Foliar application has been determined to be an effective nutrients delivery strategy in vegetable and fruits. The enhancement of vegetable and fruit yields affected by foliar nutrients application has been recognized in previously conducted studies with perennial tree crops. The efficiency of foliar nutrition is dependent on soil, climate, fer...tilizer and the amount of nitrogen used. There is no sufficient information concerning cooperation of foliar nutrition with all nutrients form as well as the rates of these nutrients fertilization in vegetable
and fruit crops. Two successive winter seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 were conducted under sandy soil conditions to study the effect of spraying with 12 commercial compounds on inflorescences diameter, flower stalk length, number of seed stem /plant, weight of 1000 seed, germination percentage, seed yield, moisture content, catalase , peroxidase activity and malondialdehyde content of onion seeds. The plants
sprayed with union Zn, union Mn, union feer, shams k, elga 600, boron, and amino x had the highest vegetative growth parameter, germination percent and enzyme activity. The plants sprayed with union Zn, union feer, shams K, magnesium, caboron, hummer and amino X had the highest seed yield ha-1. The seeds were stored for one year to study the effect of different commercial compounds and storage temperatures on germination, moisture content and change in antioxidant enzymes activities of onion seeds during the storage period. Storage at cold temperature showed higher germination percent, moisture content and lower malondialdehyde content than storage at room temperature. The treatment with union Zn, union feer, union Mn, boron, elga 600, caboron, amica, hummer and amino x had the highest germination percent.
Cucumber production by soil less culture on rockwool substrate in Hungary is an open system regarding its water and nutrient supply. Environmental and economical reasons require the recycling of nutrients of the system. Experiments have been planned in order to estimate the utilisation of individual nutrient elements applied. All around the veg...etation period, chemical analyses monitored the depletion of the elements initially administered by sampling the solutions at successive phases from the injection to the overflow. The results have been compared with earlier experiences refering to general rules. It has been stated that the intensity of photosynthesis is decisive in determining the composition of the overflow. The less changes are observed during the period of frequent watering.
The absorption of the nutrient elements varied between 25-51% deperiding on the individual elements. The differences are significant. Further examinations are needed in order to clear:
- which are the main elements of technology, which are decisive in utilisation of nutrients
- what are the possibilities of the secondary utilisation of nutrients.
Vegetable production in greenhouses may impair the ecological balance of the environment substantially as far as being uncontrolled. Soilless cultures especially should be handled thoughtfully. A fraction of the nutrients administered, more than 25-30%, is doomed to be lost in an open system, and the resulting ecological risk is accompanied wit...h increasing costs of the production. Experiments have been conducted with the purpose of estimate the amount of nutrients involved. According to the results, as a mean, 30-80 per cent of the main nutrients was utilised. The rate of nutrient utilisation is influenced by the plant species involved as well as by the circumstances of production. One of its most important components is the irrigation, which determines the amount of overflow and of its salt content.
A field experiment was conducted in an integrated apple orchard (Malus domestica Borkh.) established on a lowland chernozem soil in East-Hungary, to investigate if flower analysis could be used to diagnose the nutritional status of the trees. In April 2008, during full bloom, flowers and leaves were collected. Leaves were collected aga...in in August, at the standard sampling time from the same trees. The content of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium magnesium and boron were measured in flowers and in leaves. Correlation analyses were carried out to establish the relation s between nutrient contents in same and different plant part s. In flowers the following ratio was found between nutrients: N:P: K:Ca:Mg:B -10: l.35:7: 1.7: I :0,02. From result s it was evident that flower as organ contain significant and comparable amount of nutrients like as leaf. The N, K and Ca content were higher in leaves than in flowers at full bloom. The opposite was true for B. The P and Mg content of flower were quite equal with leaf P and Mg at full bloom . All examined nutrients were significantly affected by cultivars both in flowers and leaves. Significant correlation, was found between flower P and leaf P, flower B and leaf B (P=O.O 1) and flower K and leaf K at blooming time (P=0.05). Significant, but weaker correlation was also found between flower K and leaf K and between flower Mg and leaf Mg al JOO days after full bloom (P=0.05). Moreover, strong, but negative correlation was observed between flower B and leaf B at 100 clays after full bloom (P=O.O 1). Within flowers, the strongest positive correlation was found between Mg and B content (P=O.O 1). Strong positive correlations were also recognised between flower K and flower N, Ca and Mg and between N and Ca in the flowers (P=0.01). The strongest correlation was found between K and P in leaves at full bloom (P=O.O 1 ). Strong significant correlation was observed between N and B in the leaves collected at standard sampling time (100 DAFB) (P=0.01). Strong, but negative correlations were found bet ween leaf Mg and leaf P, K and between leaf N and leaf P at 100 days after full bloom (P=O.O 1).
