The changes of tenderness of three green pea varieties with different maturity were studied after Fertileader® Vital fertilizer treatment. The fertilizer treatment caused signifi cant differences in the tenderness of treated plants in every year. After the second measuring time; the treated plants showed better quality than the control ones. T...he treated varieties kept their tenderness longer due to this foliar fertilizer, the yield have better quality so even better suited to the requirement of canning industry. Use of Fertileader® Vital is of an economic importance because high economic benefi t can be realized in one hectare after Fertileader® Vital treatment. By using this foliar fertilizer 12,840 HUF extra profi ts can be realized by producing green peas of I. quality class instead of yield with II. quality category. This extra profit could increase to 447,840 HUF considering that green peas belong still to the II. quality class after fertilizer treatment when the quality of non-treated plants are no more suitable for the canning industry.
A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of ammonium-nitrate, food waste compost, bacterial fertilizer (EM-1) and their combinations on production and nutrient contents of carrot. The study was conducted on a calcareous chernozem and acidic sandy soils in a randomized complete block design with 8 treatments and four...replications. NH4NO3 in chernozem soil increased the weight of carrot leaves only, while in sandy soil resulted in reduced yield and highly increased NO3-N content of roots. Sandy soil showed higher response of biomass production to food waste compost application than chernozem soil. The highest carotenoid content of roots was measured with compost treatment. Combined application of compost and NH4NO3 in chernozem proved to be good combination but in sandy soil have turn out to be less favourable than sole compost treatment. Bacterial fertilizer (EM-1) did not cause marked effect on the yield parameters, but caused increased phosphorus content of plant. In chernozem soil the maximum yield parameters were achieved with the combined treatment of ammonium-nitrate+compost+EM-1. In sandy soil the most favourable treatment proved to be the compost treatment. Results suggest that application of food waste compost as a nutrient source could be a promising agrochemical practice especially in soils having low organic material and low nutrient supply.
In recent work the effect of 5-aminolevulinic-acid (ALA) agent (commercial name Pentakeep-V) was examined on the chlorophyll content, growth and development of Saintpaulia ionantha. The newly re-rooted potted plants were irrigated or sprayed with 0.3‰ or 0.5‰ Pentakeep-V solution, and plus 30% long lasting fertilizer was added to half of th...e all treatments. Control plants were sprayed with tap water. Best result were obtained on the field of flowering. All the treatments promoted chlorophyll-content in the leaves especially spraying with 0.3‰concentration. Plants treated with Pentakeep-V in both concentrations and independently from the spraying or irrigation flowered more than two weeks earlier than control and those that got plus 30% fertilizer. Besides in the case of some treatments the diameter of leaf rosette, the number and surface size of leaves grew comparing to the control. The longlasting fertilizer had positive effect on the fresh weight but none of treatments had effect on the dry weight.
By our experiments, we wished to answer the question: may top-dressing with nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers, respectively, improve the quality of transplants grown in trays on a substrate enriched by 2 kg/m3 of retarded fertilizers?
The experiments started in spring and autumn 2002, in a large volume plastic house. The se...edlings were grown in trays. Seed was sown directly into KITE trays of 187 cells (28 cm3 volume per cell, 779 seedlings per square meter). The trays were filled by "loose filling" (without packing) with the following soil mixture: 50% Baltic highmoor peat, 50% 'Nitrite lowmoor peat, 1,5 kg/m3 feed chalk, 2 kg/m3 slow acting chemical fertilizer of phosphorus overweight, 2 kg/m3 superphosphate. The test plant was the vegetable paprika variety `Tizenegyes'.
The trials were made in order to clear up if top-dressing done once or twice improves the quality of the seedlings. For this purpose, perfectly soluble fertilizers of phosphorus or nitrogen surplus were used. 3 I fertilizer solution of 0.2% concentration was given per square meter on every single occasion. The control plots received no top-dressing.
The following parameters were registered: stem diameter, plant height, fresh weight of the top, dry matter content of the top, fresh weight of the root system per plant, dry matter content of the roots.
