly (above 30%) in the reduced spray programme for the organic orchard.Mildew incidence was low (below 5%) in both integrated and organic spray programmes. Mildew incidence on both shoots and fruits increased significanly in the reduced spray programme for the organic orchard. Incidence of codling moth damage was affected the most by standard vs. reduced spray programmes. Though incidence remained below 10% in the integrated plots, the incidence was significantly higher in the reduced spray programme compared to the standard programme. Similar results were obtained for organic spary programmes, but the incidence was 10 times higher and the differences among the two programmes were larger.,

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