Recent interest to avoid use of agrochemicals in fruit growing to safeguard environmental and human health has stimulated interest in organic fruit production (OFP) all over the world. Organic production requires a holistic approach to agricultural ecosystem management. Because of the perennial nature of orchards, this is not a great departure...from conventional orchard management, except that corrective techniques are limited primarily to naturally derived materials. Organic mineral nutrition management hinges on two principles: 1) practices that lead to the build up and maintenance of soil that is biologically active and high in organic matter; 2) supplementing the mineral nutrients provided by the soil with fertilizers from approved sources. Organic orchards should be sited on land with superior soils and preplant soil preparation to increase organic matter and correct any sub-optimal soil characteristics. For successful organic fruit growing the following statement should be considered:Weed management is critical to reduce competition for nutrients and water. Soil and leaf analysis provide the basis for correcting mineral nutrient deficiencies or imbalances in organic production. It may be necessary to use a number of strategies to supply mineral nutrients over the life of the orchard. The slower, natural methods applied require a management approach that is simultaneously patient and dynamic.
The purpose of phenometry is to examine the measurable parameters of the plants in order to follow up the consequences of weather processes. We should fi nd the reasons, why the diameter of fruits grows larger in one season and smaller in the next. Variation may occur as a response to insuffi cient provision of water or nutrients, but also beca...use of pathological effects and of extremely high or low temperatures, moreover, of extraordinary heavy fruit load. There are phenometrical characteristics, which consider the fi nal consequences (density of fl owers, fruits set, drop of fruits), whereas other parameters could be followed up (size, length and width of fruits) as the dynamic components of growth. The quantitative parameters of growth are functionally related to each other, where the weather conditions, soil humidity and nutrients are on the input side, thus it is possible to model the growth of fruits as a function of the environment. Initially, the relations between the main weather variables and the phenometrical data have to be cleared. In the present study, the interactions between the mentioned phenomena are presented and numerically defi ned.
The year of 2007 was critical for fruit growers in the region of Easter-Hungary. Several orchards were suffered frost damages. Significant frost damage was also happened in the orchard of Tedej Rt., which caused total fruit failure in the orchard. Our study was conducted in the integrated apple orchard (Malus domestics Borkh.) establis...hed on a lowland chemozem soil in East-Hungary, to investigate how frost changes the mineral content of different apple species. Leaf samples were collected 100 days after full bloom both in 2006 and 2007. The concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium and magnesium were measured in leaves. The absence of fruits caused a smaller accumulation of nitrogen and magnesium in leaves. Falling down of flowers and fruit sets hindered the translocation of the uptaken phosphorous, potassium and calcium towards fruit sets. Due to fruit failure the vegetative processes became dominant. Leaves larger amount of phosphorous, potassium and calcium stored. Besides the absolute element content, the ratio of the different elements was also determined. Majority of calculated ratios were removed from optimal values due to frost. Both absolute content of nutrients and their ratios pointed out that the frost damage significantly affected the uptake of nutrients and their storing processes.
The basic conditions of fruit set (synchronic bloom, transfer of pollen, etc.) still do decide definitely the fate of the flower in spite of the best weather conditions. Beyond a set quantity of fruits, the tree is unable to bring up larger load. A system of autoregulation works in the background and causes the drop of a fraction of fruits in s...pite of the accomplished fertilisation and the equality of physiological precedents. This study discuss this physiological process based on the international specific literature. The further development of fruits maintained on the tree depends mainly on the growing conditions (e.g. water, supply of nutrients, weather adversities, pruning, fruit thinning, biotic damages, etc.), which may cause on their own turn fruit drop especially at the time of approaching maturity.
