Study on the micronutrient content of soil and leaf of an organic apple orchard in Eastern Hungary7-11.Views:156
The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between micronutrient content of soil and leaf in an organic apple orchard. The experiment was carried out at the Experimental Site of the University of Debrecen, Centre of Agricultural Sciences at Pallag in an apple cultivar collection in Eastern Hungary in 2002-2004. The soil sampling was carried out twice per year, at the beginning and the end of the vegetation period in 2002, 2003 and 2004, respectively. The micronutrient content of leaf of seven apple cultivars (Jonagold, Mutsu, Idared, Red Elstar, Egri piros, Reka, Remo) was studied according to phenological phases of apple (April — September) to investigate the dynamism of plant nutrient uptake.
It was found that results of leaf analysis correlated with the obtained results of soil. According to the data of July, manganese and copper content of leaf is in the 'favourable' but zinc is the 'low' range of nutrient supply category. Moreover, there were significant differences in the micronutrient content of leaf among cultivars. From our results it is evident that more reliable data were obtained for fruit nutrition by determining of micronutrient content of soil and plant and calculate their ratios as well.
Fruit injury in organic fruit production and its relationship to brown rot caused by Monilinia spp.7-9.Views:196
In a two-year Hungarian study, the temporal progress of brown rot incidence and various injury types were studied in organic fruit orchards and the relationship between brown rot and injury types was determined. Results showed that brown rot reached an almost 20% incidence level in both years. Total injury incidence reached up to 5.3 and 19.8% in the two years. In all cases, insect injury incidence was the highest among injury types in most assessment dates. Incidence levels of other injury types (bird injury, mechanical injury and other injury) began to increase, but none of those reached levels >4%. Pearson’s correlation coefficients showed that brown rot incidence correlated significantly with the incidence of insect injury. In addition, brown rot incidence and the incidence levels of bird injuries was also significantly correlated. High injury and brown rot incidence levels suggest further improvements on organic fruit protection.
Effects of salinity stress induced by hot spring water on tomato growth, yield and fruit quality under hydroponic cultivation in Japan23-28.Views:92
The objective of this research was to test hot spring water as a source of salt to improve tomato quality under the hydroponic system. This research was conducted at Yamagata University, in Japan from February to July 2017. Salt stress was induced using salts of hot spring wastewater collected from Yupoka Onsen (Tsuruoka, Japan). The treatments were EC 2, 4, 8 12, and 16 mS/cm which were arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with five replications. Tomato plants were grown at EC 2 until flowering and then subjected to different EC concentrations until harvesting. The data were collected on plant growth parameters and fruit quality. Fruits were harvested at the red stage until the 5th truss. The results showed that fruits' Soluble Solids Content, organic acid, Nitrate contents and Sugar: Acid ratio increased significantly at EC 16 mS/cm and in the upper trusses compared to EC 2 and in the lower trusses. In contrast, fruit weight significantly decreased at EC 16 mS/cm and in upper trusses. Leaf thickness, size and SPAD, and specific leaf weight significantly declined at EC 16 mS/cm and upper leaves compared to EC 2 and in lower leaves. Plant height started to decline significantly after three weeks of treatment at EC 16 compared to EC 2.
Organic and mineral fertilizer effects on the yield and mineral contents of carrot (Daucus carota)69-74.Views:375
A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of ammonium-nitrate, food waste compost, bacterial fertilizer (EM-1) and their combinations on production and nutrient contents of carrot. The study was conducted on a calcareous chernozem and acidic sandy soils in a randomized complete block design with 8 treatments and four replications. NH4NO3 in chernozem soil increased the weight of carrot leaves only, while in sandy soil resulted in reduced yield and highly increased NO3-N content of roots. Sandy soil showed higher response of biomass production to food waste compost application than chernozem soil. The highest carotenoid content of roots was measured with compost treatment. Combined application of compost and NH4NO3 in chernozem proved to be good combination but in sandy soil have turn out to be less favourable than sole compost treatment. Bacterial fertilizer (EM-1) did not cause marked effect on the yield parameters, but caused increased phosphorus content of plant. In chernozem soil the maximum yield parameters were achieved with the combined treatment of ammonium-nitrate+compost+EM-1. In sandy soil the most favourable treatment proved to be the compost treatment. Results suggest that application of food waste compost as a nutrient source could be a promising agrochemical practice especially in soils having low organic material and low nutrient supply.
