Vol 11, No 4 (2005)

Published October 11, 2005

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Articles

Strategy of the sour cherry verticum in the Northern Great Plain Region Hungary (Analytic study)
7-31.

Sour cherry growing and consumption grows dynamically around the world. The present volume of 1 million tons will incerase within 10 years with 20-30, or even with 50%. In the world wide sour cherry production, Europe is a decisive factor, i.e. 2/3 of the volume is grown there. Prominent capacities are concentrated in East-Central Europe, mainl...y Poland, Germany and Hungary. In the future, new concurrent exporters are expected on the European market as Turkey, Iran, Serbia-Montenegro. Hungarian sour cherry production has rich traditions, so the growing techniques and the assortment of sour cherry varieties make Hungary a „Great Power" on this field. Fresh fruit and products developed from sour cherry represent values distinguished as „Hungaricum" on the markets. Sour cherry growing and the path of its products are one of the „pulling branches" of Hungarian fruit growing. Sour cherry occupies 15% of area for fruit growing and 40% within the stone fruits. Sour cherry was grown widely in Hungary, it was grown everywhere as for utilizing waste areas. This is the main reason that yields are low as a mean of 15 000 ha and the volume is low (50-60 000 tons) only. To that poor figure the heavy infections of Monilia contributed substantially in the last couple of years. The two most valid arguments of using the present varieties as the best solution are 1) the cross bred new varieties, and 2) the selections of local, traditional varieties, which substituted the earlier dominant 'Pándy meggy' variety, which had a good quality but yielded poorly. Sour cherry growing of Hungary shifted from the dry regions of the country toward the cooler and more humid regions, where the weather excesses secure a less risky production. The most decisive region is the Norther Great Plain Region comprising Szabolcs­Szatmar-Bereg county, where more than the half of the Hungarian sour cherry volume is produced, and which is bound to increase its production in the future. The majority of sour cherry produced in Hungary is processed, moreover, an important fraction of the exported fresh fruit is also used by the industry. The main importer of Hungarian sour cherry is Germany. The industry manufactures mainly canned products, a smaller fraction will be processed to other products. The expected volumes of sour cherry grown in Hungary in the next 5 and 10-year-period was estimated from data based on the ratio of young plantations, predicted consequences of the global climatic changes, phytosanitary aspects, furthermore, on the development of the technological level. In the region, the volume grown within 5 years, 40 000 t/year will increase within 10 years to 55 000 t/y. The processing in Hungary is not sufficiently differenciated, which is attributed partly to the characters of the varieties, partly to the weaknesses of the processing industry. One of the reasons is the suitability of varieties mainly for canning products. Processed sour cherry products could not be sold at the same price levels achieved by concurrent sour cherry growing countries. The vertical structure of the path of products of sour cherry disposes of adequate processing capacity being ready to be developed or there is sufficient intention of making investments for the purpose of manufacturing special sour cherry products. Significant tasks of development are actual in the field of the ecological and biological conditions of production. Volume and yield security as well as the maturity time and diversification of processing possibilities are the main endeavours in widening the assortment of varieties to be grown in the near future. The main objective in growing techniques is the modernization of phytotechnical procedures, and new solutions of methods of mechanical harvesting and related technical innovations are necessary in the sour cherry verticum. A key question is the effectiveness of phytosanitary procedures with special reference to the Monilia fungus and to the cherry fruit fly as the most important pest. There are two points of break through in the Hungarian sour cherry verticum. On the one hand, meeting the increasing demands in fuits for fresh consumption, on the other hand, the diversification of processed sour cherry products and their introduction to the markets. Both are aiming to increase the competitiveness of the Hungarian sour cherry. For that purpose, outstanding varieties and excellent as well as internationally recognised fruit qualities are ready to be utilized. The most susceptible problems of the Hungarian sour cherry verticum are associated with marketing, alliance of the grower-and processor organisations and their co-operation because no overall integration within the sour cherry verticum has been established yet. Most urgent necessity as well as possibility of changes are felt in the Northern Great Plain Region.

