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  • Safety Index Based on Geometric Probability Is Proposed to Represent the Uncertainty of Soil Parameters for Spread Foundations
    43-52
    Views:
    108

    The overall factor of safety in geotechnics can be defined as the product of four partial factors of safety. One of these partial factors represents the uncertainty of the soil parameters. Based on geometric probability, a safety index is proposed to calculate the uncertainty of the soil parameters for spread foundations. Numerical examples have also been presented.

  • Structural Investigation of Granular Composites by Modern Methods
    179-185
    Views:
    142

    Structural investigations of polymer-based particulate composites were carried out using modern test methods. We had composite sheets with different compositions and different injection molding speeds. In the polypropylene matrix, three types of glass beads were mixed in three weight percentages. In our investigations, the granular composites were studied with a widely used examination equipment, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and industrial computer tomography (CT) as a modern diagnostic tools. The purpose of the study was to investigate the distribution and interfacial adhesion of glass beads.

  • Effect of nanomaterials on work safety
    304-312
    Views:
    107

    Nowadays, due to their special properties, nanomaterials are gaining more and more interest and their industrial application is increasing. Their specific properties are mainly due to the fact that the main characteristics of nanomaterials are not always the same as the normal size range of the same material. While these materials fulfill an important new function in the industry, their interactions with the environment and biological organisms are becoming increasingly unpredictable, increasing uncertainty, for example, in their application to human safety. Due to the very rapid technological development, these substances have been used much earlier than the legal framework for their application could have developed, and therefore a binding regulation on the use of nanomaterials is currently not available. At this moment, the manufacturer of the nanomaterial is responsible for the safety of the products. Of course, owever, chemical safety legislation and standards provide an excellent basis for their management, but due to their specific properties, novelty and lack of knowledge of the mechanism of action, risk assessment can still be a challenge for the practitioner.

  • Construction Solutions for Reducing the Effect of the Rear-end Collision
    Views:
    142

    Analysing the accident statistics, we can detact that, the improvement of the transport safety is one of the most important engineering task. The number of the vehicles in the trasport gets significantly higher from year-to year, and the infrastructure of the cities frequently can not coordinate already it. Therefore the increasing of the vehicles’s number naturally involves the upgrowth of the accidents occasions too. The aim of the improvement of the vehicle-construction to reduce the personal injured and death resulted accidents number in contrast with the increasing traffic performance. This study analyses the construction options for reducing the effect of the rear-end collision whiches are concentrated for the passive vehicles and its passengers firtsly.  Among the actual car manufacturers applied solutions, foward-looking possibilities and suggestions are described in this publication. The development can not be concentrated for only the safety improvement, the mass-optimalization must be completed simultenously. These apparent contrary requirements can be completed with application of new materials. Therefore the study addresses the more optimal utilization of the meatl foam in the vehicles crushbox. In addition, an optimized break-assist solution is described based on the Mercedes developed Pre Safe Plus® system to increas the abrorbtion of the impact energy.

  • Investigation of the Luxury Yachts Condition and Their Maintenance
    95-105
    Views:
    147

    Surveying the condition of yachts and their maintenance is of great importance for their functionality and efficiency. Finding the right approaches, expertise at different levels, design benchmarking are essential for all yacht maintenance and security, resulting in crew and passenger safety. This report presents an evaluation and expertise in a real environment and documentation of decision-makers for the strength and functionality of a luxury motor yacht. For a good understanding of the problem, detailed photographic material has been documented showing in detail the required technical corrections. The research would be of interest to a wide range of yacht design and industry professionals, academic and research representatives, yacht users and all interested stakeholders.

  • The Effects of Quenching and Tempering Treatment on the Hardness and Microstructures of a Cold Work Steel
    286-294
    Views:
    231

    The X153CrMoV12 ledeburitic chromium steel characteristically has high abrasive wear resistance, due to their high carbon and high chromium contents with a large volume of carbides in the microstructure. This steel quality has high compression strength, excellent deep hardenability and toughness properties, dimensional stability during heat treatment, high resistance to softening at elevated temperatures. The higher hardness of cryogenic treated samples in comparison with conventional quenched samples mean lower quantity of retained austenite as at samples quenched to room temperature and tempered in similar condition. In the microstructure of samples were observed that the primary carbide did not dissolve at 1070°C and their net structure have not been changed during to heat treatment. During to tempering at high temperature the primary carbides have become more and more rounded. After low tempering temperature in martensite were observed some small rounded carbides also, increasing the tempering temperature the quantity of finely dispersed carbides increased, which result higher hardness. The important issues in heat treatment of this steels are the reduction or elimination of retained austenite due to cryogenic treatment.

