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Review of sweet and sour cherry incompatibility
Published April 19, 2006

Cherry incompatibility has widely been studied from the beginning of the twentieth century. As a consequence of the valuable results cherry has become a model for incompatibility research of other plant species. This study provides a detailed information about incompatibility of sweet and sour cherry based on several Hungarian and international... literature sources from the last 100 years. The study gave details about the traditional and molecular base of incompatibility of sweet and sour cherry.

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Incompatibility studies of Hungarian sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars by traditional test crossings
Published March 16, 2004

Cross-incompatibility is a common phenomenon between various sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars. Traditionally, choosing cross-compatible cultivar pairs is based on test crossings in the field.

There is a lack of information about fertility relations of novel Hungarian sweet cherry cultivars and selections. We have studie...d cross-incompatibility in 42 sweet cherry cultivar pairs by test-crossings in the field. Out of those, 3 combinations showed incompatibility and 15 pairs were compatible.

Test-crossing results proved that with the knowledge of S-allele constitution of Hungarian cultivars incompatible cultivar pairs are recognised in practice reliably. However, we assume that in sterility not only the S-gene system, but other factors (e.g. abnormal development of pollen or flower) also occur, therefore, their examination would be needed.

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Determination of (in)compatibility genotypes of Hungarian sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) accessions by PCR based methods
Published October 20, 2003

Sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) are generally self-incompatible and pollinator cultivars are needed in orchards for reliable yield. In Hungary, choosing the appropriate cross-compatible cultivar pairs has so far been based on traditional test-crosses in the field. In recent years PCR-based methods that allow the identification of the ...S-alleles responsible for compatibility have been elaborated. We have determined the S-allele constitution of 24 cultivars and four selections important to Hungarian growers and breeders using PCR-based methods developed at Horticulture Research International, East Malling. The 28 accessions had various pairs of 9 alleles including one new allele, Sr. They could be assigned to 12 of the existing incompatibility groups or to a new group (S4S12) for which the designation 'Group XXVII' is proposed. The cultivars `Krupnoplodnaja' and 'Rita' had novel genotypes, S5S9 and S5Sx, respectively and can be placed into group 0 that holds universal pollen donors. The genotype of the cultivar ‘Hedelfingeni óriás' grown in Hungary was found to be S3S4 and therefore different from the cultivar `Hedelfingen' that is widespread in Western Europe.

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Self-incompatibility in pears (Pyrus communis L., Pyrus serotina Rehd. and Pyrus ussuriensis) Review
Published April 19, 2006

Self-incompatibility system and allele pool of three different pear species, European pear (Pyrus communis), Japanese pear (P. serotina) and Chinese pear (P ussuriensis) are displayed. Several inconsistencies and the absence of the harmonization of three different allele series are revealed i...n the European pears. By collecting data from several reports eight incompatibility groups of Japanese pear cultivars could be established. A self-compatible genotype is analysed in details and shown to be a stylar-part mutant. As Japanese pear was the first fruit tree species from which S-ribonucleases were identified, the history of S-genotyping from the beginning to the latest achievements and technical developments can be also monitored from the experiments enumerated. In Chinese pears, seven S-alleles and one incompatibility group could be identified.

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Review of the self-incompatibility in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh., syn.: Malus pumila Mill.)
Published April 19, 2006

Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) is one of the most important fruit crops showing ribonuclease-mediated self-incompatibility, and no self-compatible apple cultivars are known. Twenty-nine S-alleles were identified in apple and many more incompatibility groups are present compared to sweet cherry. Results from a Belgian, Englis...h and a Japanese research group are combined and the S-genotypes of the most important world cultivars are collected. Two different allele labelling system are reconciled and detection methods used in case of the specific alleles are shown. Effects of the resistance breeding programmes are discussed; and scientific efforts involving transgenic technology to create self-compatible genotypes are shown. This review covers the most interesting issues regarding self-incompatibility in apple.

