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Development in intensive orchard systems of cherries in Hungary
76-86.

High density central leader systems, the so called "spindle trees" are spreading in intensive stone fruit orchards established for hand picking in Hungary. Results of Brunner (1972, 1990) and Zahn (1967, 1996) inspired the researchers to implement their theories into practice under our climate and special soil conditions. For sweet cherry it is essential to apply an orchard system appropriate for hand picking because of the European market requirements. In intensive sweet cherry orchards two new training and orchard systems are developed and adapted to environmental conditions in Hungary based on previous inventions. The first step of the development is represented by modified Brunner-spindle, which applies the delayed heading of the central leader and the sectorial-double-pruning system from Brunner (1972), resulting intensive orchard of 600-800 trees/ha density, planted on standard vigour rootstocks. Modified Brunner-spindle trees are developed with a central leader and wide-angled branches on it. Light bearing wood is positioned on the central leader and wide-angled branches. During training, shoots for branches are bent or a sectorial double pruning is used. The growth of central leader is reduced by delayed heading, and the strong upright shoots are pinched in summer. Based upon tree size spacing of 5 m between row and 2.5-3 m between trees is recommended, tree height is around 3.5-4 m. This training system is useful for hand-picking; 60-70% of the crop can be harvested from ground. Modified Brunner-spindle is suitable for either standard or moderate vigorous rootstocks. The cherry spindle is an intensive orchard planted with 1250-2300 trees per hectare and it is recommended for sweet and sour cherries on semi dwarf to vigorous rootstocks, depending on soil fertility and quality. Trees are 2.5-3.5 m high, 75-80% of the crop can be harvested from the ground. Permanent basal scaffolds are developed on the basis of the canopy to counteract the stronger terminal growth. The tree is headed only once, after planting, from the following year the central leader grows from the terminal bud. The central leader developed from the terminal bud results moderated growth in the upper parts of the tree head. The strong upright shoots that may develop below the terminal bud are pinched to 3-4 leaves in the summer or removed entirely. The weaker, almost horizontal shoots growing from the central leader form fruiting twigs in the following year if their terminal bud is not removed. Brunner's double pruning is used only once or twice on the permanent basal branches because of its good branching effect. Trials on various rootstocks are running to find optimum spacing and fruiting wood management. The training and pruning guidelines are discussed in the paper. The average crop of bearing years is around 20-30 t/ha depending on site and cultivars. This new system is spreading in Hungary, around 70 ha sweet and sour cherry orchards are trained according to our guidelines.

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Comparative economic analysis of superintensive and intensive apple orchards
45-48.

The objective of thsi study was to compare economic aspects of superintensive and intensive apple production.
According to our results, conclusions and recommendations regarding the establishment of superintensive orchards are the followings: A yield of 60 tons per hectare in the average of the mature years provide a quite late payback, in this way yield losses should be avoided in the plantation of such a huge capital requirement. When yield losses happen, which cannot be avoided or may be avoided only in a limited way, up to 65 to 70 tons per hectare yield should be reached even in good years, in order to yield the average 60 tons per hectare in the long run. In this case yield losses from production technological mistakes must not be arisen. Inputs and professional expertise should be used in a maximum way in order to reach yields ensuring profitable production. Investment subsidies may ensure safer return. The return of a superintensive orchard from totally own sources may be risky under the domestic marketing conditions and selling prices, it is strongly uncertain.

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Connection of fertilization conditions of sour cherry and meteorological parameters
17-21.

