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  • Effect of different non-chemical treatment methods on organic seed

    The importance of ecological farming in Hungary is increasing. The utilisation of organic seed is regulated by national law. In our experiment the effect of two plant conditioning substantial: Biokál and Biomit Plussz were tested on the germination of seed. Our test plant species was garden pea (Pisum sativum L.), the most important vegetable in Hungary. The experiment was carried out in the germination laboratories of the National Institute for Agricultural Quality Control after international rules. The germination, the length of root and shoot were measured. 4 hours soaking of pea seeds in 30% solution of Biokál gave the best result. Our results could help to make the field emergence of organic seed faster and safer.

  • Organic versus integrated apple growing: I. differences in soil and leaf parameters

    The aim our study was to establish whether significant differences in nutrients uptake and quality of soil and leaf exist between organic and integrated grown apples. The study was performed at the orchard Fruit Research Station, University of Debrecen, at Debrecen-Pallag during 2002–2004. Macro and micro elements were measured in soil and plant samples. Analyses of variance of soil nitrogen data indicated highly significant differences between the two management systems (P < 0.001) for each examined nitrogen fraction. Analyses of variance of soil phosphate data indicated significant differences (P < 0.05) between the two management systems for orto-PO4 3– contents. Our data indicated that highly significant differences between the two management systems (P < 0.001) for magnesium, copper, and zinc; while significant differences between the two management systems was at P = 0.007 for calcium. Three year’s data of leaf phosphorus, sulphur and zinc were not shown significant differences between production systems. Nevertheless manganese and copper contents of leaves were higher in the organic orchard compared to the integrated one.

  • Carotenoid composition and content in products of sea buckthorn and peach as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography

    A study was conducted to analyse the carotenoids by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using reversed-phase cross linked end-capping and to study the pigment content and composition in sea buckthorn products as well as in freshly harvested fruits from peach thees grown under organic and integrated farming conditions. It was found that carotenoids in fruits of both crops occur mainly esterified with fatty acids in form of mono- and di-esters. The major carotenoids were esters of zeaxanthin, lutein, β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene. The major carotenoids showed different response to processing of sea buckthorn being highly sensitive to thermal treatments such as blanching, cooking and drying. Significant differences were found between peach varieties in their carotenoid content, whereas the impact of organic farming on carotenoids formation was found to be variety-dependent. Two of the three varieties examined in this work, when cultivated under organic farming conditions contained lower carotenoid level as compared to that found in the fruits of the same varieties but produced in integrated farms.

  • Branching features of apple cultivars in integrated and organic production technology

    In our study, vegetative characteristics of 39 apple cultivars were evaluated in environmentally friendly production systems. Numbers of the branches of the central leader in different high zones were shown. According to our results, number of the branches of the axis was probably larger in the integrated production system, compared to the organic one, which is related to the conditional status of the trees. Based on our experiences training and maintaining canopies in integrated system was easier, as relative more extensive canopies were needed in organic farming.

  • Micro area based spatial distribution of apple scab in an organic apple orchard

    In this study, the objective was to report a two-year investigation on micro area based spatial distribution of apple scab in an organic apple orchard. Results showed that number of symptomatic plant part ranged between 587 and 623 on leaf and between 46 and 78 on fruit for an individual tree. Number of asymptomatic plant part ranged between 1034 and 1321 on leaf and between 119 and 193 on fruit. Disease incidence ranged between 35 and 40% on leaf and between 27 and 33% on fruit. Disease aggregation index ranged between 0.115 and 0.298 on leaf and between 0.117 and 0.221 on fruit. Three of the four trees showed significant within canopy aggregation of disease for leaf apple scab symptoms in both years. For fruit apple scab, two of the four trees showed significant random patterns in both years.

