Flower characters and self-fertilization capacity in relation to the bee pollination at sour cherry cultivars
121-132.Vol 12No 22006
Detailed studies and comparisons were carried out on those flower characters of sour cherry cultivars that may affect bee pollination of flowers. Flower characters of sour cherry are fairly similar to other temperate zone fruit tree species. Their relatively small flowers distinguish the Cigánymeggy-types of cultivars from the flowers of tart che...rries cultivars that are conspicuously larger, almost as large as the sweet cherry flowers. The relative position of flower organs was much more variable according to the season than according to the cultivars. So the differences were rather the consequences of seasonal effects than of variety features of sour cherry cultivars. As far as individual cultivars are concerned differences in the nectar production and the sugar concentration are revealed rather between groups of cultivars than between individual cultivars. The pollen production of flowers was extremely changeable in consecutive years. Most honeybees collected nectar at sour cherry flowers; pure pollen gatherers and mixed behaviour bees were half as frequent but differences among the behaviour of honeybees according to cultivars cannot be stated. The fidelity of honeybees to sour cherry is less expressed than to some other fruit tree species. Accordingly, it is very strongly suggested to take the competitive effect other plant species (weeds) flowering in and around the orchard carefully into account when organizing additional bee pollination in sour cherry plantations. Several sour cherry cultivars possess more or less self-fertilization capacity but this is greatly changeable according to the season. It has been proved that self-sterile sour cherry cultivars are sensitive even on the partial restriction of the effective time of bee pollination and it is to be stressed too that even in the case of partly self-fruitful cultivars bee pollination is also vital in yield formation because medium or strong restriction of the effective bee pollination period is of a definite negative effect on their fruit set and yield. In years with unfavourable weather the yield can dramatically be reduced sometimes down to nil. However, very high fruit set is also unfavourable because a negative correlation was detected between the final set and the mean mass of fruits.
Cracking susceptibility evaluation of some stone fruit species (Sour cherries – Prunus cerasus L.; Sweet cherries – Prunus avium and European plums – Prunus domestica L.) grown in Hungary
45-54.Vol 20No 1-22014
The rain induced fruit cracking is a big, serious problem especially for sweet cherry growers but in some year growers of other stone fruit species had also problem with fruit cracking caused by too much and heavy rainfalls in the ripening and harvesting season. Cracked stone fruits can be easily infected by different diseases like Monillinia sp. ...Cracked and infected fruits can not be transported for long distance and using for preservation, they lost their market value by the destroyed fruit quality. It was decided to make a research work to determine the rain fruit cracking susceptibility of few stone fruit species (sour cherries, sweet cherries and European plums). Fruit cracking tests were occurred under laboratory conditions on the most common cultivars grown in Hungary. Furthermore we tried to find correlation between the fruit cracking and some fruit quality parameters (fruit size; total sugar content, fruit flesh firmness). Our conclusions are the followings:Sour cherries: There were found differences in the cracking ratio and the cracking dynamics of the tested sour cherry varieties when they were immersed in distillated water for 24 hours. Based on cracking test results under laboratory condition (immersing in distillated water) we made the grouping by cracking susceptibility of sour cherry varieties. Tested cultivars were divided three groups: very susceptible; susceptible; moderately susceptible (tolerant). Groups with varieties are: Very susceptible - ’Maliga emléke’, ’Piramis’, ’Érdi jubileum’,’Érdi nagygyümölcsû’ and ’Meteor korai; Susceptible (Sensitive) – ’Érdi bôtermô’, ’Pándy’ and Cigány 59. Moderately susceptible (tolerant) – ‘Éva’ and ‘Petri’as new rereleases. The most of tested sour cherry varieties are in agreement with the literature (Apostol, 2003) and four of them (’Maliga emléke’, ’Pándy 279’, ‘Éva’ and ‘Petri’) had higher average fruit weight than was mentioned in the literature (Apostol, 2003). Our fruit cracking results are in agreement with Zelinski’s (1964) and Christensen’s (1975) conclusions that there is no close relationship between fruit size and rain induced fruit cracking tendency. We found significant differences between the sugar content of tested cultivars. In contrast of Verner & Blodget (1931) our results confirm Tucker’s opinion that the sugar content is not correlation with the cracking tendency of cherry fruits (Tucker, 1934). Fruits firmness (elasticity) was measured by destructive method when juice was coming out from fruits. There were found big differences of fruit firmness and skin strength of observed cultivars. Our results are only partly agreement with Christensen’s (1996) opinion that cherry cultivars with firmer fruits are more prone to fruit cracking than softer ones. By this was seemingly we did not found close