Our analyses showed that the degree of free fertilization is mostly influenced by maximum temperature and sunshine duration.We found that free fertilization ratio increases with higher daily maximum temperatures; similar results characterise sunshine duration as well, namely we observed higher free fertilization ratio at higher sunshine duration values. Total amount of precipitation during the period between blossoming and maturity and the difference between the average daytime and night temperatures have an important role in the tendency of maturity time. Photosynthesis and respiration are essentially significant in the development of biological systems. These two processes are mostly regulated by the daytime and night temperatures. Therefore, it is not surprising that if the difference between daytime and night temperatures is large, it means intensive photosynthesis and a low degree of respiratory loss. Under these conditions intensive development and ripening can take place; however, in case of a low temperature difference intensive respiration slows down the process of development. Duration of ripening is also significantly influenced by the amount of precipitation of the period between blossoming and maturity.Abundant precipitation slows down the process of ripening, while dry weather accelerates it. Self-fertilization takes place in a space isolated from the environment. In spite of that, we found that effectiveness of self-pollination significantly depends on the meteorological conditions. Degree of self-fertilization is influenced directly by temperature and indirectly by other climatic parameters. We found a significant connection between the values of maximum and minimum temperatures during blossoming and the ratio of self-fertilization. Increase of maximum temperature reduces the effectiveness of self-pollination.A 1 °C increase of maximum temperature reduces self-fertilization ratio by 0,6%. In the case of minimum temperature we can state that the morning minimum temperature of 7,5–8,5°C is the most favourable. If minimum temperatures are under 4 °C or above 12 °C, self-fertilization ratio reduces to the quarter of the value characteristic at 8 °C. We believe that the effectiveness of self-fertilization can be improved considerably by the rational placement of isolator bags within the crown area, avoiding their placement to the external, western crown surface.

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Cost and profit conditions in the Hungarian intensive apple production
65-68.

In this study I investigated the cost and profit conditions and the efficiency of intensive, qualitative apple production on the basis of a data collection carried out in ventures of high standard production. I concluded that the intensive apple production has an extremely high cost requirement, the production costs are approximately 1500 to 1600 thousand HUF per hectare. In an average case, a production value of 2000 thousand HUF per hectare may be reached, which may fluctuate in a wide interval during the years. Considering the above mentioned, a net profit of 400 to 500 thousand HUF may be realized in one hectare. It should be highlighted that regarding the present marketing conditions, realizing the appropriate profit may be expected only by producing 30 to 40 tons per hectare yields and 80 to 90% food quality ratio.

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Volumetric estimation of an intensive apple orchard with GIS
7-10

Remote sensing instruments and methods have become widespread in all segments of agriculture and horticulture. Among the innovative development of remote sensing instruments, the 3D laser scanner is one of the newest technique, which overtop in the spatial data collection. Terrestrial laser scanning is an appropriate tool for identifying such biophysical parameters like the structure of trees and branches, growth of volume. Determination of these parameters are time consuming and complicated with traditional methods. The examination was carried out in the Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen near Pallag. We used Leica ScanStation C10 terrestrial laser scanner to estimate volumetric properties of the intensive apple orchard. Two rows of the study area were surveyed, where the height and stem diameter of apple trees were measured with Geomagic Studio 12 GIS Demo Software. Based on the built-in algorithms, the volume of each tree were defined by the software. The measured and calculated data was correlated, and middle correlations were detected. Estimated volume results could be useful for further investigation such as CO2 fi xing, which is an important factor for ecological service of the plantation.

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Studies on the insect pollination of fruit tree species and on closely related topics in Hungary: a bibliography of research publications
157-161.

In the past decades fruit production has become more and more intensive and so the interest towards the bee pollination of fruit trees has increased in Hungary. Thus insect pollination research has become more intensive in the eighties and in the nineties. Recently, high density fruit orchards are planted of dwarf trees at more and more farms in Hungary and these need highly controlled growing practices involving insect pollination, too. This is a new challenge of insect pollination research in Hungary. So it seems to be worth to compile a list on research publications having been appeared so far to create a basis to the ongoing new research. Besides papers strictly on the insect pollination of fruit trees publications on some closely related topics, first of all on the nectar production and on other flower characteristics of fruit tree cultivars that directly influence bee activity have also been included on the list.

 

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Comparative study of the vegetative and generative organs in pear varieties
21-25.

An assortment of 17 pear varieties was examined in 2006 at Keszthely, Department of Horticulture, Georgicon Faculty of Agriculture, Veszprem University. The selected varieties were planted in 1980, grafted on seedling rootstock and represented the majority of existing pear plantations in Hungary. The main objective was the determination of suitability of the most important varieties for the purpose of intensive growing technologies even when grafted on vigorous seedling rootstock. The most important growing and fruiting characteristics of the varieties have been assessed and evaluated from the point of view of productivity. We stated that the relations of the trunk or the main axis to the lateral branches and fruiting structures are all subject to varietal effects and are valuable indices of the growing character. The quotient of the diameters of trunk and branch should be around 0.3-0.4, and the relative frequency of fruiting structures (Dárda, nyárs, vessző) meaning the ability of branching and regeneration associated with accurate pruning policies are decisive from the point of view of promising success.