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Identification of ripening-related genes in strawberry fruit by cDNA-AFLP
33-41.

An RNA fingerprinting study of strawberry receptacle and achene tissue was performed to identify candidate genes involved in fruit ripening. Quantitative cDNA-AFLP was used to detect differential gene expression in green, white, pink and red stages of fruit ripening. Based on hierarchical average linkage clustering the differentially expressed ...genes formed three major groups, genes expressed only in green receptacle, genes expressed mainly in white, pink and red receptacle, and in achene. 130 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were isolated and sequenced. Most TDFs did not show any homology to sequences with known functions, others were homologous to genes involved in oxidative stress response, signal transduction, regulation of development and cell-wall metabolism. Novel genes, so far not associated with strawberry ripening and ripening in general, were identified, such as genes encoding a bHLH protein, putative nitrilase-related protein, putative HD-zip protein. The differential pattern of gene expression draws the attention to the significance of ripening induced-or repressed promoters in strawberry fruit, whose isolation and characterization can be useful tool for functional genomics. For this purpose nine cDNA-AFLP fragments related either to ontogeny or senescing were completed with 5'UTR aiming at more precise annotation and future promoter isolation. Although tens of potentially important transcriptome changes were identified, the function of many ripening induced genes remain unknown.

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Genetic relatedness among Asian Cotoneaster species investigated with DNA marker analysis
43-46.

The widespread genus Cotoneaster has its centre of diversity in the Himalayas and surrounding areas. Most taxa appear to be polyploid and apomictic, and many of them have become popular ornamentals due to their attractive foliage and berries. One of the taxonomically most critical groups is Section Alpigeni which contains seve...ral important ornamental plants. The number of species belonging to this section varies widely between different taxonomic treatises, depending on whether 'splitting' or 'lumping' of species is preferred. Using a rather narrow species definition, we have investigated 13 different species using RAPD analysis. A simple matching (SM) coefficient-based principle coordinate analysis (PCO) was calculated from the RAPD data. Some species were clearly more similar to each other than to other species in the analysis. The levels of similarity did, however, not correspond very well to the lumping together of several taxa under the same species name as performed e.g. in the recent Flora of China. Obviously, the complex hybridogenous origination and, in some cases, still ongoing recombination with sexual species or among the apomictic taxa themselves, produces a genetic variability structure that cannot be properly reflected in a hierarchical taxonomy.

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Antioxidant characterization of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivars and hybrids
47-51.

This report forms a part in our long-term study dedicated to reveal the antioxidant properties of apricot fruits through several years. Nineteen apricot cultivars and 8 hybrids were comparatively analysed. Total phenol content and antioxidant activity showed a good correlation. The tested cultivars and hybrids could be arranged in three groups ...representing different antioxidant activities, 12 entries were involved in the group with relatively low antioxidant capacity (FRAP value < 1500 mmol/L); 10 accessions were classified in the group with medium antioxidant capacity (1500 mmol/L < FRAP value < 3000 mmol/L); and 5 genotypes were grouped to the category of high antioxidant value (FRAP > 3000 mmol/L). `Morden 604' produced a surpassingly outstanding antioxidant character. H-donating ability has further supported our results. Phenolic substances were accumulated and ferric reducing ability was increased in the ripe fruits compared to the unripe ones. High levels of variations in the total phenol content and antioxidant capacity in of apricot fruits were revealed in this study. Environment, year or rootstocks may also influence the antioxidant properties of fruits. however it seems to be convincing that crossing parents with outstanding antioxidant character can produce hybrids with higher antioxidant capacity. Hungarian apricots are widely appreciated for their premium flavour and — as it was evidenced in this study — for their relatively good antioxidant properties. However, delicious fruits should be made functional foods having beneficial health effects through accumulating large amounts of antioxidant molecules in the fruit flesh.