  • Classification of Nanomaterial’s Risky Properties on the Aspect of Human Safety
    34-45
    Views:
    168

    Due to their unique properties the application of nanomaterials continuously extends thus these appear for several industries. The industrial application of nanomaterials became significant during the last decades. As a result of the intensive development, our knowledge about the exact influence of nanomaterials for living bodies and human health is characterised by deficiency for both short and long time. Nanomaterials able to be entered to the living organism through several ways then invade to the circulatory system and the lymphatic system, reach the organs and can induce various kind of damages and serious diseases as a result of their different appearance, physical and chemical properties. Legislation in Hungary and in the European Union seems to be incomplete. There is no document which summarizes and details the risky factors and parameters in case of a risk assessment.  Our aim was to develop a criterion system considering the risks related to the use and contact of nanomaterials based on their physical, chemical and biological properties, which criterion system could provide basic principle for a risk assessment thereby make the industrial processes safer both for the employees and those who are in the vicinity.

  • Improving Safety & Ride Comfort through Dual Suspension System in Road Vehicles
    30-36
    Views:
    167

    The essential objective of the proposed suspension framework is to limit the undesired disturbance of a vehicle because of uneven surfaces on streets. This framework in vehicles is comprise of some fundamental components like dampers and springs which ingests the stuns that are instigated by unusual streets. In any case, these frameworks can just work up to a predefined constrain. Vehicle suspension frameworks are planned by taking the solace capacity of a traveler in record and to enhance the street grasp on each surface.

    This examination proposes an idea for structuring a superior suspension arrangement of vehicles to upgrade the nature of the drive without corrupting the dependability of the vehicle plan. In this exploration, a mix of two suspension framework is presented in which one goes about as an essential suspension while different fills in as an optional framework that can adequately lessen the vibrations. This mix upgrades the customary framework that is right now introduced in vehicles without bargaining on solace and street hold.

  • What is worth knowing about the establishment from a work safety point of view
    24-31
    Views:
    114

    Under establishment, we mean the process that results in the creation of a new unit (eg factory, plant, office, etc.), a workplace or an existing one what will be renewed, expanded or restructured, or installed; installed on a machine, plant, appliance, whether or not for productive or non-productive purposes. It is generally true that the design, construction, use and subsequent operation of workplaces, facilities, technology, materials, energy, personal protective equipment; production, distribution, import, transportation, movement, use and use of workplaces; in the absence of these, the requirements of the scientific-technical standard can be expected. An employer, operator, and service provider must adapt to market conditions. Accordingly, it should monitor the expectations of customers, business partners, market changes, trends to adapt to expectations, and therefore constantly develop their products, services, produce reliable quality, ensure that quality meets the market expectations providing personal and material conditions to ensure that employees can effectively and safely meet market expectations. The recognized business perception of the employer is to accomplish the above, the objectives to be achieved must be formulated, priority should be given to the potential risks (with particular regard to occupational safety risks) to be measured, measures to be taken to ensure effectiveness, short-, medium- and long-term planning, investment.

  • Direct Optimization of an Automotive Sheet Metal Part Using ANSYS
    134-142
    Views:
    386

    Optimization of automotive parts nowadays is mainly used to design lightweight and cost-effective vehicle parts in order to improve the cost and efficiency. In this research, a sheet metal part was taken into consideration and optimized using direct optimization module in ANSYS to evaluate the process. An initial Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was done on the sheet metal part by adding forces and constraints in order to initiate direct optimization. The purpose of the optimization is to minimize the mass of the sheet metal part and maintaining a certain Factor of Safety (FOS) by automatically modifying the sheet thickness and the dimension of the side holes. As a result, the best candidate point with 23% mass reduction was found which complied with FOS value was selected for optimal geometry.

  • Diagnostic Model for Supporting the Development of Health-conscious Organizational Behavior
    1-18
    Views:
    327

    In the 21st century more and more countries of the world take the attitude that human health is not just an issue for healthcare services but for all major areas of life. Such an area for employees is the workplace. Protection of employee health and safety has for a long time been a non-transferable (objective) obligation and responsibility for employers in Europe. Connections between health and the workplace have however extended far beyond the traditional aspect of safety and health at work. Developing a health-conscious organisational behaviour means a challenge for many Hungarian companies; the model described in this study assists them in both diagnosing their current situation and choosing the appropriate course, method and tools for development.