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Review of the molecular background of self-incompatibility in rosaceous fruit trees
Published April 19, 2006

This review gives a presentation of the gametophytic self-incompatibility system in the roscaeous fruit trees. Studies to discover the pistil (S-ribonucleases) and pollen-part components (F-box molecules) are summarized and models for the self-incompatibility reactions as well as their molecular background are discussed. We describe how mutatio...ns within the S-RNase or F-box genes can contribute to the transition from self-incompatibility to the self-compatible phenotype in many fruit tree crops. The current state of the arts is compared to the information obtained in other plant species possessing similar incompatibility system.

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In vitro plant regeneration from immature embryo axis and cotyledons of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)
Published October 11, 2005

Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the most important economic species within the genus Phaseolus. It is grown in all parts of the world. Genetic improvement by conventional breeding has met considerable success, although production of hybrids between species within the genus has been limited due to sexual incompatibility. Recent in tissue culture have offered the opportunity to produce cultivars, which could not be obtained by conventional breeding methods. The use of tissue culture and genetic engineering is viewed as a logical approach to improve bean production. Gene transfer techniques will have a great impact on legumes. Although the concept of cell totipotency is widely proved, in vitro morphogenesis has not yet been achieved for a large number of cultivated beans. Regeneration protocols are strongly influenced by the genotype. In tissue and cell culture of beans, the factors controlling shoot morphogenesis and somatic embryogenesis are still unknown. The reported data suggest a possible way for future research.

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Field evaluations of 14 sweet cherry cultivars as pollinators for cv. Regina (Prunus avium, L.)
Published September 19, 2007

In this study, the pollen of 14 sweet cherry cultivars (‘Anella’, ‘Duroni 3', 'Badacsony', 'Cristalina', 'Ferbolus', 'Ferrovia',

'Georgia', 'Hudson', 'Kordia', 'Sam', 'Schneiders’, ‘Spate’, ‘Knorpelkirsche', 'Skeena', 'Summit', 'Sylvia') was used to fertilize the emasculated flowers of sweet cherry cv. 'Regina'. Fruit set ...was assessed three times during fruit development: 14 May, 30 May and 27 May 2007. We observed full incompatibility among the 14 cultivars for cv. 'Cristalina', which is in the same S-allele group as cv. 'Regina'. After analysis of our data, we have results about fertilization efficiency of the cultivars. Most of the evaluated cultivars are inadequate to fertilize cv. 'Regina' to a sufficient degree. There were two exceptions, cv. 'Sam' and cv. 'Skeena', where percentage of ripened fruits was above 20%. These two cultivars can guarantee such a pollination, which ensures ample quantity of ripened fruits. Results of this study have proved three other cultivars to be quite good pollinators for cv. 'Regina'. In conclusion, ideal pollinators for cv. 'Regina' could be — apart from above-mentioned two cultivars, 'Sam' and 'Skeena' — cvs. 'Sylvia' and 'Bianca', which was suggested by more literature sources.

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The effect of rootstock on the tree size of apricot cultivars
Published August 13, 2004

The apricot is propagated on several kinds of rootstocks in Hungary. The main aspects of selecting rootstocks are as follows: adaptability to environmental circumstances, primarily soil conditions, ensuring the tree size that complies with the cultivation method, and compatibility with the grafted cultivar. At advanced, intensive orchards roots...tocks ensuring smaller tree size are privileged. For the establishment of the appropriate cultivation system, it is important to be aware of the expected growing vigour and tree size of certain cultivar­rootstock combinations when the orchard is designed. In the course of our experiment the size of 15-year-old trees of 4 apricot cultivars were examined on several rootstocks at an orchard in Siófok. On the basis of the data measured for each cultivar-rootstock combination, it can be stated that trees on wild apricot (P. armeniaca) rootstocks are the largest in size. Trees on prune (P. domestica) rootstock have 10-15% smaller crown volume than the previous combination. Trees on bullace (P. insititia) rootstock have the smallest tree size and their crown volume is 30-50% smaller than that of the trees on P. armeniaca rootstock. Thus, the application of prune and bullace rootstocks is beneficial at intensive apricot orchards as the size of trees can be reduced by their usage. However, their compatibility with the cultivars and their adaptability to the ecological conditions of the production site have to be tested before applying them widely. In the course of our research incompatibility was not experienced for any of the cultivar-rootstock combinations examined. Nevertheless, the drought tolerance of the rootstocks examined showed significant differences. Trees on P. domestica or P. insititia rootstock requires more water than those on P. armeniaca rootstock, therefore, they have to be irrigated.