The experimental results with top-dressing have clearly proved the insufficiency of mixing 2 kg/m3 of retarded fertilizer into the substrate, as usual in raising paprika seedlings in trays, because of the long period of transplant raising. According to our experiments the additional nitrogen fertilization influences positively the development of green parts of plants, while the multiple application of fertilizers with higher phosphorus-content helps to develop a strong root system. We suppose, that the more often applied additional fertilizers, maybe the combination of fertilizers with nitrogen and phosphorus amount could give use even better results.
A five-year experiment was carried out in the Nyírség on its characteristic soil type, brown forest soil to investigate the impact of three types of potassium fertilizers (potassium chloride, potassium sulfate and Patentkali) in three different dosages (80, 160, 240 kg/ha K20), under non-irrigated conditions applying the same dosag...es of N, P in all treatments (the applied amount was different between years) in 10 treatments including the control on 50 m2-parcels with 3 or 4 replicates. The test plant was cultivar Desiree, Kondor, Agria and Pannonia in 1998 and 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003, respectively. The obtained yields were analyzed by an analysis of variance. Based on the five-year results, the highest yields on the acidic sandy and sandy loam soils were obtained in the treatments with 530-800 kg/ha Patentkali containing 30% of K and 10% of magnesium active ingredients in addition to the same amounts of N and P applications. The dosage of 530 kg/ha Patentkali contains 160 kg/ha K+ 53 kg/ha Mg active ingredients, while the dosage of 800 kg/ha Patentkali contains 240 kg/ha K+ 80 kg/ha Mg active ingredients. It can be concluded that the potassium chloride fertilizer (KCI) was the least effective as regards yields and Patentkali proved to be the most effective fertilizer, it had higher yields than even those of potassium sulfate, the difference in the 160 kg/ha treatments was 17.7%, which was a significant difference. Based on the results of the multi-year experiment, we recommend to apply 530 kg/ha Patentkali fertilizer (160 kg/ha K+ 53 kg/ha Mg active ingredients) for the fertilization in potato under non-irrigated conditions on the acidic sandy and sandy loam forest soils of the Nyírség, which proved to be the most effective treatment and with which we could obtain 30 t/ha yield in the average of the years (with the simultaneous application of N and P).
The experiment was conducted to examine the effect of the foliar application of zinc on yield and crop quality and on fruit mineral composition of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus cv. Mustang) which were grown in peat in containers under unheated conditions and were not showing visible signs of zinc deficiency.
In the trial the... following 3 treatments were set up in 4 replications: Znl = 0.35 g/litre Zn, as foliar fertilizer; Zn2 = 0.7 g/litre Zn, as foliar fertilizer, control = no foliar fertilization. Foliar fertilization was applied 5 times with 10 day intervals. After their planting out the plants were fertigated daily with water soluble complex fertilisers. Fruits were harvested twice a week, 16 times in all, and were divided into three quality classes (class I, class II and substandard). Shoot length of the plants (plant height) was measured on 3 occasions. Zinc content of the fruits and leaves was analysed at two times.
From the results of the trials it can be concluded that the 0.35 g/litre Zn (0.35 mg/ml) foliar fertilisation had beneficial effect on cucumber both in terms of yield and quality. Under the conditions of the experiment (daily fertigation through drip irrigation) the effect of a more concentrated foliar application of zinc seemed less beneficial.
The zinc content of the fruits showed no evident increase in response to foliar fertilization, while a significant increase was seen in the leaves, particularly with the more concentrated Zn treatment. This indicates that in the case of cucumber zinc, through its assimilation in vegetative parts, has an indirect effect on fruit development.
The Stopgril liquido (S), a foliar fertilizer containing nitrogen, calcium and magnesium was used to improve the spring and the summer growth of grafted walnut plants in the second year of cultivation in the nursery. To accomplish early termination of vegetative growth and good lignification, the composed mineral fertilizer Hascon M 10 AD (H) c...ontaining phosphorous, potassium and microelements B, Mn and Mo was applied on the same plants. Four treatments (S, H, SH, C) were applied three times in a growing season. Their effects on the height and the basal diameter of the plants in the nursery depended on the starting height of the plants and the time of application. During the first growth period in the orchard, the number of developed buds on the plant, the circumference of the plants and their height were influenced by the treatment in the previous year in the nursery. According to the results obtained through the investigation, three applications of Stopgril + Hascon in the nursery per year can be recommended in order to obtain high enough and well lignified two-year-old grafted walnut plants.