  • Safe, Health Working in Health Care in the Shadow of a Pandemic
    85-97
    Views:
    231

    Safe work that does not endanger health is a complex category, the provision of which creates an obligation on the part of the state, the employer and the employee. The task of the state is to determine the basic requirements for work that does not endanger health and safe, as well as the related rights and obligations, and to develop a national policy on occupational safety and health. As a result of the coronavirus epidemic in early 2020, we have faced a whole new form of accidents at work and occupational diseases. In my study, I want to examine the course of the investigation of the infection that takes place during the pandemic in healthcare work, and the possibilities of remuneration for the duration of the illness.

  • The Issue of Hidden Hunger
    155-164
    Views:
    235

    Mankind faces major challenges in the area of food safety and food security. In addition to the growing population, urbanization, climate change, global environmental change and economic inequality, as well as instability, have a major impact on balanced food supply. According to the WHO (2018) study, not only the elimination of hunger is a problem, but also the increase of our well-being. While 0.8 billion people suffer from a lack of available food, 33% of the global population is overweight, 30% of them are obese. In a long term our growing well-being can also be a great problem. There are three types of dietary problems that coexist in parallel: the hunger and malnutrition, the microelement deficiency, and excessive nutrition and obesity. These three health problems represent a serious burden on public health, which has to be considered in the context of food security and food safety.

  • Maintenance from the Work Safety Point of View
    190-196
    Views:
    126

    Deterioration of the technical condition of plant equipment is a common phenomenon nowadays. According to the experience of authorities, all this contributes to the occurrence of malfunctions and accidents. Plants that operate with an inadequate conservation strategy are now nearing the end of their design life, thus posing an increased accident risk. Aging processes are often accelerated by the operator's underestimation of the effects of equipment stress and the extent of deterioration mechanisms, and the consequent inadequate design and operation of condition monitoring and maintenance procedures. The aim of our work is to examine trends in the light of modern maintenance optimization methods and, in connection with this, to make proposals for the optimization of maintenance scheduling for employers.

  • Improvement of High Strength Automotive Steels Wettability Properties Using CO2 Laser Surface Treatment
    422-427
    Views:
    156

    As a result of stricter environmental and safety standards, vehicle manufacturers have to reduce the weight of the vehicles, because 10% weight loss cause 8-10% reduction of fuel consumption. To reduce car’s weight and increase safety, vehicle manufacturers use high-strength steels. Further weight reduction can be achieved by using corresponding bonding technology (soldering, sticking) and optimizing these technologies can increase the strength of the joints. According to literature research, the improvement of interface properties has a large effect on bonding technologies. In order to improve interface properties, we can use multiple surface treatments. In our research we investigate the effects of CO2 laser surface treatment on high strength steels, because CO2 lasers are often used in the vehicle industry. In order to detect the effect of surface treatment, we investigate the wettability of the treated and untreated steels. In our research we measure the surface tension of treated and untreated steels. Our main goal is to improve wettability properties thus the bonding technology. In our research we used DP 600 high strength steel sheet with the thickness of 1 mm. We cut the steel sheet to 25mm wide and 55mm long workpieces. Before the surface treatment, the workpieces had to be cleaned and degreased using methanol. We searched for parameters that do not cause any visible changes on the surfaces. Among the parameters of the treatment we were able to change the output power of the laser. We used contact angle measurement to examine the wettability.

  • Optimization of the Sheet Metal Base of a Toggle Clamp Using Finite Element Method
    266-273
    Views:
    203

    Optimization relates to the ultimate yield strength and the maximum stress incident on the current model under critical working conditions and finds through iterative processing a way to compensate for the strength requirement without going beyond the desired mass limits. In this paper, the horizontal sheet metal base of a horizontal toggle clamp is optimised for mass reduction using the finite element analysis in the computer aided design software. The sheet metal base material is the ANSI32 Steel. In the design software, it is designed with the thickness of 7 mm and it is intended to support a workload of up to 750 N. The constraints were a fixed point added at all the holes and at the bottom surface of the sheet metal base. A number of iterations were made for the 750N loading force across the base plate to run the simulation. For optimization, the aim was to minimize the mass of the base plate. The design parameters  were Von Mises, factor of safety and displacement. The variables were the slots’ width and material thickness along the mid-surface of the sheet metal. The mass was reduced by more than thirty per cent overall.