relationship between the fruit firmness and the cracking tendency of sour cherry fruits. We found that during fruits immersing in distillated water the fruit weight was increasing due to the absorbed water. Our opinion is that there is no close relationship between the scale of fruit cracking and the quantity of absorbed water. By results presented above we our opinion is that no very close relationship between the fruit cracking of sour cherries and the observed parameters (fruit size, fruit firmness, sugar content, amount of absorbed water) maybe other varietal effects and physiological characters (fruit skin structural parameters) play more important role in the fruit cracking mechanism of cherries. Sweet cherries: Similarly to sour cherries in the case of sweet cherries we also did not find close relationship between observed fruit parameters and cracking index. It was differences in the cracking ratio and the cracking dynamics of the tested sweet cherry cultivars when they were immersed in distillated water for 24 hours. It was found that the cracking ratio of very cracking susceptible sour cherry varieties had the same or higher cracking index than observed sweet cherries. It is in contrast with the general opinion (Chistensen, 1996) that sour cherries are less prone to rain induced fruit cracking than sweet cherries. We found differences between the cracking ration and cracking dynamic of the same cultivar in different years (2006 and 2013). It is in agreement Christensen’s (1996) opinion that the year effect cause big differences in the fruit cracking of cherries.European plums: We found differences in the cracking ratio and the cracking dynamics of the tested plum varieties when they were immersed in distillated water for 24 hours. A shorter term (6 hours) immersing in water caused three groups by their cracking susceptibility: „Very susceptible”: ’Révfülöpi’ and ’Szarvasi’; „Susceptible”: ’Besztercei’; „Less sensitive”: ’Bluefre’ and ’Cacanska rodna’. A longer term (24 hours) immersing in water resulted only two groups with significant differences: „Susceptible group”: ’Révfülöpi’, ’Szarvasi’ and ’Besztercei’; „Less sensitive”: ’Bluefre’ and ’Cacanska rodna’ Similarly the cherries we did not find correlation between the fruit size and cracking susceptibility of European plum cultivars. It was based on: the big fruit sized ‘Bluefre’ and middle sized ‘Cacanska rodna’ cracked in the lowest scale, during the small sized ’Révfülöpi’, ’Szarvasi’ and ’Besztercei’ cultivars cracked in higher scale We found positive correlations between the cracking susceptibility and total sugar content of tested plum cultivars. Cultivars with significantly lower sugar content (‘Bluefre’ and ‘C. rodna’) showed lower fruit cracking susceptibility than cultivars (’Révfülöpi’, ’Szarvasi’ and ’Besztercei’) with higher sugar content). We found close relationship between the relative (%) absorbed water amount and the fruit cracking susceptibility. Cultivars with higher absorbed water amount (’Szarvasi’-’Révfülöpi’-’Besztercei’) had higher cracking susceptibility.
19-23.Vol 16No 32010
Fruits of different sour cherry varieties cultivated, in 2008 and 2009, under organic farming and integrated cultivation conditions were analysed for their quality attributes, antioxidant activity and subjected to sensory evaluation.. Average size, weight, soluble solids, titratable acidity, total polyphenols, free radical scavenging capacity expr...essed as Trolox equivalent (TEAC), copper and zinc were determined in freshly harvested fruits. The obtained results indicated that, the principal component analysis can separate and distinguish the seasons of fruit production. The farming system seemed to have slight effect on quality the fruit as compared to varietal factors (genotypes). However, the total polyphenol content was uniformly less in 2009. Total polyphenols and free radical scavenging activity were significantly higher in Bosnian type sour cherries, and outstanding in Amarelle type cultivar ‘Pipacs’. There was no statistically significant difference between the sensory properties of cultivars tested by panels, except the case of ‘Pipacs’. The organolaptic investigation showed marked preference to the fruits of Eva and Petri cultivars.
Effect of variety and cultivation technology on phenols and antioxidant activity of sweet and sour cherry
59-61.Vol 16No 12010
The goal of the present work was to compare different sweet and sour cherry cultivars and cultivation methods (bio/integrated) with respect to polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. The concentration of total polyphenols ranged between 880–1050 mg kg-1 of fresh fruit, whereas antioxidant activity expressed as TEAC was found to be between 5....4 and 10.3 mmol kg-1 for the sweet cherry cultivars examined. In case of sour cherry the level of polyphenols ranged between 1283 and 3490 mg/kg fresh edible part of the fruit. Antioxidant activity was recorded between 15–32 mmol kg-1 for the different sour cherry cultivars included in this work. After one-month storage at low temperature, the total phenols and antioxidant activity decreased by 2–40% in the sour cherry cultivars studied. The anthocyanin content in cherry cultivars was less (131–312 mg kg-1) than the135–1893 mg kg-1 found in sour cherries. Anthocyanin level was higher in samples produced under organic farming conditions than in those produced with integrated cultivation.