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Effect of dry and wet years on primary inoculum source, incubation period and conidial production of Venturia inaequalis
53-58.

The present study focuses on the characteristics of epidemics caused by the selected model-pathogen, Venturia inaequalis in relation to weather elements, with special respect to the increasing or decreasing effects of the specific weather elements. First, those weather elements are discussed which have a role in the development of scab... epidemics. Subsequently, by accepting the thesis that climate change includes also weather extremes, an extremely hot and dry year (2003) and a colder year of higher than average precipitation (2004) were chosen as models. The presented examples verified that the variability of weather elements had had an undoubtable effect on the development of epidemics. The variability of weather elements manifests in the unusual behaviour of the pathogen, resulting in no or extreme disease epidemics. The extremities are well demonstrated by the fact, that in a year of drought an efficient protection can be achieved by considerably less applications than average, while in the next rainy year, the susceptible cultivar cannot be protected effectively even with such a high number of applications as is usual under humid Western-European climate conditions. It can also be noted, that the pathogen has a very good adaptability under unfavourable weather conditions. Consequently, more efficient management strategies should be developed for protection against the effects of extremities. However, it should be emphasized that it is very difficult to adapt to the variability and extremities of weather in the practice, because no long-term, accurate and reliable information is available about the variability of these elements.

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Mechanical behavior of catching surfaces used for fruit harvesting
59-64.

Various fruit gathering devices are important part of tree shakers used in fruit harvesting. The catching surface is generally used in the form of a stretched thin sheet interacting with the falling fruit. This interaction depends on many factors such as the shape and mass of the fruit, the falling height and the mechanical properties of the ca...tching material.

In recent investigation different canvas, composite and silk materials were selected and their mechanical behavior was experimentally determined. Using the energy conservation principle, the main impact characteristics of the falling fruit was derived and used. Static and dynamic loading tests were carried out using spherical intenders and artificial fruits. Investigations have shown that, using the appropriate material characteristics, the catching surface can serve as a cushioning material and it can considerably reduce the impact stresses in the falling fruits.

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Examination of fruit juices produced with aseptic technology
65-70.

The quality of finished products with a 100% fruit content is influenced to the greatest extent by the fruit-base (fruit pulp and fruit juice concentrate) used. In terms of the production of the fruit juice, the minimization of the quantity of the dissolved oxygen, which can cause detrimental oxidation processes to start, is a very important as...pect. Scientific experiments specify de-aeration before pasteurization as the solution to the problem. The choice of the packaging material and the manner of packaging also contribute to the preservation of the alimentation-biological and pleasure value of fruit juice. On the basis of the results of the experiments, regarding the parameters which are important in terms of quality, i.e. dissolved oxygen content, C-vitamin concentration, deepening in the colour and sensory features, Tetra Bric Aseptic packaging proved to be better in the examined cases. Storage circumstances also influence the quality of fruit juice.

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Microsatellite based identification of grapevine cultivars traditional in Hungary and in the Carpathian Basin
71-73.

Grapevine cultivars and clones traditional in Hungary and in the Carpathian Basin are maintained in the genetic collection of the Corvinus University of Budapest. Mostly ancient varieties and clones were genotyped using microsatellite loci. The investigated 6 loci were sufficient to distinguish all cultivars. Some clones could also be separated... based mostly on the variable VVS2 loci. For 17 out of the 31 investigated cultivars this is the first report on characterization of the polymorphism of the allele lengths by microsatellite markers on loci: VVS2, VVMD7, VVMD27, vrZAG62.

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Effect of physical properties of horticultural substrates on pepper transplant development
75-78.

Pepper transplants were grown in trays using 6 different growing media. Trays were filled in a loose and in a compact manner with the 5 different peats and coconut coir. Measurements were made for the most important physical parameters of each single medium studying their effect on transplant development. Results indicated that compaction had h...ad a beneficial effect on the germination of the transplants and on the rate of their development.