Organic apple growing using sanitation treatments against apple scab11-13.Views:119
Effects or sanitation practices were evaluated on primary and autumn infection by Venturia inaequalis in an organic apple orchard at Eperjeske on the moderately scab-susceptible apple cultivar Jonathan in 2005 and 2006. Evaluated sanitation practices were: i) collection of fallen leaves in autumn; ii) destroying fallen leaves by disc cultivation in autumn; iii) spraying fallen leaves with 2% lime sulphur in autumn; iv) spraying fallen leaves with 2% lime sulphur in autumn and then collection of fallen leaves in autumn; and v) untreated control. In both years, most sanitation practices reduced significantly (P< 0.05) scab incidence in the primary infection periods compared to untreated control. The highest leaf scab incidence was observed in the untreated plots (26:2 and 24.3% in 2005 and 2006, respectively), while the lowest was in the treatments of spraying fallen leaves with 2% lime sulphur combined with collection of fallen leaves (11.7 and 12.3% in 2005 and 2006, respectively).
Assessment of apple varieties based on consumer judgement on their fruits of organic production for fresh consumption87-90.Views:194
The lack of information is often cause of the insufficiency of attributes being developed and appears on the new commodity characterising its utility. Neither own nor other information is presented. For improving this handicap, we endeavoured to praise apple products grown by biological methods and explain their properties as taste, skin, colour, consistency, and size. In addition, we explore the relation between general impression and the individual properties. The scrutiny starts with collecting of primary data on 9 samples taken from biologically grown apple varieties kept over 60–90 days in a store and offered to the consumers. The test is based on an organoleptic assessment (records are registered in a questionnary). The individual judgements are processed and coefficients of correlation between the traits (taste, skin, size, colour) calculated. The validity of the mathematically proved relations is considered to be decisive judging the preferences in consumption of fruits.
Evaluation of crop yield and fruit quality in organic apple production7-10.Views:152
In this study, crop yield and fruit quality parameters (soluble solid concentration, sugar, total acid, and vitamin C content) of 15 apple cultivars including old, resistant and currently grown cultivars. The highest fruit yield among all 15 cultivars was obtained on CV. Jonagold with 15.5 kg/tree, while the lowest yield was measured on the resistant cultivar Reanda with 8.1 kg/tree. There were no significant differences among the cultivars in fruit diameter ranging from 70 mm in the case of cv. Húsvéti rozmaring to 82 mm for cv. Mutsu. Values of soluble solids concentration of the cultivars varied between 15.5% for cv. Téli Banán and 19.2% for cv. Renora. Sugar content values showed a similar tendency to soluble solids content. The highest and lowest total sugar content was observed on cvs. Jonagold and Renora and cv. Retina with 17% and 12.4%, respectively. Total acid content values ranged between 0.18% and 0.53% for cvs. Jonagold and Remo, respectively. Values of vitamin C content for the 15 apple cultivars varied between 2 mg% and 4 mg% for cv. Retina and cv. Mutsu, respectively.
Examination of nitrogenous compounds in Hungarian bio-musts109-113.Views:307
There has not been any research done on the musts from organic grapes. As a result of the special technologies in organic farming we can expect bio-musts to have a different quantitative and qualitative composition of nitrogen compounds from that of traditional musts. In our present essay we deal with the tests of nitrogenous compounds (assimilable nitrogen content, aminoacid, biogenic amine content) in musts from Hungary's bio-wine cellars. Our results show that the change in procedures has resulted in neither quantitative nor qualitative changes in the nitrogenous compounds of bio-musts.