  • Project Risks and Risky Projects
    164-189
    Views:
    309

    Projects are key drivers of organizational change, both their failure and success can have significant impact on the organizational performance. Risks may arise throughout the entire project life cycle. Managing these and initial project planning uncertainties is an important task of Project Management. The study describes the application of traditional project management tools and methods in risk analysis, -evaluation and -treatment based on modern project and risk management standards and recommendations. The authors also examine the link between classic project management objectives (project time - resources – scopes) and risk-based decision-making. The different scale and scope of projects call for different responses to the associated risks. The study highlights the possible role of the ISO 31000 risk management standard package in project risk management. The authors analyse the risk management of the different projects on the basis of processing relevant literature, including the relationship of the project stakeholders to the risks. R&D, agile projects and project portfolios have specific and complex risk exposures, but their project management can provide several „hidden” risk analysis and - treatment functions.

  • Maintenance of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles
    37-46
    Views:
    477

    An electric car is a vehicle powered by one or more electric engines, utilizing energy stored within batteries that are rechargeable. The first register of a usable electrical vehicle dates from 1880s. A hybrid vehicle incorporates two or more different power types, including, e.g., gasoline engines and electric motor. The goal in this work is to present the overall overview of the structure of the electric, hybrid and electric-hybrid vehicles, advantages and disadvantages of these types, the main points to focus when maintaining these and the challenges involved in its production and maintenance.

  • Human security issues of deep wells retraining
    114-123
    Views:
    81

    Nowadays, in the world's energy production structure, fossil fuels dominate and at the same time cause a number of environmental problems. Comparing the use of conventional fossil fuels with geothermal energy, this kind of energy production is extremely beneficial, as there are no pollutants and a renewable energy source. Moreover, if we want to compare geothermal energy with other renewable energy sources (such as wind energy, solar energy, etc.), much of the benefits can also be attributed to geothermal energy becouse it is a stable energy source and the area requirement is low. Due to these extremely favorable properties, the study of the applicability of geothermal energy is gaining ground in renewable energy sources. In addition, it is well known that there are approximately 20 to 30 million abandoned oil wells in the world, plus sealed wells for other purposes, and the final number may be much larger. In the case of abandoned oil wells, the escaping residual oil may be a problem, which can lead to significant environmental problems. Taking these factors into account, research on the recyclability of abandoned wells for geothermal purposes becomes a target for more and more research topics around the world. It is interesting to note that a significant part of the publications are concerned with examining the technological potential of energy utilization, studying heat transport processes, and generating general, energetic or economical evaluations. A publication of a kind that would have evaluated the safety of recyclable abandoned wells in publishing databases was limited. It is therefore an important question that the abandoned wells, from the point of view of human security and environmental protection. How can they be reactive, how can the new technological elements be built up and how much human security factors of the newly created system are affected by the existing elements?

  • Inbound and Outbound Tourism in China: A Perspective Article
    91-107
    Views:
    222

    The tourism industry in China has undergone significant changes due to globalization, technology, and changing consumer preferences. This perspective article, based on a systematic literature review, examines examines trends, challenges, and opportunities in inbound and outbound tourism in China, focusing on the industry's dynamism. Both inbound and outbound tourism have been negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, which has prompted new strategies and environmental adaptations. China has changed its priorities within the country to encourage domestic travel and support local firms. The rise in internationalisation and the growing middle class in China have led to an unprecedented rise in outbound travel. Chinese travellers are affecting travel habits and spending all around the world in the tourism sector. Language barriers, cultural differences, and safety concerns are some of the challenges that come with travelling abroad. To reach its full potential, China needs to adapt to the shifting global environment and take into account the specifications and preferences of both inbound and outgoing tourists. 

  • The Relationship Between EHS and the REACH Regulation in Practice
    128-133
    Views:
    109

    The European Union has enacted strict safety regulations on the usage of chemical substances. Not long ago the Hungarian Government has also enacted the 1907/2006/EK (REACH) regulation and 1272/2008/EK (CLP) regulation. With the acceptance of the decrees our knowledge and available information about chemicals has expanded, due to the reporting obligation. As a consequence the usage of hazardous chemical compounds will be safer for the people and the environment. With the access to the shared data, we will be able to make appropriate decisions despite lacking previous measurements of our own. My goal is to present the hazardous information profiles form the packages of the REACH and CLP, and their possible applications.