Response of “Badamy sefid” Pistachio trees to spraying of fertilizer was studied over two years (2006–2007). The boron and zinc fertilizer were used just on swelling time of female flower bud in compare to no fertilization (control). Also nutritional solution combined of nitrogen (400 ppm), phosphorus (P2O5) (380 ppm), potasium (K2O) (520... ppm), Fe (5 ppm), Cu (2 ppm), Zn (2 ppm), Mn (2 ppm) in 1000 liter water per hectare sprayed at first week of May, third week of June and July). The concentration of some macro and micro elements in flower bud and in leaves, also productivity (g/shoot sectional area) mean nut weight, fresh weight of nut per cm2 branch cross sectional area, blanks nuts %, non-split nut %, new shoot growth length after cessation of growth and remained flower bud (%) at the next spring were recorded for the different treatments. The results showed that boron and zinc concentration increased in the bud of sprayed trees in compare to control. Application of nutritional solution decreased the flower bud abscission, also resulted in increased vegetative growth, nut weight, and productivity of trees. In conclusion, spraying of fertilizers in the suitable time to the pistachio trees might be a useful method in decreasing flower bud abscission and mitigating the alternate bearing.
This two-year-study was aimed to provide results on the effect of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium fertilizer treatments (control, NP, NPK, NPKMg) on vegetative and generative features of the sweet cherry cultivar ‘Carmen’. Examinations were performed in an orchard planted in 2012 on Prunus mahaleb rootstock with spaci...ng of 5 x 2.5 m. All treatments improved the vegetative features of the sweet cherry trees in both years of 2016 and 2017. Fertilizer treated trees increased trunk cross section area (TCSA) with 51.3-63.1%, while control trees showed 48.3% trunk growth increase. Yields of control trees were lower in both years (5.9-7.2 kg/tree), than that of the fertilized trees (7.8-11.3 kg/tree). Treatments also increased the phosphorus (16-22%), magnesium (12-20%) and potassium content (3.5-18%) of the fruits compared to control treatments.
The correlation between plant density and yield average shows that the volume of yield increases in varieties of large and medium-size seeds up to a plant density of 285-400 thousand/ha, after which it declines.
On the basis of the results, yield averages at plant densities of 285-334 thousand plant/ha are 0.17 t/ha higher than those ac...hieved at low density (200 thousand plant/ha).
High levels of potassium fertilizer did not enhance the yield of dry beans. With adequate-water supply the high level of potassium decreased the number of pods and seeds per plant compared with a basic level of fertilizer, which could ensure 2.5 t/ha yield.
The influence of the foliar nutrition on the pear fruit quality (Pyrus communis L.) cv. 'Williams' was studied in years 1997 and 1998. We determined the contents of individual sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose and sorbitol) and organic acids (malic, citric, fumaric and shikimic) by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography). The si...zes of the fruits (diameter, length, weight) were measured as well as the amounts of soluble solids and titrable acids. The experiment comprised two treatments: the foliar nutrition and the control. In the treatment of foliar nutrition the trees were sprayed five times (from May 22 to July 7) with a foliar fertilizer, which contained 15% of P205, 20% of K20, 0.1% of Mn, 0.1% of B and 0.1% of Mo. The foliar nutrition influenced higher quantities of sugars (glucose, sorbitol, soluble solids) and organic acids (malic, citric) but had no effect on the contents of shikimic acid, pH juice and titrable acids. At the treatment of foliar nutrition a trend of decrease in the contents of fructose, sucrose, fumaric acid, boron, and zinc was noticed.
Climatic conditions play an important role in agricultural production. It has a profound influence on the growth, development and yields of a crop, incidence of pests and diseases, water needs and fertilizer requirements in terms of differences in nutrient mobilization due to water stresses. Nowadays, we have to know the dark side of the weathe...r events because it is causing more and more problems and significant hazards to many horticultural regions in Hungary. The aim of this study is to explore the problems of nutrient uptake following climatic anomalies and response. These problems are: (i) water supply problems (water-stress); (ii) drought and frost as temperature strees. Reviewing the effects and nutrient disorders caused by climatic anomalies, the following statements can be taken:
- Nutrient demand of trees can be supplied only under even worse conditions.