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Investment appraisal of a plantation establishment for intensive apple production
17-20.

For fruits, establishing intensive apple-orchards requires the highest amount of investment cost, while the returns depend on many factors. Based on farm and bibliography data we appraised an investment in a model in some variations that are the most used in practice (100% owner's capital and 55% owner's capital +45%o subsidies). The profitability of the investment has been analysed using the methods of NPV (Net Present Value) and DPP (Dynamic Payback Period). The essence of our analysis is a sensitivity analysis with the optimistic, pessimistic and realistic combinations of the yield and the market price. Plantation establishment financed by only own (corporate's) sources turns into profitable over 7-10 years in average and favourable cases, but the opposite is the case in unfavourable circumstances. By subsidy of 45% for investments, it is highly possible to return by the fifth or sixth year after the year of establishment, but it can return by the twelfth year even in unfavourable case.

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Economic analysis of forced tomato production with regard to the intensity of production
15-21.

We assessed the cost/income conditions of forced tomato production and return conditions of the growing technologies by investment-profitability analysis. Horticultural sectors generate significant added value and employ a large number of workers per unit area; however, these sectors cover only 4% of agricultural areas. Regarding the use of capital and labour, forced vegetables are the most intensive horticultures with several development potential and reserves to gain better quality and a more efficient farming. One of the most prominent forced cultures is table tomato produced under different types of forcing equipment in Hungary: traditional, low-height plastic tunnel; large-atmospheric, block-based plastic tunnels and various greenhouses. The prime goal of my thesis is to specify the economic efficiency of each type and to choose the most efficient one by the complex economic assessment of plastic tunnels, block-based plastic tunnels and greenhouses with the most advanced technologies. Results of the economic analysis suggest that the most efficient production method is the modern, Dutch greenhouse technology; however, this statement is not backed by every indicator: each type has its own advantages and disadvantages. Regarding the future, the installation of such types or even (in the technical sense) more modern growing technology may be considered as a prospect for capital intensive and larger businesses.

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Economics of sea buckthorn production and processing in Hungary
21-25.

This study focuses on the business management-related advantages and disadvantages of sea buckthorn production and processing based on economic analyses. It is the main objective of the authors to identify the expected economic findings in a high standard plantation with different average yields. A deterministic model calculation was performed on the basis of technological processes, using the primary data collected from enterprises dealing with sea buckthorn production. The calculation is based on the assumption of a 10 hectare plantation with intensive production technology (high soil quality (golden crown value: 32 GC per ha), irrigation, high plant density per hectare). The cost and income relations and the long-term return of the plantation were examined in the case of different average yields (12 t ha-1, 18 t ha-1 and 24 t ha-1). Under the economic circumstances of 2016, the planting cost of an intensive plantation is around 4-4.1 million HUF ha-1. In the years following the fruit-bearing stage, direct production costs are between 2.5-3.9 million HUF ha-1, depending on the given average yield. On the contrary, 5.6-11.1 million HUF ha-1 revenue can be reached based on the current market prices, resulting in a gross margin of 3.1-7.1 million HUF ha-1. Under the modelled circumstances, return is realised on the plantation’s costs in 6-8 years. The net present value (NPVr=3.24%) calculated for the 15-year-long life cycle of the 10-hectare plantation is between 151-466 million HUF, while the internal rate of return (IRR) is between 23-45%. From the business management aspect, the advantage of sea buckthorn production is that it provides better income and return at a planting cost which is similar to that of other small fruits and berries. At the same time, the disadvantage of sea buckthorn production is the fact that yields are harvested every two years due to the technological characteristics of harvesting. The negative impact of this bi-yearly yield on liquidity can be eliminated with the so-called delayed planting.

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The effect of spring frosts on the nectar production and the bee visitation of fruit trees
86-89.