There is a very difficult equation for malnutrition and over-consumption. That means malnutrition even of vitamins and/or minerals (Ca, Cu, Fe, I, Mg, Se and Zn, vitamin A) affects more than two billion people worldwide, largely due to low concentrations or poor bioavailability of the nutrients in the diet. In some developed countries in contra...st, over-consumption, particularly of over-refined cerealbased foods, has contributed to the development of an epidemic of metabolic diseases. So, producing nutritious and safe foods sufficiently and sustainably is important target at the same time challenge of modern agriculture. In the past, great efforts have focused only on increasing crop yields, but enhancing the concentrations of mineral micronutrients has become an urgent task. The main daily food source is the staple crops specially in developing countries of the world, i.e., wheat, rice, cassava, beans, sweet potato or maize. These kind of plants are often deficient in some of mineral elements. Thus, the increasing of bioavailable concentration of micronutrients in edible crop tissues (via biofortification) has become a promising strategy in modern agriculture, providing more nutritious foods, to more people, with the use of fewer lands. Biofortification of these trace elements can be achieved application with agronomic process such as soil or foliar fertilization or crop breeding even conventional technic and/or genetic engineering. This review highlight progress to date and identify challenges faced in delivering biofortified vegetable crops as well as the agronomic approaches and tools to improve crop yield and micronutrient content of food crops.
In vitro cultures have widely been used in horticulture for rapid multiplication of new varieties and clones as well as to produce pathogen-free stock material. To improve efficient hardening and transfer in vitro grown grapevine plants were multiplied by cutting them into single-node internodes with the whole leaf. Microcutti...ngs including the shoot tips were rooted in granulated perlite moisted with tapwater under sterile conditions. After 2-3 weeks the rooted microcuttings were supplied by nutrients and hardened by gradual opening and finally by complete removal of the lids of jars or plastic boxes used for growth. Using this method microcuttings of Vitis vinifera cvs. „Chardonnay", „Cabernet franc", „Riesling" and „Sauvignon blanc" and the rootstock varieties Vitis riparia x Vitis cinerea cv. „Barrier" and Vitis berlandieri x Vitis rupestris cv. „Richter 110" formed new roots and shoots and 100% of the tested plants survived the acclimatization procedure. Similar results were obtained when perlite was replaced with rockwool-, or pit-pot blocks. This method may highly increase the efficiency of producing pathogen-free propagating material and new transgenic lines.
Produce of harmonic nutrient balance and status of trees is basic task of growers for qualified fruit growing. The role of crop loaded is essential to grow the productivity of trees without nutrient disorder or other nutritional problems. To reduce the frequency of biennial bearing there are some ways (site and species selection, crop regulatio...n, irrigation, nutrition etc.) from them one is the best easy way the proper site and species oriented nutrition. Sometimes the responsible for irregular cropping is the insufficient fertilization. Observed irregular cropping at two apple cultivars (Malus domestica Borkh., cv. ‘Summerred’ and cv. ‘Mutsu’) in an integrated apple orchard at Hajdúnánás-Tedej, in 2007 resulted a chance to determine nutritional status of “bearing” and “non bearing” trees and investigate the effects of irregular cropping on nutrient uptake and possibilities of correction. Our results pointed out that irregularity is connection on nutrition status of trees. Irregular cropping results in insufficient nutrient uptake and disharmony of nutrients. For this reason, the establishment of nutrient status of “non bearing” trees is could permit a chance to correct and improve the nutrient supply of trees which help to breakdown the vicious circle of irregularity.
Based on the experiments, an assessment was made to determine for green pepper the amount of nutrients extracted by unit weight of fruit and plant parts not meant to be consumed (foliage, stem, root), i.e. the specific nutrient requirements of pepper. A further objective was to find out to what extent nutrient accumulation in individual plant o...rgans was influenced by differences in production technology and soil conditions.
In this study. we are partly focusing on consumer acceptance of fruit, like fruit cracking, weight and flavours, and maturation, fruit density and content of nutrients which are undelie consumer acceptance, and important equally to the growers and marketers. the results on the dynamics of N-uptake corresponded ti thephenological phases of cherr...y and independent on the applied treatments. Younger leaves contain more N than elder due to the effective N uptake of young leaves. Based on the measurements conducted in June, the P content of leaves was in low P supply category at the control and the Benefit treatment, while was in the lower range of optimal category at Damisol treatment. According to our measurements, the K of cherry leaves decreases continuosly until September, expcept the control at which it increased from the end of June to September. the fruit weight was increased significantly by applying Benefit PZ. the best results for fruit cracing observed at Benefit treatment too. The best result for fruit density was observed at Damisol treatment.