- The most effective weapon against damage of climatic anomalies is preventative action.
- When developing a fruit orchard, three factors should be taken into consideration: "Location, Location, Location".
- Moreover, proper choice of cultivars, species and cultivation should provide further possibilities to avoid and moderate the effects of climatic anomalies.
- Fruit growing technologies especially nutrition should be corrected and adjusted to the climatic events as modifier factors.
- Urgent task of the near future is to correct and adjust the tested technologies of fruit growing according to these climatic events as modifier factors.
Optimal nutrient supply of trees decreases the sensitivity for unexpected climatic events. To solve these problems supplementary, foliar fertilization is recommended, which adjusted to phonological phases of trees.
Another solving is groundcover of soil means a potential opportunity to temper or even avoid climatic anomalies.
The experiment was conducted in an Inland Valley Swamp during the dry spell of 2017 laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) three replications at the Kabala Horticultural Crops Research Centre (KHCRC) cropping site, Ogoo Farm of the Sierra Leone Agricultural Research Institute (SLARI), Freetown, Sierra Leone. Raised beds measuring... 5m x 1m (6 m2) with a 1m furrow between beds. Inter and intra row spacing of 75 cm by 50 cm with two rows per bed and two seeds per hills were directly sown. The treatments constituted NPK 15:15:15 at the rate of 0, 90, 120 and 150 kg/ha designated as T1, T2, T3 & T4 and Two hybrids of okra were used as experimental materials obtained from Indo-American Hybrid Seed Company, India; Okra-WASA-HyOKR-1 and Okra-WASA-HyOKR-2. Seeds were treated with Thiram Poison for longevity. Result indicates T2 (25.2; 35.1 cm) and T4 (56.9 cm) treatments recorded tallest plant heights followed by T2 (24.0, 34.4 & 50.1 cm), while T1 (18.8, 28.4 & 33.3 cm) had the shortest plant heights at 4, 8 & 10 Week After Planting respectively. Similarly, T4 & T2 (38.9, 65.5 & 44.8 cm) exhibited the largest SG and T1 (21.7, 33.0 & 52.0 cm) the least values at 4, 8 & 10 Week After Planting. While, the widest and narrowest LA at 4, 8 & 10 Week After Planting was observed in T3 (131.3, 135.0 & 158.5 cm2) and T1 (120.8, 121.8 & 128.1 cm2). With respect to yield and yield components, the longest (22.0 cm) and heaviest (112.7 g) fruit were recorded by T3 followed by T2 (19.1 cm & 101.3 g) with T1 having the shortest (11.7 cm) and lightest (52.3 g). The width of pod in T3 (31.2 cm) was greater than the rest of treatments and as usual, T1 indicated the least value (14.6 cm) respectively. The average NP produced plant-1 was shown by T2 & T3 (4.0) with the least of fruit produced by T1 (2.0). Also, 100 seed weight, T3 (106.7 g) weighted the highest followed by T2 (103.3 g), while T1 (60.3 g) accounted for the lowest seed weight. Conclusively, the two materials are adaptable to the climatic conditions of Sierra Leone (Western area). Hence further evaluation required across vegetable growing zones.
In our experiments, we have chiefly tested the salt sensitivity of sweet pepper varieties. In cold forcing, 0.3 1/plant nutrient solutions of different NaCI content were given twice weekly. EC of the nutrient solutions containing 0.25% Volldünger Linz complex fertilizer was made up to 6, 10, 14 and 18 mS/cm, respectively, by 2.51/9.17/17.97/26....76 g/m2 doses of pharmacopeal NaCI every week. The solution used for the control treatment contained Volldünger only (EC 4.4 mS/cm). Irrigation was made with pure water (EC 0.6 mS/cm) when necessary.
The varieties chosen for the experiments were the following: Feherözön, HRF F1, Syn. Cecei (of white, conical fruit), Boni (of white, blunt, infolded fruit), Titan F1 (of pointed, hot fruit) and Pritavit F1 (of tomato shaped fruit).