109-113.Vol 6No 32000
The composition of floral nectar in sour cherry cultivars studied in 1997 at Újfehértó was in agreement with our previous data, the three most frequent sugar components being glucose, fructose and sucrose. Nectar secreted at night is generally more diluted than nectar produced during the day. None of the nectar samples produced at night reached... the threshold value (100 mg/ml) of bee visitation. In the majority of cultivars the difference in concentration between night and day nectar is not too high, but in two cultivars, 'Korai pipacs' and ‘Újfehértói fürtös’ the difference is quite significant. Most sucrose was found in the nectar of cvs. 'Érdi jubileum' and ‘Újfehértói fürtös’, but a high amount of sucrose was measured also in the flowers of 'Korai pipacs' and 'Meteor USA'. Nectar concentration varies from opening of the flower to petal fall to a smaller or greater degree, depending on the given cultivar. From the 9 sour cherry cultivars studied ‘Újfehértói fürtös’ and Tandy 48' had the most attractive nectar for bees. There was no correlation between nectar composition and free fertilisation. On the basis of nectar composition the majority of the sour cherry cultivars studied can be classified into the sucrose-rich category; only one cultivar, 'Érdi jubileum' had a sucrose-dominant secretory product. The composition of nectar in the studied sour cherry cultivars is preferred by bees.
The role of meteorological variables of blossoming and ripening within the tendency of qualitative indexes of sour cherry
7-10.Vol 16No 12010
We analyzed the relationship to sour cherry quality parameters of average temperature, maximum temperature, minimumtemperature, night and day-time temperature, precipitation and climatic water balance variables. Three cultivars of sour cherry were includedin the selection: “Debreceni bôtermô”, “Kántorjánosi”, and “Újfehértói fürt...ös”.We conducted regression analyzes on the three varieties, butpresent only those that proved to be the best fit.We couldn’t find any significant differences in the weather tolerance of the varieties. The database of sour cherry quality parameters covers the 1998 to 2008 intervals. The researched parameters were the following: dry matter content(%), sugar content (%), C-vitamin (mg), total acid content (%). Maximum temperature, the difference of night and day-time temperature andminimum temperature all have a significant correlation with the investigated quality parameters of sour cherry. Minimum temperature showsa quadratic relationship with sugar content, while night and day-time temperature differences show the same with dry matter content. Theother weather parameters had a linear correlation with the quality parameters of sour cherry. The research results show that an increasingamount of precipitation causes decreasing tendency in total acid content of sour cherry, so that increasing temperature has a positive influenceon total acid content. Big differences in night and day-time temperature also has positive effects on the dry matter and sugar content of sourcherry while the amount of precipitation has a negative effect. High minimum temperatures cause decreasing sugar content respiratory energylosses are significant if dawn temperatures do not drop considerably.A more favourable climatic water balance has a positive effect on vitaminC content in cases of a large negative water balance, vitamin C content is generally low.
Susceptibility of sour cherry cultivars to isolates of Monilia laxa (Ehrenbergh) Saccardo et Voglino
83-87.Vol 14No 1-2.2008
In this study, the susceptibility of 7 commercially important sour cherry cultivars to Monilinia laxa was studied. Artificial inoculation was made with M. laxa isolates, which were isolated from different woody plants. Artificial inoculation was prepared in the laboratory and in the field. In laboratory, flowers of sour cherries while in the field..., the two-year old twigs were inoculated in 2006 and 2007. According to results of stigmata inoculation, there were infection ability differences among the isolates originated from five different stone fruit host. Cultivars could be sorted into two susceptibility groups. In the field, twig inoculation in 2007 was made at blossom period and in 2007 at harvest. Seven sour cherry cultivars were inoculated with 8-day-old mycelial culture of M. laxa originated from sour cherry and almond. The agressivity and pathogenicity of the two isolates were measured by the degree of floem death: Results showed that year and phenological stage considerably influenced the degree of symptoms caused by the fungus. After artificial inoculation, tissue death progression was studied by fluorescent microscope. According to results, sour cherry cultivars were sorted into disease susceptibility groups. Susceptibility orders were identical to results on stigmata inoculation.