  • Examinations of potential environmental friendly materials against tomato and pepper patogens

    In organic farming systems the focus is on prevention with regards to plant protection. To follow the rules of Good Agricultural Practice one is able to avoid serious yield losses; if it is not possible the use of allowed materials are permitted. Organic farmers have less material to protect their plants so it is necessary to find effective potential materials. Bacterial and fungal diseases of tomato and pepper can cause serious losses in yield. Different materials were tested against some plant pathogen bacterial (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and fungal (Phytoptora infestans, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotium) strains in order to find potential materials in the field of organic seed treatment. In vitro trials have shown that vinegar, cider vinegar, red wine vinegar, white wine vinegar, cinnamon and thyme oil have inhibiting effect against the causative agent of bacteria and fungi. Germination test has shown that examined vinegar types do not decrease germination ability if the concentration is low, but in higher (more than 5%) concentration it ruins the germination ability. Even in 0,5% concentration of red — and white vine vinegar have good effect on germination capacity.

  • Spore dispersal, diurnal pattern and viability of Monilinia spp. conidia and the relationship with weather components in an organic apple orchard

    In a two-year Hungarian study, spore dispersal diurnal periodicity and viability of Monilinia spp. and their relation to weather components were determined in an organic apple orchard. Conidia of Monilinia spp. were first trapped in late May in both years. Low number of conidia were trapped until end-June. Thereafter, number of conidia continuously increased until harvest. Conidia in a 24-h period showed diurnal periodicity pattern, with th highest concentration in the afternoon hours. Spore viability with FDA staining showed that viability of
    conidia ranged from 45 to 70% with showing lower viability in the dry than in the wet days in both years. Temperature and relative humidity correlated positively with mean hourly conidia numbers in both years. Mean hourly rainfall was negatively but poorly correlated with conidiacatches in both years. Results were compared and discussed with previous observations.

  • Does foliar nutrition influence the pear fruit quality?

    The influence of the foliar nutrition on the pear fruit quality (Pyrus communis L.) cv. 'Williams' was studied in years 1997 and 1998. We determined the contents of individual sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose and sorbitol) and organic acids (malic, citric, fumaric and shikimic) by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography). The sizes of the fruits (diameter, length, weight) were measured as well as the amounts of soluble solids and titrable acids. The experiment comprised two treatments: the foliar nutrition and the control. In the treatment of foliar nutrition the trees were sprayed five times (from May 22 to July 7) with a foliar fertilizer, which contained 15% of P205, 20% of K20, 0.1% of Mn, 0.1% of B and 0.1% of Mo. The foliar nutrition influenced higher quantities of sugars (glucose, sorbitol, soluble solids) and organic acids (malic, citric) but had no effect on the contents of shikimic acid, pH juice and titrable acids. At the treatment of foliar nutrition a trend of decrease in the contents of fructose, sucrose, fumaric acid, boron, and zinc was noticed.

  • Effect of the environmentally friendly production systems on the vegetative characteristics of apple cultivars

    In this study effect of the environmentally friendly production systems on the brunch cross sectional area of apple trees trained to free spindle canopy are presented based on the data of 39 cultivars. According to our results branch thickness of the apple cultivars located in the lower, middle and upper region of the tree are more homogenous in the integrated production system compared to the organic one. Therefore the severity of the annual maintain pruning must be necessarily more moderate in the integrated growing system, than in the organic production system.

  • Disease progress of apple scab caused by Venturia inaequalis in environmentally friendly growing systems

    Progression of apple scab epidemic in six apple cultivars, including two current and susceptible (Gala Must, Elstar), two old (Egri Piros, Darusóvári), and two resistant cultivars (Relinda, Releika), were described and analysed in a two-year-study, in two environmental-friendly growing systems (organic and integrated). Curves of disease progress, linear regression analysis of transformed disease incidence data and Area Under Disease Progress Curves (AUDPC) were used to characterise the epidemic processes of the selected cultivars. Cumulative disease progress curves showed continuous but asymmetrical scab development on the moderate or highly susceptible cultivars Gala Must, Elstar and Egri Piros, and on the tolerant or resistant cultivar Darusóvári and Relinda, in both systems. The cultivar Releika showed no symptoms either on fruit or leaf. In linear regression analysis, the best linearisation was given by logistic transformation. Adequate parameters leaf disease incidence rate, of obtained from a regression equation, were higher in the organic system than in the integrated system. Values of AUDPC showed great differences in leaf disease incidences among cultivars and between growing systems. AUDPC gave more differences for comparison of progresses of disease epidemic than growth rate of disease in different systems of disease control. Moreover, the obtained results were compared with similar studies on different pathosystems, and biological interpretations of the analyses are discussed below.

  • Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the growth and yield of cabbage in Ghana

    A field experiment was conducted at Dormaa Ahenkro, Ghana, to determine the impact of inorganic and organic fertilizers on the growth and yield of cabbage. The experiment was laid in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The experiment treatment comprises of sole application of poultry manure (PM), NPK 15:15:5, the combined application of poultry manure and NPK fertilizer (PM+NPK) and the control (no fertilizer). Data was collected on the number of leaves, stem girth, plant height, head diameter, head weight and edible head weight. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) among all the treatments. The combined application of PM+NPK recorded the highest values for all the parameters measured. From the results obtained farmers should consider the combined application of PM and NPK to maximize yield on their farm.

  • Possibilities of blossom and twig blight management in organic stone fruit production

    In this study, possibilities of environmentally-benign plant protection against blossom and twig blight were summarized for organic stone fruit orchards. Symtomps of Monilinia laxa (Aderh. & Ruhl.) Honey) were described and then cultivar susceptibility to blossom and twig blight was discussed. Several sustainable plant protection methods were selected and discussed in details such as mechanical, agrotechnical, biological, and other non-chemical control possibilities (stone powders, plant extracts and restricted chemical materials).

  • Growing characteristics of apple cultivars in environmentally friendly growing systems

    Nowadays the condition of the good saleability of the fruit is the application of controlled environmentally friendly technologies. Success of the growing is basically influenced by the production value of the cultivars, and their flexibility to the different technologies. In our examinations the effect of the integrated and organic farming  system has been evaluated on the growing characteristics of the apple cultivars. According to our results the trunk thickness of the trees both in the initial and both in the later bearing period is higher in the integratedproduction compared to the organic farming system. This differences most likely caused by the variance of the crop load.

  • Mulching in grape plantations

    In continuous studies regarding the conservation of the advantageous condition of the soil structure, the highland plantations that are surrounded by living waters have major importance where the erosion of the soil, nutrients and chemicals endangers the quality of the water and the living world of the waters. At the same time the extreme weather and dry summers of the past years have made it important to look for soil cultivation solutions and technologies that are capable of decreasing the evaporation of the soil, for enhanced conservation of soil moisture and to improve the soil structure that is required for the growth of healthy roots. In our experiment we have studied soil mulching with organic plant residue, by sods and the effect of the mechanical cultivation on the soil and on the grape through two growing seasons. From the studied treatments, the mulching with organic plant wastage showed the most efficient results from the point of view of the nutrient distribution in the grape and yield. It also had a positive effect on the soil structure and humidity.

  • Composted and natural organic materials as potential peat-substituting media in green pepper growing

    Peat is the most favourable and usable medium in vegetable and ornamental plant forcing but because of the intensive exploitation peat resources decreased significantly all around the world. As peat-reserves run out the use of pine bark, composts and other organic materials spread in horticultural growing. In this study we compared the suitability of peat-based media to pine bark and two types of composts. We examined the effect of different organic materials on the growth and yield of green pepper (Capsicum annum L., variety Danubia). We found that the most developed plants were grown in peat-based media and pine bark. The average fruit weight was the highest in low moor-high moor peat mixture and pine bark. The plants which were grown in composts fell short of our expectations.

  • Preliminary study on micro area based spatial distribution of powdery mildew in an organic apple orchard

    In this study, the objective was to report a preliminary study on micro area based spatial distribution of powdery mildew in an organic apple orchard. Results showed that number of symptomatic plant part ranged between 11 and 20 on shoot and between 9 and 24 on fruit. Number of asymptomatic plant part ranged between 85 and 109 on shoot and between 133 and 206 on fruit. Disease incidence ranged between 13.8 and 17.6% on shoot and between 9.1 and 11.3% on fruit. Disease aggregation index ranged between 0.098 and 0.228 on shoot and between 0.043 and 0.108 on fruit. One of the four trees showed significant within canopy aggregation of disease for shoot powdery mildew symptoms in both years. For leaf powdery mildew, all tree exhibited random patterns in both years.

