Published October 20, 2003

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7-11.

The hungarian raspberry today and outlooks of its development (Review)

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13-21.
Recently, projects aiming to enhance the consumption of fruits and vegetables are intensified. Experts agree in the principle of fresh vegetable foods being a valid panacea in averting risks of ailments as well as curing immune-insufficiency, inflammations, moreover, certain cancerous processes. It is generally accepted that among substances of bi...ological activity the anti-oxidant compounds such as vitamins C, E and carotenoids, etc. have the major role in this process. Hungarian agriculture has outstanding chances in utilising its natural as well as cultivated plant resources and favourable climatic conditions. It would be, however, necessary to build up a databank of anti­oxidant substances found in fruits and vegetables and including the modifying effects of technology, growing site, variety, etc. The concept of promoting the trade of Hungarian food-specialities as "Hungaricum" needs, urgently, the aid of a databank of that kind. Some of those excellent products are for instance the sour cherry, pepper and onion. They enjoy high priority as "Hungaricum" in the EU and it should be enhanced by intense and consequent research work, which may prove their role as functional foods. The USA is the leading country in research on the anti-oxidant substances of sour cherries, and up to now more than 17 compounds have been found in Hungarian varieties among others. In pepper fruits used as vegetable and source of vitamin C, the analyses are still lacking because research of the past concentrated on the products of milled spice pepper. Onion and garlic are entirely unexplored in this respect. It should be noted that availability of these fresh products in the moderate climate is restricted to a relatively short season. For that reason, some processing and preservation methods are needed in order to use those fruits and vegetables as functional foods all around the year. The scientifically founded endeavour as a solution of the questions mentioned is stimulated by vigorous commercial interests as well as by the urgent needs of the consumers to improve their health.
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23-36.

The brown rot fungi of fruit crops (Monilinia spp.): Important features of their biology (Review paper)