Determination of the cold tolerance off sour cherry cultivars with frost treatments in climatic chamber
49-54.Vol 14No 1-2.2008
Nowadays, sour cherry buds can be seriously damaged by spring and winter frosts. Unlike other fruit species threatened by high frost damage, sour cherry cultivars have not been assessed for frost tolerance. The aim of .our survey was to establish the relative cold tolerance of the Hungarian cultivars after treatment in a climatic chamber, and to o...ptimize the methodology formerly elaborated for the frost treatment of apricot. Fourteen cultivars of Hungarian sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) were used in the experiments, which spanned the winters of 2005/2006 and 2006/2007. Our data were used to rank cultivars in two groups according to their levels of cold resistance. We also recommend critical temperatures and treatment times for the testing of sour cherry cultivar resistance to cold in climatic chambers.
First results of varios sour cherry cultivar on Oblacsinska as interstocks and Prunus mahaleb rootstocks
87-90.Vol 15No 1-22009
At the experiment orchard of the Fruit Research and Extension Institute, Újfehértó, Hungary in spring 2000 a trial was designed included: Erdi bőtermő, Debreceni bőtermő, and Csengődi sour cherry (Prunus avium L) cultivars which were budded at 1999 on Oblacsinska sour cherry (as a dwarf inter stock), which had been budded on Prunus mahaleb... seedlings at 1998 with the aim to investigate the dwarfing effects of Oblacsinska sour cherry cultivars on scion cultivars. Trees of each cultivar directly on Prunus mahaleb seedling, severd as controls. Use of Oblacsinska as an interstock reduced the rootstock trunk diameter. Trees of Debreceni bőtermő, and Cseng6di sour cherry cultivars with Oblacsinska interstock were smaller than similar trees grafted directly onto Prunus mahaleb as a rootstock. Trees of Erdi bőtermő grafted on Oblacsinska interstock which buded on Prunus mahaleb were the smallest. Growth of the trees was reduced also by using of the Oblacsinszka as interstock for other examined cultivars.
55-58.Vol 20No 1-22014
Sour cherry is a hungaricum. Hungary has several excellent and self fertile sour cherry cultivars. Hungarian sour cherries have a name for fruit quality and they are suitable for fresh consumption. Today breeding is focused not only on fruit quality, but also on disease resistance. The new, investigated cultivars have these characteristics too. Bu...t growth characteristics are also very important because they contribute to successful production. The vegetative and generative properties of the cultivars are different. If a cultivar is very productive, the ignorance of cultivar-specific pruning may result in the decrease in tree condition and fruit quality. The properties of producing fruiting wood greatly determine the renewal capabilities of cultivars. Knowing these properties is essential in case of sour cherries, the fruit species that requires a lot of sunlight and tends to produce bare wood. The research of candidate cultivars until now focused on fruit quality. Our aim was to investigate the vegetative characteristics of the resistant ‘bosnyák’ cultivar group in detail, defining the growth characteristics of these cultivars.
25-28.Vol 16No 32010
Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) cultivars grown in Hungary are of local origin while most sweet cherry cultivars in Hungary are introduced from other countries.A great phenotypic variability is displayed by both species. In the present study, we analyzed 10 sour and 9 sweet cherry cultivars for their antioxidant capacity, total polyphenolics (TPC)... and total anthocyanin (TMAC) contents. In general, sour cherries showed higher levels of antioxidant capacity, TPC and TMAC. The anthocyanin contents varied from 0.16 to 6.85 and 1.41 to 127.56 mg/100 g for sweet and sour cherries, respectively. However, TMAC generally seems to have a limited influence on the antioxidant capacity of cherries.An amarelletype sour cherry, ‘Pipacs 1’ showed the highest antioxidant capacity (21.21mmolAA/l) and TPC (44.07mgGA/l) in contrast to its lowanthocyanin content. The detected diversity presents a choice that can satisfy different consumer preferences, and meet specific nutritional requirements.