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Foliar application of zinc and its effect on greenhouse grown cucumber
79-82.

The experiment was conducted to examine the effect of the foliar application of zinc on yield and crop quality and on fruit mineral composition of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus cv. Mustang) which were grown in peat in containers under unheated conditions and were not showing visible signs of zinc deficiency.

In the trial the... following 3 treatments were set up in 4 replications: Znl = 0.35 g/litre Zn, as foliar fertilizer; Zn2 = 0.7 g/litre Zn, as foliar fertilizer, control = no foliar fertilization. Foliar fertilization was applied 5 times with 10 day intervals. After their planting out the plants were fertigated daily with water soluble complex fertilisers. Fruits were harvested twice a week, 16 times in all, and were divided into three quality classes (class I, class II and substandard). Shoot length of the plants (plant height) was measured on 3 occasions. Zinc content of the fruits and leaves was analysed at two times.

From the results of the trials it can be concluded that the 0.35 g/litre Zn (0.35 mg/ml) foliar fertilisation had beneficial effect on cucumber both in terms of yield and quality. Under the conditions of the experiment (daily fertigation through drip irrigation) the effect of a more concentrated foliar application of zinc seemed less beneficial.

The zinc content of the fruits showed no evident increase in response to foliar fertilization, while a significant increase was seen in the leaves, particularly with the more concentrated Zn treatment. This indicates that in the case of cucumber zinc, through its assimilation in vegetative parts, has an indirect effect on fruit development.

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The importance of Hungarian melon (Cucumis melo L.) landraces, local types and old varieties (Review)
83-87.

While supermarkets devote whole aisles to hybrids, traditional varieties are hard to find, and becoming scarcer day by day. Unfortunately, countless old melon varieties have already been lost. Luckily we succeded in collecting most of these varieties, and thus conserving them in Gene Banks. Landraces, local types, and old breed races show many ...characteristics that could be useful in organic farming. It is important to get acquainted with these varieties and cultivars, because they have greatly adapted to the climatic and pedological conditions of the Carpathian basin. Therefore their conservation is essential for the protection of Hungarian genetic variability. With the help of utilising our landraces in organic farming; careful selection; and the usage of marketing strategy in order to enhance quality features, such as unique flavour; we could reclaim the one-time excellent reputation of Hungarian melon.

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Efficacy of N-phenylphtalamic acid in some Solanaceae species
89-91.

: N-phenylphthalamic acid — Cl4H1 1 NO3 (Nevirol 60 WP) was successfully used for enhancing yield in some important vegetable crops namely, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), chilli (Capsicum annuum) and brinjal (Solanum melongena) of Solanaceae. Aqueous sprays with 0.2% and 3.0% significantly enhanced fruit... production in chilli and tomato respectively. On the other hand, various treatments in brinjal failed to enhance yield significantly. The increase in yield in both tomato and chilli is largely due to increase in the number of flowers and fruit-set percentage.

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In vitro plant regeneration from immature embryo axis and cotyledons of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)
93-97.

Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the most important economic species within the genus Phaseolus. It is grown in all parts of the world. Genetic improvement by conventional breeding has met considerable success, although production of hybrids between species within the genus has been limited due to sexual incompatibility. Recent advanc...es in tissue culture have offered the opportunity to produce cultivars, which could not be obtained by conventional breeding methods. The use of tissue culture and genetic engineering is viewed as a logical approach to improve bean production. Gene transfer techniques will have a great impact on legumes. Although the concept of cell totipotency is widely proved, in vitro morphogenesis has not yet been achieved for a large number of cultivated beans. Regeneration protocols are strongly influenced by the genotype. In tissue and cell culture of beans, the factors controlling shoot morphogenesis and somatic embryogenesis are still unknown. The reported data suggest a possible way for future research.

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