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37-42.
Sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) are generally self-incompatible and pollinator cultivars are needed in orchards for reliable yield. In Hungary, choosing the appropriate cross-compatible cultivar pairs has so far been based on traditional test-crosses in the field. In recent years PCR-based methods that allow the identification of the S-alleles re...sponsible for compatibility have been elaborated. We have determined the S-allele constitution of 24 cultivars and four selections important to Hungarian growers and breeders using PCR-based methods developed at Horticulture Research International, East Malling. The 28 accessions had various pairs of 9 alleles including one new allele, Sr. They could be assigned to 12 of the existing incompatibility groups or to a new group (S4S12) for which the designation 'Group XXVII' is proposed. The cultivars `Krupnoplodnaja' and 'Rita' had novel genotypes, S5S9 and S5Sx, respectively and can be placed into group 0 that holds universal pollen donors. The genotype of the cultivar ‘Hedelfingeni óriás' grown in Hungary was found to be S3S4 and therefore different from the cultivar `Hedelfingen' that is widespread in Western Europe.
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43-47.
Callus cultures were induced from hypocotyl of young bean seedlings. The B5 medium completed with 1 mg/1 KIN and 2mg/1 2,4-D proved the best. Callus developed and maintenaned on B5 medium supplemented with 1mg/1 kinetin and 2mg/I 2,4-D. The B5 medium supplemented with 1mg/1 KIN and 2mg/1 2,4-D induced much more callus than half strength MS medium ...supplemented with 0.5 or 0.75mg/1 BA and 0.1 mg/1 NAA. The results demonstrate that GeneboosterTM is convenient method to obtain transient gene expression in callus of bean. The results have shown that the bean callus shot by GeneboosterTM can be transformed to get (kanamycin-resistant and stress mannitol­tolerant) calli. The presence of mannitol-dehydrogenase gene (mt/) was verified by PCR, showing the integration of mt/ gene carried by two plasmids. Co-transformed calli were selected after bombardment on kanamycin, mannitol and (kanamycin+mannitop-containing media. Data of molecular analysis (PCR) confirmed the insertion of mtl gene in the genome of mannitol-tolerant callus lines.
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49-53.
Callus cultures were induced from hypocotyl of young bean seedlings. Callus developed and maintenaned on B5 medium supplemented with 2mg/1 2,4-D and 1 mg/1 kinetin. The results demonstrate that A. tumefacins-mediated transformation is a convenient method to obtain transient gene expression in callus of bean. The results have shown that the bean ca...llus co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens can be transformed to get heibicide Finale (glufosinate-ammonium) resistant GUS positive tissues. Southern blot analysis of transformed calli showed integration of gusA marker gene carried by a binary vector. Transformed calli were selected on herbicide containing media. Data of molecular analysis (Southern blotting) confirmed the insertion of gusA gene in the genome of herbicide resistant calli with bar gene. There are three evidences that calli are stable transformants: (1) herbicide resistance, (2) GUS activity which is indicative since the coding region containing an intron, (3) the results of Southern hybridization technique.
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55-57.
Callus formation, as a prerequisite for the induction of somaclonal variability, was achieved successfully with certain molar ratios between 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and benzyladenine. Regeneration of new plants from shoot apex meristems could be significantly improved by the combined addition of very low amounts of indolebutiric acid, benzy...ladenine and gibberelic acid, dissolved in the Murashige-Skoog nutrient medium. These in vitro treatments may contribute to a more efficient micropropagation of the Rimini variety of carnation.
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59-69.
In 164 varieties of five stone fruit species, counts of flower buds, flowers and fruits set have been performed, regularly, between 1982 and 2002. The critical number and sample size has been determined for the purpose to estimate the yielding potential of peach plantations. For a rapid test, 10 shoots per variety are recommended. In sour cherry a...nd peach varieties, the number and ratio of leaf and flower buds has been assessed on bearing shoots of different length. The typical flower bud density of 129 peach varieties varies, as a rule, between 0.13 and 1.10 bud/cm. Three groups of flower-bud-densities could be distinguished: low (0-0.40 bud/cm), intermediate (0.41-0.60 bud/cm), high (more than 0.60 bud/cm). About 62% of varieties belong to the intermediate group. Negative correlation has been found between flower density and relative fruit set, whereas positive correlation between flower density and fruit yield. The results are utilised in the description and choice of varieties, moreover, in choosing of optimal pruning policies. Varieties of high flower bud densities are recommended to be preferred for growing sites with frequent late frosts. Abundantly yielding varieties of low vegetative vigour are to be pruned more severely than those characterised by low yields, vigorous growth and low flower density. Sour cherry varieties, which are inclined to grow "whips" ought to be stimulated to grow longer shoots (40-50 cm per year), than varieties woid of that tendency (30-40 cm).
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71-74.
Central leader and Vase form canopy models were built using FEM. Their main characteristics were chosen to be the same. The models were virtually exposed to the effect of steady-state horizontal forced vibration in the frequency range of 0-20 Hz. Acceleration-frequency curves were calculated and drawn to find the best frequency values for the effe...ctive detachment and also to see the acceleration differences in the limbs. For the same purpose the direction of shaking was also changed. It was found that for the Central leader canopy shape multidirectional shaking would bring uniform detachment while for the Vase form trees also the unidirectional shakers were appropriate. The acceleration achieved for the Vase form models were much higher than for the Central leader type. The acceleration-frequency curve of the shaker unit can be used to find the best frequency for shaking.
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75-79.
Mandarin fruit sugar content can be increased when subjecting the satsuma mandarin tree (Citrus unshiu MARC. var. satsuma) to moderate water stress by mulching during the period of active sugar accumulation, thereby fruit quality improvement can be realized. In the frame of the precision agriculture production system, a non-destructive measuring m...ethod development became necessary based on remote sensing, field spectroscopy and image analysis, to be able to measure the degree of water stress. Large amount of visual information have been recorded at ground level, in near infrared, red and green channels by a false color digital camcorder designed specially for remote sensing applications. A method have been found to be able to calculate the absolute reflection of mandarin leaf surface by comparing leaf reflectance with known reference target reflectance, thereby established the basis of further studies in this topic. Leaf absolute reflection can be measured reliably, under variable natural illumination at field conditions. Functional correlation can be searched between visual information and leaf water potential measured by PMS pressure chamber.
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81-85.