Cracking susceptibility of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) in Hungary and relation to calcium application
109-118.Vol 13No 32007
The rain induced fruit cracking is a big, serious problem especially for sour cherry growers but in some year sour cherry growers had also problem with fruit cracking caused by too much rainfall in the harvesting season. The cracked sour cherry fruits can be easily infected by different diseases like Monillinia sp. Cracked and infected fruits can ...not be transported for long distance and using for preservation because they lost their market value by the pour fruit quality. There are two possibilities to protect fruits against the rain induced fruit cracking. The most effective protection technique is the plastic rain cover over the tree rows. The installation of these equipments is too expensive for the growers. That is the reason why researchers tried to find other less expensive and sufficiently effective ways like sprayings different mineral salts, hormone and other type chemicals against the rain induced fruit cracking. Several calcium formulas calcium chloride (CaC12), calcium hydroxide (Ca (OH),) and calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2) can be sprayed in appropriate solution concentration. The aim of our trial is to determinate the fruit cracking susceptibility of wide grown Hungarian sour cherry varieties and find the most effective calcium formula and its concentration for spraying in orchards to prevent the fruit cracking. In the first trial year (2006) cracking index of tested sour cherry varieties were determined under field and laboratory conditions. Under field conditions were not found differences between cracking tendency of tested cultivars. After results of immersing fruits in distillated water for 24 hours tested sour cherry varieties were divided to three groups by the susceptibility to rain induced fruit cracking: very susceptible (`Maliga emléke', 'Piramis', 'Érdi jubileum', 'Erdi nagygyümölcsű’ and 'Meteor korai'); susceptible ‘Érdi bőtermő, Tandy 279' and Cigány 59.; moderately susceptible/tolerant ("T" and "R" clones). In the second trial year (2007) calcium chloride (CaCl2) and calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2) were sprayed in 0,35m/m%; 0,5m/m% and 1,0m/m% solution concentration. One more commercial product "Damisol-Kalcium" was also applied in the advised 1,0m/m% concentration. Like in the trial year before (2006) under field conditions we did not kept differences between the cracking susceptibility of varieties and calcium treatments. As the result of laboratory testing (immersing calcium treated fruits in distillated water) we kept that calcium chloride (CaCl2) seems the most effective against the fruit cracking in 0,5m/in% solution concentration. The other calcium formulas also decreased the cracking ratio but in less scale.
High antioxidant - and anthocyanin contents of sour cherry cultivars may benefit the human health: international and Hungarian achievements on phytochemicals
45-47.Vol 12No 32006
Evidence suggests that a diet with high fruit and vegetable consumption may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Recent research has proved that sour cherr...y (Prunus cerasus L.) is a valuable natural source of some bioactive compounds important in human health preservation. According to the published data, the most important biological effects of sour cherry are connected — directly or indirectly — to their endogenous antioxidant behaviour as well as to their specific pattern of anthocyanin components. In the present work, we measured the total antioxidant capacity of some Hungarian sour cherry varieties in combination with their anthocyanin-, and vitamin-C content. In 2003, twelve clones were selected and grafted from a local sour cherry population called "Bosnyák" sour cherry grown in small home gardens and farms of the village Csengod (Great-Plain Region, South Hungary). Other Hungarian sour cherry varieties, i.e. cv. Újfehértói fürtos, cv. Érdi bőterrnő, cv. Debreceni bőterrnő, cv. Csengődi and cv. Kántorjánosi served as a control.
Seasonality of weather and phenology of reproductive organs of flower of sour cherry cultivars in Hungarian climatic conditions
75-80.Vol 15No 1-22009
Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is one of the most important fruit crop grown in Hungary, The flowering phenology and pollen shedding/stigma viability ratio, in an effort to elucidate the reproductive phenology of nine economically important sour cherry cultivars (Érdi bőtermő, Debreceni bőtermő, Csengődi, Kántorjánosi 3. Pándy 279. Úfeh...értói fürtös, Petri, Éva, and Oblacsinszka) all widespread in the Hungary, was studied at Újfehertó climatic condition. The main aims were to investigate how possible environmental cues influence timing and development of phenophases and whether different cultivars have different seasonal responses to these cues. Likely effects of climatic changes on phenological development patterns were also considered. Our results revealed important aspects of the reproductive biology of sour cherry flowers. The amplitude of the phenophase "beginning of blossoming" between cultivars did not exceed 6 days. There is maximum 3 days difference in blooming length of different direction in each cultivar. Pándy 279 showed high variability when the position of flowers changed on the tree shoots. Újfehértói fürtös was stable in all four directions of tree. The pollen shedding period and stigma viability ratio was well synchronous. Pollen shedding phenomenon occurred in the range limitation of secretary activity of stigmas in all five cultivars. Distribution of pollen shedding over the secretary activity of stigmas is almost good. In all five cultivars maximum pollen shedding occurred about the high temperature part of the day.