  • Effect of organic and integrated farming on carotenoid and tocopherol content of apricot fruits

    In modern and healthy diets antioxidants play an important role providing natural defence against serious diseases. Therefore it is recommended to include fruits and vegetables having high antioxidant capacity in daily diet in a due course. Apricot is one of the fruits receiving an increasing attention in this field. This study was conducted to investigate the composition and content of fat-soluble carotenoids and tocopherols in different varieties of apricot using recently developed liquid chromatographic methods. Also it was aimed to compare organic and integrated farming in their effect on carotenoid and tocopherol content of the fruits. The results showed that apricot fruit are rich in vital carotenoids and bioactive tocopherols with significant variation between different varieties. The organic farming had favourable effect on the level of the major carotenoids and depending on variety this technology either increases or does not have significant influence on vitamin E content.

  • Possibilities of brown rot management in organic stone fruit production in Hungary

    In this study, possibilities of environmentally-friendly plant protection against two brown rot species was summarized for organic stone fruit orchards. Symtomps of the two most important brown rot species (Monilinia fructigena (Aderh. & Ruhl.) Honey and Monilinia laxa (Aderh. & Ruhl.) Honey) were described and then cultivar susceptibility to brown rot was discussed. Several sustainable plant protection methods were selected and discussed in details such as mechanical, agrotehcnical, biological, and other control possibilities (elemental sulphur, lime sulphur and copper).

  • Epidemiology of brown rot on two apple cultivars in an organic apple orchard

    In a two-year-study, the temporal development of brown rot (Monilinia fructigena) on fruits was analysed in an organic apple orchard on an early (Prima) and one late (Idared) maturing cultivars at Debrecen-Józsa in Hungary. Out of five mathematical functions (linear, exponential, three-parameter logistic, Gompertz, Bertalanffy-Mitscherlich), the three-parameter logistic function gave the best fit to brown rot incidence of all cultivars in both years. Disease progress started at the end of June for cv. Prima and at the end of July for cv. Idared, then disease increased continuously from 6-8 weeks up to harvest in all cultivars. Descriptive disease variates derived from the three-parameter logistic function were used to analyse disease progress. These were: Yf, the final disease incidence; Y55, fruit incidence at day 55; Y95, fruit incidence at day 95; b and q, the relative and the absolute rate of disease progress, respectively; T1.5, the time when disease incidence reaches 1.5 %; M, the inflection point and AUDPC, area under disease progress curve. Descriptive disease variates were significantly different (P<0.05) for cv. Prima compared to cv. Idared, except for the relative and absolute rate of disease increase, b and q, respectively. The largest differences among cultivars were in the values of the AUDPC. Disease progress curves and descriptive disease variates were presented and the practical implications of the results were discussed.

  • Results on mating disruption by sex pheromones against moth pests of apple in integrated and organic orchards

    The study was aimed to study that how mating disruption by hand applied dispensers can reduce the number of damage caused by Cydia pomonella, Adoxophyes orana and Pandemis heparana in four integrated and organic apple orchards. In the first orchard (Gacsály), protection against moth caterpillars ensured by IPM and conventional production systems were equally good, but worse than that of the orchard part where mating disruption was applied by 1000 dispensers/ha. In second orchard (Nyírbogdány), the highest incidence of codling moth damage was measured in the hilly part (17%), while in the plot where 440 dispensers/ha pheromone dosage was applied, the damage incidence was 11%. The smallest damage incidence was at the flat part, where 666 dispensers /ha was applied. In the third and fourth orchards (Eperjeske), codling moth damage on fruits was below 7% in the larger and smaller orchards where 1000 dispensers/ha was applied. At Eperjeske, the codling moth damage increased by 32.3% in the field treated with Bacillus thuringiensis product but without using mating disruption. The results verified that the use of 1000 dispensers/ha as suggested by the manufactures is essential, especially in the first year of application. The results also suggested that better results can be achieved in flat areas and the larger plot size also enables a more efficient reduction of the damage.