The aim our study was to establish whether significant differences in nutrients uptake and quality of fruit exist
between organic and integrated grown apples. The study was performed at the orchard Fruit Research Station, University of Debrecen, at Debrecen-Pallag during 2002–2004. Diameter (mm), weight (g), firmness (N/cm2), dry matter (%
Before Hungary joined the EU watermelon production was a key sector of the Hungarian vegetable industry. Its production area shrank by nearly 60 % since 2004, it is only 5000 ha today. Stable and reliable market failed to evolve in the last years and extreme weather events occurred more frequently. An unfavourable growing season can notably aff...ect the production volume of the next season. Information gathered in the last years support the assumption, that suitable stocks can help eliminate the issues caused by extreme weather or short-term crop rotation. Choosing the right grafted or non-grafted transplant is not enough any more, growers also have to select stock. In fruit and vine production choosing the stock, which is the most suitable for the technology is evident and this approach should be widely adapted by watermelon growers as well. In this research we investigated the growth parameters of different watermelon stocks and their effect on the scion during the transplant production. Measurements were carried out on seven different stock-scion combinations of the scion ’Topgun F1’ hybrid. Two of the stocks were interspecific (Cucurbita maxima × Cucurbita moschata) and five stocks were Lagenaria-type (Lagenaria siceraria) stocks. We made and recorded observations of the transplants’ length (cm), diameter of the stock and scion (mm), number of leaves (piece), root length (cm), root mass (g) and shoot mass (g). We concluded that early pricking out of transplants with interspecific stocks is successful due to their hardiness and vigorous growth. The effect of the ’Shintosa camelforce F1’ interspecific stock was outstanding. Furthermore, the results confirmed the practical observation that the root system of interspecific stocks grow vertically more allowing them to take up water and nutrients from lower soil layers in poor sandy soils. From the Lagenaria group the root system of the ’DG-01 F1’ was similar to the interspecific stocks’. It can be grown even in sandy soil, however other Lagenaria-type stocks are more suitable for production in hard soils with nutrient supply because of their compact root system. This study can serve as a basis for further research in the topic that can conduce to site- and technology-specific stock selection.
The basic conditions of fruit set (synchronic bloom, transfer of pollen, etc.) still do decide definitely the fate of the flower (Cano-Medrano & Darnell, 1998) in spite of the best weather conditions (Stösser, 2002). Beyond a set quantity of fruits, the tree is unable to bring up larger load. A system of autoregulation wo...rks in the background and causes the drop of a fraction of fruits in spite of the accomplished fertilisation and the equality of physiological precedents (Soltész, 1997). There are also basically genetic agents in action. The further development of fruits maintained on the tree depends mainly on the growing conditions (e.g. water, supply of nutrients, weather adversities, pruning, fruit thinning, biotic damages, etc.), which may cause on their own turn fruit drop especially at the time of approaching maturity.
The aim our study was to establish whether significant differences in nutrients uptake and quality of soil and leaf exist between organic and integrated grown apples. The study was performed at the orchard Fruit Research Station, University of Debrecen, at Debrecen-Pallag during 2002–2004. Macro and micro elements were measured in soil and pl...ant samples. Analyses of variance of soil nitrogen data indicated highly significant differences between the two management systems (P < 0.001) for each examined nitrogen fraction. Analyses of variance of soil phosphate data indicated significant differences (P < 0.05) between the two management systems for orto-PO4 3– contents. Our data indicated that highly significant differences between the two management systems (P < 0.001) for magnesium, copper, and zinc; while significant differences between the two management systems was at P = 0.007 for calcium. Three year’s data of leaf phosphorus, sulphur and zinc were not shown significant differences between production systems. Nevertheless manganese and copper contents of leaves were higher in the organic orchard compared to the integrated one.