Fruit tree species suffered very strong spring frosts in 1997 in Hungary. This caused partial or total damages at buds and flowers depending on site and time of blooming. It was demonstrated at a number of experiments that frost and cold weather also strongly affected the nectar production of surviving flowers. No or very little amount of nectar was measured in flowers first of all of early blooming fruit tree species (apricot) but also of pear and apple in some places. In spite of this fact intensive honeybee visitation was detected in the flowers of fruit trees that suffered partial frost damage only at those sites where honeybee colonies were placed in or at the experimental plantations and the lack of sufficient amount of nectar did not affected bee behaviour seriously on fruit flowers. This means that bad nectar production failed to affect bee visitation of fruit trees definitely. The reason for this was the fact that not only fruit trees but another early bee plants (wild plants, too) suffered frost damage. Accordingly, in lack of forage bees intensively searched for food at blooming fruit trees with some living flowers. Consequently, there was an acceptable yield at those plantations where bud and flower damage was not complete. Accordingly, intensive bee visitation (that is moving additional bee colonies to overpopulate fruit orchards with honeybees) can be an effective tool to decrease or eliminate the detrimental effect of spring frost on the yield of fruit trees where bud or fruit damage is not too high.

 

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The effect of summer pruning on solar radiation conditions in apple orchards
87-91.

The aim of this study was to measure the solar radiation conditions in the tree and around the tree of pruned (summer pruning) and unpruned trees in an intensive apple orchard. When observing the daily trend of global radiation measured, there was a great reduction at midday hours due to the shadowing effect of the canopy. The reduction reached 70-75% before pruning, while after pruning it was only 20-25%. The relative radiation supply of the canopy space on cloudy days in the morning and late afternoon hours was higher than that of the sunny days. Mean differences between the day and night temperature reduced greatly in the period of intensive fruit colouration in August and September both in the plant stock and outside the plant stock.

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Estimating of water consumption of cherry trees
15-17.

Despite of its importance there is no exact information on water use of new scion/rootstock composite trees, which would be needed to optimized irrigation. Our research purpose is to define exact water-demand of different rootstock/scion composite trees, calculating seasonal weather changes and by using the results decrease irrigation costs. The investigations are carried out in Soroksár, at the Experimental Farm of Corvinus University of Budapest in May 2008. From among the investigated trees two are budded onto Prunus mahuleb `Érdi V' seedlings, two on "Korponay' seedlings. The sapflow measurements are carried out using Dynamax Flow 32 equipment with Dynagage trunk sensors. The first daily maximum of sapflow was around 10:00 a.m. (2.5 kghour I), the second maximum was always between 14:00-15:00 p.m. (2 kgday- I). Comparing to the very intensive morning water uptake by 20:00 p.m. the water flow slowly reached the minimal level. Significant differences can be seen on rootstocks: trees on `Korponay' rootstock always showed more intensive sapflow and a higher morning peak than trees on `Árdi V'. But later during the day they have the same run.Based on our results the water quantity transpired only by the trees reached in May 86-104 mm, while the precipitation was only 42.4 mm. This means a 40-60 mm deficit in the orchard, which should have been supplied by irrigation despite of the satisfying horticultural performance of the orchard. In the first half of the month beside the steady vapor pressure deficit the shoot and leaf surface growth could cause the increased sapflow.

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Growth and productivity of plum cultivars on various rootstocks in intensive orchard
77-81.

Trees of three plum cultivars (Stanley, Cacanska Lepotica and Althann's Gage) were planted at Szigetcsép experimental station in Spring 1994 and trained to slender spindle with the aim to test their growth, effect of productivity under not irrigated conditions and to evaluate the adaptability of rootstock/scion combinations to intensive orchards. As control, trees on Myrobalan C 162/A (P. cerasifera) seedling are planted. In the trial two rootstocks are from Slovakia: Myrobalan MY-KL-A (red leaf) and Myrobalan MY-BO-1, vegetatively propageted. Further on two French rootstocks, the Marianna GF 8-1: Marianna plum (P. cerasifera x P munsoniana) and the Sainte Julien GF 655/2 (P. insititia) were involved. The Hungarian bred plum Fehér besztercei (P. domestica), which is recommended as apricot rootstock is also tested. Rootstocks MY-BO-1 and Fehér besztercei were planted with cultivar Stanley only. Trees were planted to a spacing of 5x3 m trained to slender spindle with 3-4 permanent basal branches. After yield start (1997) trees have been pruned only in summer, after harvest. In the alleyway the natural plant vegetation is mown, the orchard is not irrigated.