Matricaria recutita L. is a traditional medicinal plant in Hungary and its drug is known as „Hungaricum", world-wide. Plant samples and seeds were collected from 12 different habitats of three significant geographical regions of Hungary in 2001. Morphological, production biological and chemical properties of samples were examined. In relation to... the morphological characteristics, a negative correlation (r= -0.75) could be observed between the average height of the plants (height of flowering shoots) and the pH value of the soil. According to the composition of the essential oil, the populations accumulating typically chamasulene (10-20%), a-bisabolol (30-50%) or bisabolol-oxid (30-50%) could be completely distinguished. Concerning the flavonoid composition the quantity of apigenin-7-glucoside was outstanding in the populations originating from the Great Hungarian Plain, it has reached the concentration of 1.8-2.8 mg/g, while the samples collected in Transdanubia could be characterised by much lower level of apigenin-7-glucoside (around 1.5 mg/g).
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87-90.
The knowledge of the finest composition of the Tokaj Wine Specialities is an indispensable task. The presence of the biogenic amines as an eventual combination of hygiene, technology and activity of Botrytis cinerea is a very important point of view in the future. The objective of this study was to measure the biogenic amine-content of Tokaj Wine ...Specialities. According to our findings, the histamine-concentration remained lower than the prescribed end values, but ill the case of serotonine, there were significant measured values. During the fermentation period, in the first cycle there was a decrease in the concentration of biogenic amines, but with the advancement of fermentation, an increase was found.
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91-95.
Nowadays the consumption of natural wines has been increased. In parallel with the higher demand, the study of the parameters of natural wines has also developed. The amines being produced during the decarboxylization procedure of amino acids could be one of the most important features of natural wines. The objective of this study was to measure t...he biogenic amine content of natural wines from 2000 and 2001. We have determined that the biogenic amine content of natural wines is not different from the biogenic amine composition of normal wines. There was not any considerable difference between the years. In complience with the average tendency, red wines contain higher histamine-, tiramine- and serotonin values than white wines.
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97-100.
In a two-year study, yield loss and temporal dynamics of brown rot development caused by Monilinia fructigena (Aderh. & Ruhl.) Honey were quantified and analysed in two organic apple orchards (Debrecen—Pallag and Debrecen—Józsa). The first infected fruits were observed at the beginning of August in both years and both locations, except fo...r one occasion when the first infected fruit was found at the end of July. Temporal disease development was continuous up to harvest time in both years and locations. In the two years, pre-harvest yield loss on the trees amounted between 8.9% and 9.3% at Debrecen-Pallag and between 9.7% and 10.8% at Debrecen—Jozsa by fruit harvest. Incidence of infected fruits on the orchard floor ranged from 32.4% to 43.2% and from 53.3% to 61.9%, at Debrecen—Pallag and Debrecen—Józsa, respectively, by fruit harvest. Analyses of temporal disease progress showed that the best-fitted mathematical function was the power function in both orchards and years. Both parameters of the power function clearly demonstrated that incidence of brown rot on fruit increased faster on the orchard floor than on the tree. Moreover, the disease increase was faster at Debrecen—Józsa in most cases than at Debrecen—Pallag. Our results indicated that the strategy of disease management, the ripeness of the fruit and the presence of a wounding agent played an important role in the yield loss and in the temporal development of fruit disease incidence caused by M. fructigena in organic apple orchards. Biological and practical implications of the results are discussed.
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101-106.
The pathogen and weather components of apple scab disease progress were analysed in a three-year study, in two environmental-friendly production systems (organic and integrated) on cvs. `Idared', `Jonica' and 'Mutsu'. Linear regression analyses of transformed disease incidence and severity data and "area under the disease progress curves" (AUDPC) ...were used for the analysis of the pathogen component. To evaluate the role of the weather component in apple scab epidemic, first, the weekly disease increase was determined at a certain week (n). Weekly disease increase was related to rainfall, relative humidity, Mills' wetness period, temperature and interaction between temperature and relative humidity. Five different periods were used in the analyses: i) week (n-1), ii) week n(n-1), iii) week (n-2), iv) week (n-1)(n-2) and v) week n(n-1)(n-2). In the analyses of the pathogen component, the best transformation function was the logistic one. Regression analyses showed that disease growth rates were higher for disease incidence and for the organic production system than for disease severity and for the integrated production system, respectively. Disease growth rates for leaf incidence were higher than fruit incidence on all the three cultivars. AUDPC values showed great differences in both leaf and fruit incidences among cultivars and between the two production systems. The results the of analyses of the weather component showed that the best relationships between disease increase and weather parameters were found for fruit incidence and leaf incidence in week (n-2) in the organic and integrated production systems, respectively. Results also demonstrated that in week n(n-1) temperature played a more important role in the fungus development than the water parameters (relative humidity, rainfall and leaf wetness). Consequently, infection process is significantly dependent on almost all weather parameters, but during the incubation period the most important weather parameter is the temperature. Results were compared with similar studies and biological interpretations of the analyses are discussed.
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107-110.
A field study was conducted in Central Hungary in 2001 and 2002 in order to evaluate the effects of black plastic mulch and raised bed on soil temperature and on yield and fruit quality of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. `Kárpia'). The experiment was a complete block design with four replicates. Four different technologies were used as treat...ments: raised bed with black PE mulch, raised bed without mulch, level ground with black PE mulch and level ground without mulch. In both years soil temperature was the highest in the covered raised bed treatment, about 2 °C higher than in the uncovered raised bed. Optimum soil temperature requirement of sweet pepper roots was met to the highest degree in case of the covered raised bed, 26-28% of the total growing period. The more favourable soil temperature conditions resulted in better yield, compared to the uncovered level ground treatment the covered raised bed treatment produced 19% and 14% higher yield in 2001 and 2002, respectively.
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111-116.
The main season of greenhouse tomato begins late winter or early spring in the northern Temperate Zone. During this period decisive environmental factors affect flowering and fruit setting. In the present experiments, progress and dynamics of greenhouse tomato flowering and fruit set were examined in 1999 and 2001 spring. The beginning and the en...d of flowering and fruit set, the number of flowers and fruits set in each cluster were recorded. Flowering and fruit set characteristics were analysed with respect to the accumulated PAR and temperature were calculated for each cluster. One flower required 31.3 mol M-2 of accumulated PAR and 38 °C of sum temperature as an average for anthesis. One fruit required 27.9 mol m-2 of accumulated PAR and 33.3 °C of sum temperature as an average for fruit setting.
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