In general, the symptoms caused by NaCI treatments (with doses higher than 10 g/m2 weekly) have been the following:
- They have reduced the leaf area, the height of the plants, the total and the early yield, the number of fruit set per square meter, the average weight of the fruit (and, in some measure, fruit length, too) and the thousand seed weight.
- They have increased the calcium and the chlorine content of the leaves and fruits and the dry matter content of the fruits.
- They haven't affected the dry matter content of the leaves, the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content of the leaves and fruits, and the germinating ability of the seed.
- The effect on stem diameter and on seed production per fruit has been contradictory in some cases.
The effects of the intermediate treatments haven't been explicit in several cases.
The results of the examination of cuticular secretion have indicated the increase of the sodium and chlorine content of the leaves. This can be important in field growing where the rainwater may wash out a part of sodium and chlorine from paprika leaves.
The hot, pointed variety and the tomato shaped paprika haven't shown clearly higher salt tolerance than the varieties of white fruit colour.
In this study. we are partly focusing on consumer acceptance of fruit, like fruit cracking, weight and flavours, and maturation, fruit density and content of nutrients which are undelie consumer acceptance, and important equally to the growers and marketers. the results on the dynamics of N-uptake corresponded ti thephenological phases of cherr...y and independent on the applied treatments. Younger leaves contain more N than elder due to the effective N uptake of young leaves. Based on the measurements conducted in June, the P content of leaves was in low P supply category at the control and the Benefit treatment, while was in the lower range of optimal category at Damisol treatment. According to our measurements, the K of cherry leaves decreases continuosly until September, expcept the control at which it increased from the end of June to September. the fruit weight was increased significantly by applying Benefit PZ. the best results for fruit cracing observed at Benefit treatment too. The best result for fruit density was observed at Damisol treatment.
Foliar application has been determined to be an effective nutrients delivery strategy in vegetable and fruits. The enhancement of vegetable and fruit yields affected by foliar nutrients application has been recognized in previously conducted studies with perennial tree crops. The efficiency of foliar nutrition is dependent on soil, climate, fer...tilizer and the amount of nitrogen used. There is no sufficient information concerning cooperation of foliar nutrition with all nutrients form as well as the rates of these nutrients fertilization in vegetable
and fruit crops. Two successive winter seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 were conducted under sandy soil conditions to study the effect of spraying with 12 commercial compounds on inflorescences diameter, flower stalk length, number of seed stem /plant, weight of 1000 seed, germination percentage, seed yield, moisture content, catalase , peroxidase activity and malondialdehyde content of onion seeds. The plants
sprayed with union Zn, union Mn, union feer, shams k, elga 600, boron, and amino x had the highest vegetative growth parameter, germination percent and enzyme activity. The plants sprayed with union Zn, union feer, shams K, magnesium, caboron, hummer and amino X had the highest seed yield ha-1. The seeds were stored for one year to study the effect of different commercial compounds and storage temperatures on germination, moisture content and change in antioxidant enzymes activities of onion seeds during the storage period. Storage at cold temperature showed higher germination percent, moisture content and lower malondialdehyde content than storage at room temperature. The treatment with union Zn, union feer, union Mn, boron, elga 600, caboron, amica, hummer and amino x had the highest germination percent.
Dietary intake of large amounts of nitrates and oxalates presents a health hazard. In this study experiments were conducted with two oxalate accumulating vegetables rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum L.) and Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla L.)) using POC-DAP in order to improve their nutritional quality. In the rhubarb experi...ment oxalate content was significantly reduced by band application of POC-DAP, while effects on ascorbate and nitrate contents were ambiguous. The improved nutritional quality in the POC-DAP treatment was rather a cause of ammonium nutrition than a cause of less amount of released fertilizer nitrogen. In the Swiss chard experiment oxalate and nitrate contents were reduced, while ascorbate content was increased by a band application of POC-DAP. The improved nutritional quality in the POC-DAP treatment was the cause of both the less amount of released nitrogen and the realised ammonium nutrition. It was also found that by using POC-DAP for Swiss chard cultivation, labour and energy costs of top-dressings could be eliminated without yield decrease. It was concluded that the nutritional quality of rhubarb and Swiss chard could be improved by using a band application of POCDAP.