Based on tree size, vigorous rootstocks are Marianna GF 8-1 and Myrobalan C 162/A seedling, medium vigorous are MY-BO-I and MY­KL-A; vegetative propageted myrobalan plums from Slovakia, while St. Julien GF 655/2 and Feller Besztercei proved to be growth reducing rootstocks. No significant difference between the rootstocks was found in turning to bearing. Under non-irrigated condition at Szigetcsép, cultivar Stanley produced the highest yield per area unit on vigorous rootstock (GF 8-1). The cultivar Althann's Gage produced the highest yield efficiency on Marianna GF 8-1 and they were healthy in the last 10 years. The symptoms of Althann's Gage trees on MY-KL-A rootstock indicate a possible incompatibility. The average fruit weight was significantly influenced by crop load on cultivar Cacanska lepotica, while no statistically proved differences were found on Stanley and Althann's Gage. The Cacanska lepotica trees produced significantly lower yield and larger fruit weight on St. Julien GF 655/2 rootstock. Adaptability to spindle training system depends on vigour of scion/rootstock combination: low or medium vigour cultivars (C. lepotica, Stanley) are good choice for spindle training systems even on vigorous rootstock; while the St. Julien GF 655/2 can be recommended only for vigorous Althann's Gage under our soil and climate conditions.

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The effect of rootstock on the tree size of apricot cultivars
57-58.

The apricot is propagated on several kinds of rootstocks in Hungary. The main aspects of selecting rootstocks are as follows: adaptability to environmental circumstances, primarily soil conditions, ensuring the tree size that complies with the cultivation method, and compatibility with the grafted cultivar. At advanced, intensive orchards rootstocks ensuring smaller tree size are privileged. For the establishment of the appropriate cultivation system, it is important to be aware of the expected growing vigour and tree size of certain cultivar­rootstock combinations when the orchard is designed. In the course of our experiment the size of 15-year-old trees of 4 apricot cultivars were examined on several rootstocks at an orchard in Siófok. On the basis of the data measured for each cultivar-rootstock combination, it can be stated that trees on wild apricot (P. armeniaca) rootstocks are the largest in size. Trees on prune (P. domestica) rootstock have 10-15% smaller crown volume than the previous combination. Trees on bullace (P. insititia) rootstock have the smallest tree size and their crown volume is 30-50% smaller than that of the trees on P. armeniaca rootstock. Thus, the application of prune and bullace rootstocks is beneficial at intensive apricot orchards as the size of trees can be reduced by their usage. However, their compatibility with the cultivars and their adaptability to the ecological conditions of the production site have to be tested before applying them widely. In the course of our research incompatibility was not experienced for any of the cultivar-rootstock combinations examined. Nevertheless, the drought tolerance of the rootstocks examined showed significant differences. Trees on P. domestica or P. insititia rootstock requires more water than those on P. armeniaca rootstock, therefore, they have to be irrigated.

105
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Integration of terrestrial laser scanning and spectral canopy scanner in horticulture applications
15-18.

One of the most difficult challenge in the everyday practice to describe the canopy growing of fruit trees in an orchard. The photosynthetic activity is the basic of the primer production of plants. The measurement of leaf area and determination of the photosynthetic activity could be occurred with some elaborated methods between experimental conditions. In this article we present such an integrated methodology, which is ideal to determine the geometric and spectral characteristic of fruit trees between field conditions.We have carried out laser scanning technology to investigate the geometric-topological characteristics and parallel the active infra-red sensor to collect spectral data about an apple orchard. The surveys were worked out in an intensive apple orchard with drip irrigation system, protected by hail net in Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen near Pallag. This study shows the filtering and interpretation methods of created data. The produced high accuracy data can be directly used in the precision horticulture. It could serve as a guiding data to implementation a future “virtual horticulture”. Higher spatial and temporal resolution could help for a better recognition of water balance of orchards.

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Yielding capacity and regeneration of different ages fruit-bearing shoots in sour cherry
55-57.

The yielding potential and regeneration (i.e. germination of hidden buds) after pruning of the fruit-bearing shoots of different ages were compared in sour cherry cultivars pruned to spindle shape. The examinations were carried out in order to determine the optimal pruning strategy resulting in the highest long-term yielding of sour cherry cultivars with intensive crown shape (free and thin spindle shape). According to our results, there are great differences among the studied self-fertile sour cherry cultivars in yielding and regeneration, which are worthwhile to be considered in determining the method and degree of pruning.

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Farm economic evaluation of elderberry production
57-60.