Farm-scale evaluation of two widely used sanitation practices for reducing primary inoculums of apple scab in organic apple production15-18.Views:169
Effects of two widely used sanitation practices were evaluated at farm-scale level on leaf degradation and primary infection by Venturia inaequalis in an organic apple orchard (Eperjeske) on two apple cultivars (Jonathan and Prima) from 2011 to 2013. The tested sanitation practices were eradication of fallen leaves by collection and disc cultivation. Treatments of eradication of fallen leaves by collection and disc cultivation reduced signifi cantly (P< 0.001) leaf litter density with 70–85 and 40–55%, respectively, compared to untreated plots in both years. Above treatments in the same order reduced spring scab incidence with 40–50, and 10–20%, respectively, compared to untreated plots. Incidence of leaf scab in autumn was not signifi cantly lower (P< 0.05) in the treatments in the years.
Comparative analysis of apricot cultivars based on their ecological and biological indicators35-50.Views:213
The herbaceous plants organic characterize Ellenberg et al. worked out (1991), well-use system, which is updated with herbaceous and woody plant in the Hungarian flora species, so Soó (1964-1985), Zólyomi et al. (1967), Précsényi (1986) and Simon (1988) also addressed by different aspects of this problem circuits. The author is the first extended-Borhidi –Ellenberg’s system of wild fruit species (Surányi 2000, 2006) and cultivated of fruit (Surányi 2014) as well. Additional considerations there were aspects of the study of fruit varieties, these biological indicators following open pollination, frost tolerance, resistance of Sharka virus and disease susceptibility for. Firstly, we introduced a system for improving it a plum species and cultivars (Surányi 2015). In this case we used the new system among species and varieties of apricots, because diversity was able to express significantly. Especially the SB, WB, NB, and the relative biological value figures showed the variety. RB (reaction figures) fluctuated only slightly among the 463 varieties, but the dynamic difference between the 11’s was an indicator for the characterization of apricots. If the comparison performed plum and apricot variety’s level anyway justified the use of 11 kinds of organic and biological indicators.
Apple allergens as affected by cultivation technolog and variental factors91-93.Views:200
Our objective was to study the effect of organic farming and area of cultivation on the allergen content of apple varieties by quantification of the major allergens (Mal d 1 and Mal d 2) using allergen-specific ELISA. The obtained results showed that except Idared IX. 29. most of examined varieties, when cultivated under organic farming conditions, contained lower level of Mal d1 allergen than those produced with integrated farming. The different varieties were found to vary substantially in theirMal d 1 allergen content. Furthermore, with some varieties the area of cultivation affected to some extent the content of Mal d 1 allergen.
Effect of variety and cultivation technology on phenols and antioxidant activity of sweet and sour cherry59-61.Views:218
The goal of the present work was to compare different sweet and sour cherry cultivars and cultivation methods (bio/integrated) with respect to polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. The concentration of total polyphenols ranged between 880–1050 mg kg-1 of fresh fruit, whereas antioxidant activity expressed as TEAC was found to be between 5.4 and 10.3 mmol kg-1 for the sweet cherry cultivars examined. In case of sour cherry the level of polyphenols ranged between 1283 and 3490 mg/kg fresh edible part of the fruit. Antioxidant activity was recorded between 15–32 mmol kg-1 for the different sour cherry cultivars included in this work. After one-month storage at low temperature, the total phenols and antioxidant activity decreased by 2–40% in the sour cherry cultivars studied. The anthocyanin content in cherry cultivars was less (131–312 mg kg-1) than the135–1893 mg kg-1 found in sour cherries. Anthocyanin level was higher in samples produced under organic farming conditions than in those produced with integrated cultivation.