117-120.Vol 12No 22006
Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is an allotetraploid species derived from hybridisation of the diploid sweet cherry (P avium L.) and the tetraploid ground cherry (P. fruticosa Pall.). Although numerous self-incompatible cultivars exist, the most sour cherry cultivars are self-compatible, which might be due to their tetraploid nature. This review i...s dedicated to show the limited information on the genetics of self-incompatibility in sour cherry accumulated during the last five years. Two different hypotheses (genomic arrangement of the alleles or the accumulation of non-functional S-haplotypes) are discussed. Heteroallelic sour cherry pollen was shown to be self-incompatible, which is counter to the Solanaceae where heteroallelic pollen frequently self-compatible due to a kind of competitive interaction between the two different alleles. This review highlights some inconsistencies in the hope that clarification will be achieved in the near future.
39-43.Vol 20No 1-22014
Central Europe can be taken as a geographical and historical connection zone between the western growing countries and Asian gene centres of Prunus tree fruits. The determination of the S-genotype of stone fruit (mainly almond, plum, cherries and apricot) cultivars and landraces has both practical and theoretical significance. Our group has alloca...ted complete S-genotypes for more than 200 cultivars and selections of almond, Japanese plum, sweet cherry and apricot. Among Eastern European almond cultivars, two novel cross-incompatibility groups (CIGs) were identified. S-alleles of a related species were also shown in P. dulcis accessions; a fact seems to be indicative of introgressive hybridization. Our results with Japanese plum clarified and harmonized two different allele nomenclatures and formed a basis for intensive international studies. In apricot, a total of 13 new S-alleles were identified from Eastern European and Asian accessions. Many Turkish and North African cultivars were classified into new CIGs, III–XVII. Results suggest that the mutation rendering apricot self-compatible might have occurred somewhere in south-east of Turkey and we were successful to confirm the presumed Irano-Caucasian origin of North African apricots based on the geographical distribution of S-alleles. In sweet cherry, new alleles have been identified and characterized from Turkish cultivars and selections. In addition, wild sweet cherry and sour cherry S-alleles were also shown indicating a a broader gene pool in Turkey as compared with international cultivars. We also used S-genotype information of Ukrainian sweet cherry cultivars to design crosses in a functional breeding program. Our results exhibit an increased number of S-alleles in tree fruit accessions native to the regions from Eastern Europe to Central Asia, which can be used to develop S-genotyping methods, to assist cultivation and draw inferences for crop evolution.
Incidence of postharvest decays on cultivars of pear, apricot, sour cherry and peach under two storage conditions
63-65.Vol 17No 4-52011
In this two-year study, postharvest decays of pear, apricot, sour cherry and peach cultivars under two storage methods (TC and CA) were determined after four monthes storage periods; and then causal agents of postharvest decays of two pear cultvars were idenfified under traditional cold storage conditions. Results showed that postharvest decay was... lower under controlled atmosphere compared to traditional cold one. Decay was lower on pear and the largest deacy occured on peach and apricot cultivars. Cultivars of fruit species also showed differences in incidence of fruit decays. Incidence of decays was independent on year effect. Under controlled atmosphere, postharvest decay ranged between 0 an 8% for pear, and between 5 and 12% for apricot, and between 6 and 11% for sour cherry, and between 5 and 15% for peach. Under traditional cold storage, postharvest decay ranged between 16 an 21% for pear, and between 15 and 39% for apricot, and between 10 and 22% for sour cherry, and between 19 and 33% for peach. Incidence of pear fruit damage ranged between 7.5 and 12.3%. Most damage started from injured fruit or wounded fruit. Five types of damage occurred ont he pear fruits in both years: Penicillium spp., Monilinia spp., Chondrostereum spp., other pathogens and mechanical injury. The most common damage was caused by Penicillium spp., Monilina spp. and Chondrostereum spp. On both pear cultivars in both years.
31-33.Vol 14No 32008
The objective of this study was to evaluate the ratio of blackness of the surface of stigma of sour cherry cultivars. At the full bloom time of sour cherry 100 new opened flowers were marked in the internal (Inside), external (outside), bottom and upper parts of the crown of each cultivars including sour cherry cultivars ‘Érdi bőtermő', `Debr...eceni bőtermő', `Kántorjánosi', 'R. clone', 'Petri', Pándy', and 'D. clone'. The trees were replicated four times. The numbers of flowers with black stigma were counted and the percentage of dead stigma was calculated. In addition, tissues of black stigmata were investigated for blossom pathogens by microscopy. After flowering time the fruit set of the marked flowers counted and then percentage fruit set was calculated. Numbers of counted flowers were between 300 and 980 depending on the four position of the tree. Black color of stigma could be seen only on three cultivars (`Debreceni bőtermő', Érdi bőtermő' and 'Petri') out of seven assessed cultivars. The highest numbers of black colored stigma were found on cultivar ‘Érdi bőtermő' which ranged between incidences of 12 and 21%. Black stigma was never able to produce a fruit set. Microscopic examination revealed no pathogens associated with black stigma. Different part of the tree resulted different amount of black stigma. Black stigma was the largest on the outer part of the tree on cv. 'Érdi bőtermő' but also bottom part of the tree also produced larger number of black stigma on cvs. `Debreceni bőtermő' and ‘Érdi bőtermő'. Though symptoms were not typical to frost damage, we believe that black stigma is probably due to environmental factors during flowering. This might be associated with late spring cold coming from the soil surface as the bottom and outer part of the tree was more suffered from the disease.