Anatomical relations of root formation are traced throughout the life cycle of the strawberry plant from the germinating seed up to the runners of the adult plant. Histological picture of the root changes a lot during the development of the plant. First the radicle of the germ grows to a main root, which makes branches into side roots and later... adventitious roots are formed on the growing rootstock or rhizome. The anatomy of the different types of roots is also conspicuously different. First tiny branches appear relatively early after germination on the seedling's radicle, but soon the hypocotyl of the seedling thickens and develops side roots, which are already somewhat stronger. During this interval, the first true leaves are formed. The 4th or 5th of them being already tripartite, and the initiation of new roots extends into the epicotylar region of the shoot. The second years growth starts with the development of reproductive structures, inflorescences and runners starting from the axils of the new leaves. Near the tips of the runners below the small bunch of leaves, new root primordia are initiated. The tiny radicle of the germ develops a cortical region of 5-6 cell layers. Cells of the central cylinder are even smaller than the cortical parenchyma and include 3-4 xylem and 3-4 phloem elements as representatives of the conductive tissue. Roots originating from the shoot region are much more developed; their cortical zone contains 17-20 cell layers, whereas the central cylinder is about half as large. In the next year, new roots are formed at the base of the older leaves. These roots differ hardly from those of the last season in size and volume, however, they are recognised by colour and their position on the rhizome. The roots of the last year are dark, greyish-black, and grow on the lower third length of the rhizome, on the contrary, the new ones, on the upper region, are light brown. Roots starting from the shoot or rhizome are, independently from their age or sequence, mainly rather similar in size and diameter, thus being members of a homogenous root (homorhizous) system, i.e. without a main root. Plants developed and attained the reproductive phase develop in the axils of the leaves runners being plagiotropic, i.e. growing horizontally on the surface of the soil. The runners elongate intensely, become 150-200 mm, where some long internodes bear a bunch of small leaves and root primordia on short internodes and a growing tip. Runners do not stop growing, generally, further sections of 15-25 cm length are developed according to the same pattern, with small leaves on the tip. The growing tip of the runners is obliquely oriented, and small, conical root primordia are ready to start growing as soon as they touch the soil. The roots penetrate the soil, quickly, and pull, by contraction, the axis of the runner downwards, vertically, developing a new rhizome. The short internodes elongate a little and start developing adventitious roots. At the end of the growing season, the plantlets arisen on the rooted nods of runners are already similar to the original plants with homogenous root system. On the side of the adventitious roots, new branches (side-roots) are formed. The root-branches are thinner but their capillary zone is more developed being more active in uptake of water and nutrients. The usual thickening ensues later.
On the basis of different experiments the technology of intensive foliar nutrition was studied in apple orchards in the period from 1996 until 2000. Yearly apple nutrition programs based on soil analyses. The foliar nutrition program was prepared in accordance with the soil, fruit analyses and climatic conditions. If needed, certain improvement...s were made according to the analyses of leaves and precipitation in the current year. The richness of the soil and ratios between individual nutrients gradually improved. The foliar nutrition influenced the yield quantity, quality and flower bud differentiation. The yield was doubled and the mean of five years reached 70 tons per hectare. In spite of high yields there were no problems with alternative bearing. The analyses of soluble solids, firmness, fructose, glucose, sucrose, malic acid, citric acid in the fruits and mineral soil composition indicated that the produced fruits were of high quality despite greater yields.
The conditions of the cultivation of marketable cherries are diverse. Choosing the production site on the basis of the climatic conditions, selecting the most appropriate variety taking into account the region and the purpose of the production, utilization of the optimal production method, to ensure the required water and nutrients supply, fros...t and hail protection techniques, modern technology in crop protection, and professional performance of harvesting and handling, to name just a few of the most important issues. The objective of present study is to determine the qualitative characteristics of the UNITEC cherry sorting machine.
In continuous studies regarding the conservation of the advantageous condition of the soil structure, the highland plantations that are surrounded by living waters have major importance where the erosion of the soil, nutrients and chemicals endangers the quality of the water and the living world of the waters. At the same time the extreme weath...er and dry summers of the past years have made it important to look for soil cultivation solutions and technologies that are capable of decreasing the evaporation of the soil, for enhanced conservation of soil moisture and to improve the soil structure that is required for the growth of healthy roots. In our experiment we have studied soil mulching with organic plant residue, by sods and the effect of the mechanical cultivation on the soil and on the grape through two growing seasons. From the studied treatments, the mulching with organic plant wastage showed the most efficient results from the point of view of the nutrient distribution in the grape and yield. It also had a positive effect on the soil structure and humidity.