Pedological and agrochemical investigations on media using in vegetable forcing119-122.Views:107
In spite of the several good properties of peat, recently, some experiments were carried out with the aim of finding natural materials which can substitute for peat. According to the results, several inorganic and organic materials were proved to be suitable for this purpose. This study examines the effect of different organic materials (example: pine bark, composts, peats) on the growth and yield of green pepper (Capsicum annuum L., variety Danubia). We found that the most developed plants were grown in peat-mixtures and pine bark. The average fruit weight was the highest at those plants which were planted also in these media. The plants which were grown in composts fell short of our expectations in development and in yield, too.
A review of the orchard management in organic fruit production43-49.Views:183
The elements of orchard management have a determining role in the success of organic fruit production, therefore, it is essential that they are applied properly. The present review gives describes some aspects of the orchard management such as site selection, orchard soil, rootstocks and cultivars, planting materials and plant density, crown shape. Then, one of the most important elements, pruning is discussed with special emphasis on winter pruning, condition and apical dominance, degree and method of pruning, summer pruning. After pruning, an overview of fruit thinning, irrigation, soil cultivation, soil protection (cover plants and mulching) and fertilization is given.
Apple powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera leucotricha: some aspects of disease management29-33.Views:495
Apple powdery mildew (Podoshphaera leucorticha) occurs wherever apples are grown. One of the most important fungal disease of apple which causing severe econimic loss on susceptible apple cultivars. This review focuses on the control of apple powdery mildew. The first part of the study provides details of novel aspects of non-chemical control approaches, including agronomic measures, mechanical and biological control options as well as essential features of apple cultivar resistance. After this, developments in chemical control options are described sperately for integrated and organic apple orchards.
Some aspects of disease management of cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii) with special reference to pesticide use45-49.Views:449
In this review, some aspects of disease management of cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii) are summarised with special reference to pesticide use. In the first part of the review, we show the non-chemical control approach (e. g. removal of fallen leaves, planting resistant cultivar) against leaf spot. In the second part of the review, the effect of pesticides including fertilizers (urea) and fungicides on cherry leaf spot are discussed. Special attention are given to the fungicides of copper, dodine, captafol, captan, benomil, chlorothalonil, sterol demethylation inhibitors (e.g. fenarimol, fenbuconazole, myclobutanil, tebuconazole), and strobilurins about their effectiveness against cherry leaf spot. In the final part of the review, possibilities of cherry leaf spot control are discussed in integrated and organic cherry orchards.
Eco-friendly methods to control infection of Botrytis cinerea during propagation of grapevines53-56.Views:253
Grey mould (Botrytis cinerea Pers.) is a pathogenic fungus which causes damage to the production of grapevine nursery plant materials especially on the stored canes or on graftings during the callusing period. The conditions, increased temperature and humidity, are ideal for the pathogen during the pre-forcing stage and in the storage Botrytis cinerea can easily infect the outbursting buds as large amounts of grapevine canes are stored in a relatively small place. The fungicide-based management is general in the prevention of gray rot infection but the palette of authorised chemical compounds is narrowed year by year due to the regulations of the European Union. Our aim is to develop an eco-friendly method which combines the use of natural materials with techniques used in organic farming. Effect of the ultraviolet-c light on the Botrytis cinerea was studied. The development characteristics of the pathogen were examined under daylight and dark conditions and experiments were set up with cow’s milk and acetic acid. UV-C light destroyed the developed conidia, however, the radiation stimulates the development of immature propagules. Larger quantities of conidiophores and conidia were formed in daylight compared to culture in the dark, while different conditions did not signifi cantly change the mycelial growth characteristics. The developed bacteria prevented the spread of pathogen mycelia during the test with cow’s milk in Petri dishes, although the smooth development of propagules that occurred did not change the vitality of the fungal colony. Furthermore the growth of Botrytis cinerea fungus mycelia was strongly inhibited by acetic acid.