  • Present and Future of Industrial Robotisation
    1-12
    Views:
    71

    The following paper analyzing the installation of industrial robotisation in sectors and regions, in addition carry out forcastings on historical data. In recent years, automation and the use of industrial robotics have increased exponentially in the manufacturing sector. Given that companies prioritize enhanced production efficiency, quality assurance, and safety, it is evident that substantial investment and implementation of automation continue to occur in manufacturing facilities worldwide. The number of industrial robots globally has been growing steadily since 2010. However, the rate of growth has slowed from 2020 onwards. The impact of the Covid-19 epidemic was still felt in 2020, but the deployment of industrial robots increased significantly in 2021. Global industrial robot deployment is projected to continue to grow in the coming years, although the rate of increase may vary between regions and countries. The analysis showed a number of differences between regions in the number and growth rate of industrial robot deployments. Asia and Australia are the largest markets for robots and the number of robots deployed is expected to continue to grow in the future. Europe is the second largest market and, although growing at a slower rate, industrial robot deployment is also increasing steadily. In the Americas, growth is slower than in other regions, but still increasing. Global growth trends suggest that there will be further growth in the coming years and that the deployment of industrial robots will become more widespread in different parts of the world.

  • Battery Measurement Methods and Artificial Intelligence Applied in Energy Management Systems
    428-436
    Views:
    142

    Diagnostics of batteries using advanced methods have gained remarkable roles in the past few years. This study focuses on the type of measurements, tests and methods to reveal and classify them. During manufacturing and operation several faults could emerge in batteries including non-optimal operation conditions, operators without experience, and finally, random changes in batteries under physical and nonphysical conditions. Improper handling of batteries and battery cells man cause operation failures or, in the worst case, accidents. To reveal these problems several methods are applied in industry and in scientific laboratories. For a comprehensive analysis of battery management, artificial intelligence and Industry 4.0 methods can be used very effectively. Big Data analysis in its standard form is not a new achievement, but other mathematical tools could be applied to control monitoring such as Fuzzy Logic or Support Vector Machine (SVM). They are efficient tools to analyse the deviation of batteries condition because it can detect sudden changes, parameter deviations and anomalies, and the user’s behaviour and habits. This article gives a description about the most important battery testing methods and the connection between Big Data and Operation Management with Artificial Intelligent (AI) methods.

  • Conceptual Design of the Low-Cost Environmental Temperature Test Chamber System
    81-94
    Views:
    91

    Unmanned robots being remotely controlled or autonomous are spread worldwide and used in different purposes. Inhabited robots are brought very close to users and accessibility to these tools is very high, moreover, at very low costs. Regardless to emphasize the increasing popularity of these robots. However, any robot system being electrically driven and controlled has bottleneck in the amount of the electrical energy stored aboard in the battery packs. In other words, due to limited amount of the electrical energy available special issues related to use energy best way with maximum effectiveness are needed and considered. Additionally, the battery management system is needed to control the processes of the discharge and the charge ensuring technical data and parameters set by the manufacturer. This paper addresses robot applications in regions out of the calculated when special environmental testing is needed to confirm battery pack technical data. Among those of the environmental tests required the temperature test is in the focus of attention. The main idea and purpose of this paper is to set up new concept of the low-cost environmental temperature test chamber, to define its technical parameters and other properties needed for its preliminary design and prototype manufacturing.

  • Polylactic Acid as a Potential Alternatives of Traditional Plastic Packagings in Food Industry
    123-129
    Views:
    336

    Huge quantity of synthetic polymers is used as packaging materials in different fields of food industries. A significant part of these polymers applied as a primary, direct food contact construction. The scoped application area is the sweet industry. In this field Polystyrol (PS), Polypropylene (PP) and Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) have used but during the last fifteen years the usage of PET has been grown. In one hand the price of this material is efficient, form other hand the PET is the one of the most safe (for food industrial applications) petrol chemical plastic that can be used as primary or secondary food contact packaging material. To maximize the customer safety and minimize the environmental impact of traditional PET, a new bio-sourced and bio-degradable alternative polymer aimed to be used in this special food industrial segment. One of the potential alternatives is the Polylactic acid (PLA) that would be a possible substitute as it is compostable and produced from renewable sources and has good physical and mechanical properties [1].

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