In this present study the efficiency as well as the farm economic advantages and disadvantages of elderberry production are examined. Our objective is to determine the fact that under what conditions the elderberry production may be profitable regarding the present economic and market situations. Our analysis was carried out by a simulation model based on a farm-level data gathering in production enterprises. The total investment cost of an up-to-date, elderberry orchard of traditionally cultivated without irrigation is between 1000 to 1700 thousand HUF per one hectare and turning to productivity is expected within 4-5th years. These orchards are able to produce yields of 8,0 to 9,0 tons per one hectare in the average of the productive years, which makes reaching a revenue of 800 to 1000 thousand HUF possible regarding a per kg average selling price of 80 to 110 HUF. By this a net profit of 200 to 400 thousand HUF may be realized in case of a per hectare production cost of 600 to 700 thousand HUF. At the end of the lifetime of the orchard (12-15th year) an internal rate of return of 10 to 4%, an NPV of 1500 to 2000 thousand HUF per one hectare are typical in an average case, and the payback may be expected in the 6th to 8th year. From the farm economic aspect the elderberry may be considered as an extensive sector, which advantages are low capital and labour need, early recovery, good-acceptable profit on capital and cost to profit ratios, but its disadvantage is low per hectare profit comparing to intensive fruit species and orchards. In this way in general farms of capital-extensive and avoiding risks choose elderberry production.

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Role of nutrient supply in yield increase and quality improvement of spice pepper
83-86.

Hungarian spice pepper powder is a unique product, a real hungaricum with its flavour and aroma compounds and seasoning effect. Its competitiveness with foreign spice peppers is ensured by its high biological value deriving from the specially Hungarian production and processing technology. Besides the traditional and highly manual labour intensive processing technology, there are some modern industrial technologies as well, where high quality can be guaranteed only by producing excellent base material (raw pepper pods). This is the reason which necessitates the rational development of the elements of the production technology, such as nutrient supply. Our objective was to offer a contribution to this aim by our trials in plant nutrition.

Experiments on the nutrient supply of spice pepper were set up in the 2003 growing season in order to decide whether yields and fruit composition parameters of pepper could be increased by means of increased K fertiliser doses with lower N:K ratios. Several forms of potassium were used, as well as applying microelement top dressings in the single treatments. It was found that the increase of N:K ratio from I:1 to 1:6 did not increase yields, but resulted in higher pigment and dry matter content. Microelement top dressing had a yield increasing effect at each N:K ratio. Higher potassium doses did not accelerate ripening.

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Importance of orchard floor management in organic fruit growing (nutritional aspects)
61-67.

Worldwide research goals and concerns are to soil conservation and improve. This conception is mostly actual in horticulture where the numbers of high-density plantings are continuously increasing. High-density orchards cause more intensive nutrient and water uptake. So that the preservation of soil moisture and nutrient level are key factors in qualified fruit growing. On the other hand due to the climatic changes the water supply of trees will be satisfied among worse conditions than some decades ago. Appearance of water supply problems and water stress is increased in organic growing, where the number of corrections is limited anyway. Furthermore, floor management is a successful tool in weed management which causes many problems for organic growers due to the prohibition of synthetic herbicides. This paper will mainly focus on the nutritional aspects of methods of orchard floor management for growers adopting organic fruit management to make their production profitable.

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Effect of hail protecting nets on the quality of apples
77-80.

Today, successful fruit growing depends largely on the security of production. Among the technological elements of a secure growing system, the use of hail protection nets serves special attention. Components of security are the regularity, conspicuous large yields with excellent quality, which determine the prices and profitability as well (Szabó et al., 2010). In the European Union, most of the apple growing countries produce higher yields by 10-20% than Hungary. The conditions of better yields are partly due to a more favourable ecological milieu, partly to more developed technologies and serious discipline of the operations. Our own competitiveness could be developed first of all in those moments. As a consequence of global climatic changes, excesses of weather, i.e. hail-storms became more frequent. Different methods of protection against hail are developed abroad but also in Hungary. The examination of effects of the hail protection nets compared with the check without nets has been the purpose of our experiments. The growing system was the intensive one with high planting densities. Fruits of the two subsequent years have been compared as grown with and without hail protective nets. It turned out that in one season when shoot growth was stimulated, the shadowing effect of the net increased in addition the growth and at the same time braked the differentiation of flower buds, which exerted negative effects on yield of the next year. Let alone this phenomenon, the quality of fruits was not influenced by the hail protection net.