Influence of a three-year-long foliar fertilization on mineral composition of leaf, content of sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose and sucrose) and organic acids (citric, malic and fumaric acid) of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruits was studied. The experiment was conducted during 2005-2007 in West Hungary on mature cv. `Germersdor...fi 3' grafted on Prunus mahaleb rootstock, planted in 1999. Trees spaced 7 x 5 m, and growing in a calcareous chernozem soil. Trees were foliar-fertilized with potassium (K) as KNO3 and calcium (Ca) as Ca(NO3)2. Potassium spraying was carried out 3 (K1) and 5 (K2) while calcium was applied at 3 (Ca 1), 5 (Ca2) and 6 (Ca3) weeks after full bloom. Beside fruit analysis, complete soil and leaf analysis were done to study the rate of nutrient uptake and its effects on fruit quality. Contents of nutrients of soil and leaf were determined by atomic absorption and spectrophotometric method, while sugars and organic acids in fruit were determined by HPLC. The applied treatments (except K1) had been increasing leaf K significantly compared to the control till ripening. Most of treatments had no significant effect on Ca content of leaf till ripening. From applied treatments only the boron treatments had significant increasing effect on contents of all examined sugars, compared the control. Furthermore, the effect of calcium spraying on the contents of organic acids was significant.
Earlier results of experiments with paprika grown in soil have shown the high sensitivity of the crop to nutrient supply. According to these findings, yield and also fruit quality are highly affected not only by the nitrogen and potassium level, the concentration of nutrient solution, but also by the nitrogen-potassium ratio. Our preliminary te...sts have also proved, that the composition of the nutrient solution, first of all, the N/K ratio has a definite effect on the yield quantity and quality. Therefore we have investigated the ratio of the two nutrients with the aim of developing a nutrient solution of optimal composition for white fruited paprika forcing. The most balanced burden of the plants was found when the N/K ratio was 1:1. The highest yield was produced with N/K 1:1.3. Significant yield reduction (30%) was found with the treatment N/K 1:1.9 as compared to the 1:1.3 and 1:1.6.
The global changes in climate and meteorological conditions have many negative consequences, which may diminished with adequate measures. In our continental climate, the winter frosts but also the late spring frosts are always threatening. There are technologies to avoid late frost damages (with spray irrigation or with smoking), but against wi...nter minima, we are nearly helpless. The different damages experienced recently called our attention on the question of optimal condition, which is a delicate balance between the vegetative activity and the provision of nutrients. The excesses on both ends are increasing the danger of damages (Zatykó, 1980). Our examination was performed in the plantation, which was cultivated according to ecological and integrated technologies. The variable condition of the trees gave opportunity to evaluate the effects of cold temperatures as frost damages. Our results will represent not only the differences between varieties but also the effects of the growing technologies – which influence the condition of the plants – consequently, the measure of frost damages.
Several parameters influencing the antioxidant capacity were measured in our experiments to compare strawberry and raspberry cultivars. The analysed cultivars were: 'Honeoye', 'Elsanta', 'Onebor (strawberries) and 'Glen Ample', Fertődi zamatos', 'Mailing Expoit' (raspberries). Besides the determination of dry matter content the content of gluc...ose, fructose, total phenol and anthocyanine, the reducing power, H-donating activity and total scavenger capacity were measured as well as the compound of mineral nutrients. Among the species and the cultivars, differences were obtained. These results call the attention to the features of cultivars and to count on the antioxidant-capacity describing values in case of consuming these fruits. In early spring and summer the consumption of strawberry and raspberry has a beneficial contribution to the antioxidant status of our body. In this respect these are more valuable than the year-long consumable apple. Accordingly, our measurements showed higher amount of sucrose, phenolic compounds and anthocyanine in raspberries, but strawberries contained more glucose and fructose and had stronger H-donating activity. It is worth to keep in mind that e.g. which cultivar contains more of certain compounds because of the strictly determined allowable dose in some diseases (e.g. diabetes).