Impact of boron foliar fertilization on annual fluctuation of B in sweet cherry leaves and fruit quality27-30.Views:261
The goal of the study was to examine response of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) to boron (B) fertilization. The experiment was conducted during 2005-2007 in West Hungary on mature cv. `Germersdorfi 3' grafted on Prunus mahaleb rootstock.
Sweet cherry trees planted on a calcareous chernozem soil. Trees were foliar-fertilized with B. Foliar B sprays were performed: (1) in the spring, at the stage of white bud, beginning of flowering (B1), and (2) repeated 5 weeks after full bloom (B2). In each of spring spray treatments, B was applied at a rate of 0.15 kg ha-I. Trees untreated with B served as a control.
The results showed that B fertilization had effect on B concentration in leaf tissues, mostly after ripening. B was present significantly higher amount in leaf in treated samples after ripening.
Mean fruit weight was slightly increased by B fertilization. Fruit sensitivity to cracking was not influenced by B fertilization. Nevertheless, from our data it can be conclude that the sensitivity of fruit to cracking is improved when the fruit is riper, the fruit density and fruit weight are higher. The soluble solids varied between 15.0 and 15.9% according to the treatments. Our results for the monosaccharides investigated varied between 5.1 and 7.2 as glucose and fructose as well. Galactose and sucrose was detected very small amount in the unprocessed cherries. Applied B treatments increased sugar contents but decreased organic acid contents in sweet cherry fruits.
It is concluded that under conditions of this experiment, B fertilization can be recommended in sweet cherry culture to improve fruit quality and their appearance.
Effect of boron nutrition on nutrient uptake and fruit quality of tart cherry in Eastern Hungary45-48.Views:244
Effect of the foliar boron (B) application on nutrient uptake and fruit quality of tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) was investigated from 2008 to 2009 on mature four favourite Hungarian tart cherry cultivars like ‘Oblacsinszka’, ‘Érdi bôtermő’, ‘Újfehértói fürtös’ and ‘Petri’. Tart cherry trees grown in Eastern Hungary (Újfehértó) on an acidic sandy soil with low B content. Trees were treated with B by foliar application (0.5% B) at full bloom and untreated with B served as a control. B sprays strongly affected on B content of inflorescences. However, B sprays had no consistent effect on summer leaf B status. In our experiment stronger year effect was observed at leaf B status than flower B status. The effectiveness of early spring boron applications are limited and mostly affected the flower B status only. Moreover, treatments had inconsistent effect on studied fruit inner parameters. Monosaccharides, vitamin C and organic acid contents of sour cherry were stronger affected by cultivars than applied treatments.
Nutrition content of spent mushroom compost before and after utilization in vegetable forcing experiments53-55.Views:126
The Spent mushroom compost means the remained soil without sporophores after the productive.period. The leftover can't be used for mushroom growing again (Gy6r1i, 2001). Unfortunately spent musnroom compost still has bad judgment, as it would be garbage, but on the contrary it is a significant and valuable material, which is full of organic residue, a perfect soil structure improver, nutrition supplement and propagating medium. In our experiment we took the following mediums: control material with 50% flat moor peat and 50% high moor peat (Novobalt) content, 100% spent compost, 50% spent compost and 50% control medium, 25% spent compost and 75% control medium. On the day of plantation and after the forcing experiment we took sample from the control medium and from all mixtures.
Effect of maturity stage on content, color and quality of tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L.) Karsten) fruit41-44.Views:436
Soluble solids (Brix°), carbohydrate, organic acid, lycopene, polyphenols and HMF content of indeterminate round type tomato Lemance F1 fruits were measured in six ripeness stages from mature green to deep red stage. Color of fruits was determined by CIELab system. The L*, a*, b* values were received directly and used to calculate from which the a*/b* and the chroma were calculated. The Brix', carbohydrate, lycopene and HMF content were the highest in the 6111 stake (deep red). Carbohydrate contents constitute nearly 50% of the Brix°. The mature green stage had the lowest acid content but in subsequent stages it was fundamentally unchanged. Polyphenol content changed little during fruit ripening. Lycopene content changed significantly during maturation and accumulated mainly in the deep red stage. Analyses showed that a*/b* was closely correlated with lycopene and can be used to characterize stages of maturity in fresh tomatoes.