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Some flower characters, variety features and environmental effects affecting bee pollination of pear (Pyrus communis L.): a review of the results of latest research
59-66.

Intensive research has been implemented on different aspects of the bee pollination of pear in Hungary in the past decade, extending to the following topics: the effect of the opening sequence of the flowers within the inflorescence of pear cultivars on the effectiveness of bee pollination; the nectar production of flowers of pear cultivars; intensity of honeybee visitation and their foraging behaviour at the flowers of pear cultivars; flower constancy of honeybees to pear plantations; competition by weeds in bloom for bee pollination in flowering pear orchards; and some aspects to the bee pollination strategies of pear plantations (the effect of the limitation of bee pollination period on the set and the yield, possible compensation of frost damage of flowers by bee pollination in pear orchards, the optimal size of single cultivar block in pear plantations). The results of these studies are reviewed in this paper and some important aspects that need further studies are outlined.

 

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Water relations of sour cherries (minireview)
103-107.

Recently, the sour cherries as food resources become more important for health preservation and so the modernization of growing technology in sour cherry production will be timely. The global warming and inadequate distribution of precipitation result a decrease in the alternancy of sour cherry production, as well. Sour cherries rather adapted to survival of drought than sweet cherry trees therefore a few studies performed to explore the water requirement of sour cherry varieties. The rootstocks, the type of soils in plantation and the water balance influence the water management of sour cherries. In orchards, in particular first year plantation, use of various row covering contribute to preservation of the natural water pool of soil and affect on the tree vigor, yield and fruit quality. Wide-spread application of integrated fruit growing technology and climate changes the researches are pointed to develop efficient irrigation technology based on transpiration yield model. The crop model based on use of meteorological data was developed for cherry orchards in order to predict transpiration of trees, dry matter production and fruit yield. The linear relationship between dry matter accumulation and transpiration was verified for sour cherry trees. Other models essay to asses the effects of climate changes on crop production. Importance of economical production and fruit quality such as ingredients of raw materials and food increases in intensive sour cherry orchards used by irrigation techniques. Because of climate changes it should more pay attention to research concerning on the stress physiological response of sour cherry varieties and post-harvest fruit quality.

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Stimulating effect of distilled water
47-49.

It is an early observation that plants in poor soil are developing roots quicker and more abundantly than on rich one. There is a similar correlation between the nutrient status of medium and adventitious root formation.

In order to throw more light on the background of this strange phenomenon we started a systematic experimental program in which the biological effects of distilled water as model factor was investigated.

The experiments proved that the root formation of Pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cuttings with 3 cm long hypocotyls was promoted by distilled water.

The phenomenon above accompanied with slower decline and faster recovery of total and also water-soluble protein content, more intensive efflux of amino acids, greater amount of tryptophane and increased uptake of water compared to those in control hypocotyls. From other data obtained we may suspect that some additional active substance unknown for us also contributes to the stimulation of root initiation in distilled water.

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Security of growing habits and bud formation of German sour cherry varieties
45-48.

Intensive sour cherry production is concerned to find the most productive varieties under special growing conditions. High planting density, adapted to manual picking or on the other hand to mechanical harvesting. Almost as important is the prolongation of the ripening season by enlarging the choice of varieties. Unfortunately, three of our four leading commercial varieties are ripe almost at the same date.
Therefore, new varieties ought to be examined thoroughly. In the Pallag Experimental Station of the Debrecen University, five European varieties have been grown (’Schattenmorelle’, ’PI-SA 12,100’, ’Jade’, ’Gerema’, ’Achat’) and a Hungarian one, ’Debreceni bôtermô’ used as a check for the experiments to compare their growing and yielding habits in 2010. The plantation was three years old, standing on Prunus mahaleb rootstocks, in high density (5 x 2 m) and trained to slender spindle crowns. The results are proving that some of the varieties in
question are suitable to prolong the harvesting season. Growing habits and yields of the varieties related to the variety ’Debreceni bôtermô’ were similar or even better as ’Jade’, ’Gerema’ and ’Achat’. The ’Jade’ excelled with its vitality and ’Gerema’ with its generative character. Further studies are expected to prove the utility of
one of them at least to enlarge the ripening season on the fruit market.

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