65-78.Vol 14No 1-2.2008
In utilisation of sour cherry cultivars, the paradigm has gradually changed in the sense that fresh consumption gained much more attention than before on a worldwide scale. Consequently, much more attention is paid to the problems connected with the storage, i.e. preservation of fresh fruit for direct consumption. It is a genuine interest of growe...rs, traders as well as of consumers to be informed about the possibilities of preserving economically the fresh status for a longer period after harvest during the warm summer weather in addition to the lengthening of the harvest season by choosing cultivars of different dates of ripening. Recent results of purposeful experiments indicate that the storability of the fruit of 6 main Hungarian sour cherry cultivars is on the same level ('Érdi bőtermő, 'Debreceni bőtermő’, 'Újfehértói fürtos', 'Kántorjánosi', 'Éva', 'Petri'). The traditional conditions facilitated the maintenance of freshness over a 5-week-long period, and the loss of volume was less than 7%. During the first 2 weeks, there was no difference between the cultivars regarding loss of volume and decay, moreover, the effect of time elapsed after harvest and of adversities of transport was not significant. It could be stated that 2 week of storing is safely feasible. We need only 2 °C temperature and 90% of relative humidity. The relations of oxygen and CO2 of the atmosphere is less decisive than temperature alone. No essential difference has been registered between the storing in plastic trays versus plastic boxes either. A study was performed to assess the modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) effect on Hungarian sour cherries growing in Iran (`Érdi bőtermő and ‘Érdi jubileum') shelf life. The harvested fruits stored at 0 °C under modified atmospheres (15% 0, and 10% CO2 and 75% nitrogen) for 6 weeks. Descriptive analysis showed that sour cherry stored in control condition had a higher deterioration rate than those stored in under modified atmosphere, which showed a lower rejection rate and a longer shelf life than those stored in modified atmosphere.
Simultaneousness of reproductive organs of sour cherry cultivars adaptable to Iranian climatic condition
25-31.Vol 15No 42009
Observations were made on simultaneousness of pollen shedding and stigma viability ratio, to clarify the phenology of reproductive organs of nine economically important sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) cultivars (‘Érdi bôtermô‘, ‘Debreceni bőtermő‘, ‘Csengődi‘, ‘Kántorjánosi 3‘, ‘Újfehértói fürtös‘, ‘Petri‘, ‘...Eva‘, ‘Oblascinszka‘, and ‘Pándy 279’). The main aim was investigation the possible influence of environmental cues in timing and development of phenophases and also responses of different cultivars to seasonal cues. Likely effects of climatic changes on phenological development patterns were also considered. Results showed important aspects of the reproductive biology of sour cherry flowers. The amplitude of the phenophase “beginning of blossoming” between cultivars did not exceed 6 days. There is a maximum 3 day difference in the blooming length of different directions in each cultivar. ‘Pándy 279‘ showed high variability when the position of flowers changed on the tree shoots. ‘Újfehértói fürtös‘ was stable in all four directions of the tree. The pollen shedding period and stigma viability ratio were synchronous. Pollen shedding phenomenon simultaneously occurred with the secretary activities of stigmas in all examined cultivars. Distribution of pollen shedding over the secretary activity of stigmas is almost good. In all five cultivars maximum pollen shedding occurred when the temperature was high during the day. In general the results of this experiment and our previous studies clearly demonstrate that the Pándy groups not recommended for plantation in new orchards of Iran.