  • The importance of Hungarian melon (Cucumis melo L.) landraces, local types and old varieties (Review)

    While supermarkets devote whole aisles to hybrids, traditional varieties are hard to find, and becoming scarcer day by day. Unfortunately, countless old melon varieties have already been lost. Luckily we succeded in collecting most of these varieties, and thus conserving them in Gene Banks. Landraces, local types, and old breed races show many characteristics that could be useful in organic farming. It is important to get acquainted with these varieties and cultivars, because they have greatly adapted to the climatic and pedological conditions of the Carpathian basin. Therefore their conservation is essential for the protection of Hungarian genetic variability. With the help of utilising our landraces in organic farming; careful selection; and the usage of marketing strategy in order to enhance quality features, such as unique flavour; we could reclaim the one-time excellent reputation of Hungarian melon.

  • Preliminary study on micro area based spatial distribution of Monilinia fructigena in an organic apple orchard

    In this study, we aimed to report a preliminary study on micro area based spatial distribution of Monilinia fructigena in an organic apple orchard. Results showed that number of symptomatic fruit ranged between 22 and 42 in 2013 and between 25 and 35 in 2014. Number of asymptomatic fruit ranged between 111 and 187 in 2013 and between 119 and 167 in 2014. Disease incidence of fruit ranged between 19.7 and 23.2% in 2013 and between 19.1 and 26.5% in 2014. Disease aggregation index ranged between 0.111 and 0.335 in 2013 and between 123 and 401 in 2014. Three of the four trees showed significant within canopy aggregation of disease for fruit brown rot symptoms in both years. However, the remaining one tree exhibited random patterns during both years. Disease aggregation indicated a disease spread by fruit-to-fruit contact and/or an aggregated
    pattern of insect damage.

  • Effect of postharvest sodium benzoate treatment on some fruit parameters of two organic apple cultivars

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of postharvest sodium-benzoate treatment on some fruit parameters of two organic apple cultivars (’Topaz’ and ’Florina’). Assessments were made at three times during storage: 17 November 2019, 20 December 2019 and 23 January, 2020. During every assessment dates, each fruit was observed separately, and determined the proportion of i) healthy fruits (%), ii) post-harvest fruit rot diseases iii) fruits with mechanical injury (%), iv) fruit with russetting (%), v) damage of codling moth and vi) Ca-deficiency symptoms. In addition, fruit weight (g) was measured at each assessment date. Sodium benzoate reduced the fruit decay and the proportion of healthy fruit was higher in this treatment compared to water treated fruit. This effect could be seen in all assessment dates and on both cultivars. Effects on other parameters were various according to cultivar and assessment dates. Loss of fruit weight was similar in both treatments and cultivars compared to control treatment.

  • Epiphytic microbiota of apple in integrated and organic growing

    The surface microbial contamination is of great interest in case of fruits, since they are they potential sources of spoilage or foodborne diseases. The aim of this work was to compare the epiphytic microbiota of food safety concern of different apple cultivars as a function of cultivation methods (organic versus integrated), production year and place. Investigating 47 samples it was found that the average microbial contamination of the apple surfaces was within a certain range,, practically independent of cultivar, growing area and year. The frequency distribution of the surface bacterial, mould and yeast counts did not show significant differences between growing technologies or varieties. The principal component analysis the samples ranked the apple samples into seven groups on the basis of their microbial contamination level, and the discriminant analysis proved the goodness of grouping. The grouping was independent from cultivars and growing methods. No foodborne pathogen Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. were found on the surfaces of apples.

  • Ascospore dispersal of Venturia inaequalis and subsequent development of scab symptoms in a Hungarian organic apple orchard

    In this study, we aimed to study ascospore dispersal of Venturia inaequalis and subsequent disease development in an organic apple orchard (Eperjeske) in 2012 and 2013 on apple cultiva ’Mutsu). Burkard spore trap in March and April were used to monitior ascospore concentration and number of scab symptoms were assesed 20 May in both years. Three peaks were detected in ascospore dispersal in the period of examination which was clearly related to the Mills infection periods. On the basis of the incubation period’s length in April (15–18 days), the appearance of first symptoms had direct connection with the peak of the ascospore discharge. The largest number of symptoms were observed on those parts of the orchards where where the inoculum sources were accumulated.