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Growth and productivity of plum cultivars on various rootstocks in intensive orchard
Published June 20, 2006

Trees of three plum cultivars (Stanley, Cacanska Lepotica and Althann's Gage) were planted at Szigetcsép experimental station in Spring 1994 and trained to slender spindle with the aim to test their growth, effect of productivity under not irrigated conditions and to evaluate the adaptability of rootstock/scion combinations to intensive orchar...ds. As control, trees on Myrobalan C 162/A (P. cerasifera) seedling are planted. In the trial two rootstocks are from Slovakia: Myrobalan MY-KL-A (red leaf) and Myrobalan MY-BO-1, vegetatively propageted. Further on two French rootstocks, the Marianna GF 8-1: Marianna plum (P. cerasifera x P munsoniana) and the Sainte Julien GF 655/2 (P. insititia) were involved. The Hungarian bred plum Fehér besztercei (P. domestica), which is recommended as apricot rootstock is also tested. Rootstocks MY-BO-1 and Fehér besztercei were planted with cultivar Stanley only. Trees were planted to a spacing of 5x3 m trained to slender spindle with 3-4 permanent basal branches. After yield start (1997) trees have been pruned only in summer, after harvest. In the alleyway the natural plant vegetation is mown, the orchard is not irrigated.

Based on tree size, vigorous rootstocks are Marianna GF 8-1 and Myrobalan C 162/A seedling, medium vigorous are MY-BO-I and MY­KL-A; vegetative propageted myrobalan plums from Slovakia, while St. Julien GF 655/2 and Feller Besztercei proved to be growth reducing rootstocks. No significant difference between the rootstocks was found in turning to bearing. Under non-irrigated condition at Szigetcsép, cultivar Stanley produced the highest yield per area unit on vigorous rootstock (GF 8-1). The cultivar Althann's Gage produced the highest yield efficiency on Marianna GF 8-1 and they were healthy in the last 10 years. The symptoms of Althann's Gage trees on MY-KL-A rootstock indicate a possible incompatibility. The average fruit weight was significantly influenced by crop load on cultivar Cacanska lepotica, while no statistically proved differences were found on Stanley and Althann's Gage. The Cacanska lepotica trees produced significantly lower yield and larger fruit weight on St. Julien GF 655/2 rootstock. Adaptability to spindle training system depends on vigour of scion/rootstock combination: low or medium vigour cultivars (C. lepotica, Stanley) are good choice for spindle training systems even on vigorous rootstock; while the St. Julien GF 655/2 can be recommended only for vigorous Althann's Gage under our soil and climate conditions.

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Morphological and phenological properties of sour cherry varieties grown in Hungary and their inter-incompatibility relations
Published February 23, 2000

Regular observations and experiments were performed during a 14 year period on 6 sour cherry varieties. The morphological traits of leaves and fruits were compared, and the phenology of blooming as well as of ripening dates served to start an estimation of the possibilities of mutual pollination and the planning of harvest operations. Experimen...ts involved obligate autogamy, artificially controlled allogamy and open pollination in order to reveal self-fertility, self-sterility or inter-incompatibility relations.

The varietal characters represent, each, different values in the distinction of the items, because of their intra-varietal variability. From that point of view, the most reliable are the data of blooming and ripening time, fruit size and the fertility relations.

Inter-incompatibility was observed between the group of self-fertile, "Pándy type" varieties (`Újfehértói fürtös’, ‘Debreceni bőtermő’, ‘Kántorjánosi’) on one side and the selection of Pándy 7', a self-sterile variety on the other side. Unilateral incompatibility has been detected within the former group of new, self-fertile varieties, the combinations: (`Újfehértói fürtös’ x ‘Debreceni bőtermő’ as well as `Újfehértói fürtös’ x Kántorjánosi’.

Our results prove the close kinship between those three new varieties and the original Pándy variety on the base of being highly similar in their morphology and also of the fact of their inter-incompatibility, though unilateral.


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