First evaluation of fruit quality of some new and old sour cherry cultivars in Hungarian climatic condition
37-43.Vol 15No 42009
Indeed, in the last decade a large number of new sour cherry cultivars with new notable flavor characteristics have been released. There is no enough information related to qualitative characteristics which consistently segregated based on their predominant sensory characteristics. The present study carried out at tow consecutive years (2008 and 2...009) and examined some qualitative characters which are the main importance in the specialty cherries trade, The main objective was to determine fruits quality of Érdi bőtermő, Oblacsinszka, Debreceni bőtermő, Csengődi, Pándy 279, Éva, Kántorjánosi, Újfehértói fürtös and Petri sour cherry cultivars. Changes observed in major characteristics such as fruit detachment force, width, length, weight, peduncle length, flesh firmness, brix, citric acid, Suger/acid ratio and pit weigh.While observed no change in flesh/pit ratio and Coordinate of colour (X*, y*, x*), hue angle and chroma value, in different years. In all measured factors, there was significant difference between selected cultivars of sour cherry fruit. Debreceni bőtermő showed higher values of fruit detachment force in 2008, while had the lover of fruit detachment force in 2009. Fruit firmness of “Érdi bőtermő” were monitored at lover value in both 2-year.
31-34.Vol 20No 3-42014
The richness of Hungarian sour cherry cultivars in the world is unique; they can be consumed in many ways. Sour cherry is a Hungaricum and has excellent fruit quality and nutritional value. Nowadays the demand for chemical-free fruits is increasing. Reducing the number of chemical applications can be achieved most effectively by the use of resista...nt varieties, technological developments and cultivar innovation. The domestic and international sour cherry breeding programs use almost exclusively the resistant ‘Csengôdi’ clones as a basis. They are mainly Monilinia and Blumeriella resistant and have higher dry matter and antioxidant content. These pathogens influence not only the qualitative and quantitative parameters of the fruits, but may play an indirect role in the deterioration of the overall condition of the trees as well. The cultivation of resistant varieties can greatly reduce the pesticide load of the environment, so we can produce fruit with excellent nutritional value with fewer chemicals. Our aim is the expansion of the sour cherry assortment by introducing new resistant cultivars. With this we can contribute to the spreading of environmentally sound production technologies and supply “super fruits” to the consumers.
Antioxidant capacity, total phenolics and mineral element contents in fruits of Hungarian sour cherry cultivars
59-64.Vol 14No 1-2.2008
Several epidemiological studies revealed that the consumption of antioxidant compounds and the risk of atherosclerosis, increased blood pressure or cancer are inversely proportional. Fruits of sour cherry contain a wide range of antioxidant compounds including melatonin, perillyl alcohol, ellagic acid, several flavonoids, polyphenolics, and anthoc...yanins. This study was carried out to survey the antioxidant power and mineral element content of seven commercial sour cherry cultivars and three cultivar candidates and to assess the influence of some external conditions on fruits' functional properties. Our analysis revealed nearly 5- and 2-fold differences between the lowest and highest antioxidant capacities and total phenolics content, respectively. Some cultivars (`Kántorjánosi' and ‘Újfehértói fürtös') and cultivar candidates (D, 'Petri' and 'Éva') showed outstanding antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content; in addition, mineral element content in fruits of the ‘Újfehértói fürtös' cultivar was also favourable. Redox parameters of fruits were influenced by the cultivation plot or fruit positions within the canopy in about half of the cultivars tested. Genetic background of cultivars forms the decisive factor in determining fruits' antioxidant capacity, although external factors may have also sizeable modifying effects. Enhanced functional properties of the fruit may also be further increased through breeding programs since considerable variation exists within the tested germplasm.
99-101.Vol 13No 32007
Determination of flower microphenology for selecting the suitable pollinizer for sour cherry cultivars is of significant importance. In order to study the flower microphenology of Hungarian sour cherry (Bőtermő, Érdi jubileum and Cigány) cultivars in Mashhad climatic conditions, an experiment was conducted in I998. 1999, 2005 and 2006, using a... completely randomized design with ten replications. The phenological stages were determined from before opening up to browning phase of stigma. Duration of pollen shedding, stigma receptivity and climatic factors were measured. The relative time of flowering between cultivars varied from year to year. The data indicate, the thermal variation strongly contributes to significant differences in duration of stigma viability, although there wasn't a significant difference between cultivars in anther dehiscence period. Phenological stages of flowers are highly affected by meteorological factors in various years.
55-57.Vol 14No 1-2.2008
The yielding potential and regeneration (i.e. germination of hidden buds) after pruning of the fruit-bearing shoots of different ages were compared in sour cherry cultivars pruned to spindle shape. The examinations were carried out in order to determine the optimal pruning strategy resulting in the highest long-term yielding of sour cherry cultiva...rs with intensive crown shape (free and thin spindle shape). According to our results, there are great differences among the studied self-fertile sour cherry cultivars in yielding and regeneration, which are worthwhile to be considered in determining the method and degree of pruning.