Influence of foliar nutrition on apple production15-18.Views:121
On the basis of different experiments the technology of intensive foliar nutrition was studied in apple orchards in the period from 1996 until 2000. Yearly apple nutrition programs based on soil analyses. The foliar nutrition program was prepared in accordance with the soil, fruit analyses and climatic conditions. If needed, certain improvements were made according to the analyses of leaves and precipitation in the current year. The richness of the soil and ratios between individual nutrients gradually improved. The foliar nutrition influenced the yield quantity, quality and flower bud differentiation. The yield was doubled and the mean of five years reached 70 tons per hectare. In spite of high yields there were no problems with alternative bearing. The analyses of soluble solids, firmness, fructose, glucose, sucrose, malic acid, citric acid in the fruits and mineral soil composition indicated that the produced fruits were of high quality despite greater yields.
Evaluation study for the effect of four mango rootstocks on behaviour of Keit mango variety49-53.Views:243
Our investigation was carried out in four mango rootstocks were namely Zebda, Socaria, 13/1 an 4/9. This study reviewed the effect of these rootstocks on growth behaviour of Keit mango variety as a scion grown on them. This evaluation and comparison included data on following aspects: the vegetative growth characters, root growth parameter, uptake of some macro nutrient and some organic substance. All results in this regard refer that the Socaria rootstock gave the highest values off all parameters so it is considered as a vigorous rootstocks, means that the trees on this rootstocks will reach to high size after short time. By contrast, Zebda rootstocks gave the lowest values in this concern and this will reflect on tree size on it. This means that the Zebda rootstocks will be useful in the system of high density orchard comparing with Socaria. Concerning to other rootstocks, they were intermediate between Socaria and Zebda rootstocks.
Brown rot blossom blight and fruit rot of apricot in Hungary139-141.Views:251
The aim of our two-year study was to assess incidence of brown rot blossom blight and fruit rot caused by Monilinia laxa in 2003 and 2004. Assessments of incidence were made on cv. Bergeron (susceptible to brown rot) in a flatland and a hilly growing area (at Cegléd and Gönc, respectively). In both locations, plant protection was performed according to the integrated fruit production guidelines and small untreated plots were set up for each cultivar in both years. In 2003, when weather conditions were dry and hot, brown rot incidence was low (less than 10%) on both blossoms and fruits. Monilinia laxa did not cause significantly different blossom blight and fruit rot at the hilly (Gönc) area compared to the flatland, not even in untreated plots. However, in 2004, when spring and summer weather conditions were wet and cold, Incidence reached 95% for blossom blight and 33% for fruit rot in the untreated plots. Blossom blight incidence was 1.5-2 times higher in the flatland area compared to the hilly growing area. During the blooming period of apricot, two (at flower bud stage and at full bloom) and three (at flower bud stage, at full bloom and at petal fall) fungicide applications were necessary for the successful control at Gönc and Cegléd, respectively. The difference between the two orchards was due to the fact that blooming started one week later in the hilly region (at Gone) than in the flatland region (at Cegléd), therefore, the critical weather period coincided with blooming in the orchard in the hilly region only partially. Fruit rot incidence was similar in both regions as the amount and distribution of rainfall were similar during the fruit ripening period.
The new era of horticultural production after the millennium87-90.Views:149
The horticultural branches turn out, in relation to their area, a very great production. value. At the same time' many useful jobs are created. The development of gardening is, therefore, an important interest of our national economy. To the continuous enhancement of quality and quantity belongs the alloyage of new methods (biotechnology, integrated and organic procedures) with our traditional feats and with the incessant raise of the professional level.