Vol. 6 No. 2 (2021)

Published September 27, 2021


Sport Economics

  • Crisis of the 9th Generation Game Consoles-Focus on Playstation 5 and Xbox Series X

    By the end of the past centrury, specific computers optimized for gaming, that is meeting the needs of the computer gamers, the so-called game consoles were introduced to the market. At the end of the last year, after waiting for so long, new types of the 9th generation consoles came into the market, produced by the Microsoft and the Sony. Ovation of this appearance is familiar and usual in the profession, which soon became exchanged by the space of dissatisfaction, since now, after  the events of the past months we can declare that gaming on both platforms suffers from serious difficulties. This study, the methodological base of which is composed by case study, secondary analysis of available data, intends to highlight the facts which led to this situation, whether it is a temporary or a permanent situation, and  how the market and the gaming society react to it. Results show that it does not seems to be a temporary phenomenon, and as a result of complex problems market anomalies have appeared, which considerably influences our relationship to the market of the consoles.

  • Why do not people attend football matches in Hungary?

    Both international and domestic research on passive sport consumption focuses on the motivations of fans. However in Hungary, unlike the examples of North America and Western Europe, we have to look for answers to the question of why people do not go to football matches. In order to find an answer to this question, we conducted an online survey with a number of items of 347 people. For the latter a scale measuring absence from sport consumption was used and the reliability of the scales was tested by Cronbach's alpha calculation. After our principal component analysis, we developed 5 internal and 5 external factors, on which we conduct hypothesis test along demographic and sports consumption variables. Based on our results, we have established that, contrary to public opinion, the low number of spectators in Hungarian football matches is not only and primarily due to unsucces and the low quality of matches. Our respondents are mostly kept away from stadiums by football-related government measures, as well as by preferring to participate in other recreational program opportunities.

  • Examining the Social Involvement of Sports Civic Organizations

    Analyzing the information available in the Hungarian database of the CSO, we can see that a significant part of the income of classical non-governmental organizations, especially non-governmental organizations with a sports profile, comes mainly from state or private support. In addition, it can be said that these organizations are essentially non-profit-oriented and play a significant role in social integration and the performance of essential social tasks. Therefore, the relevant question is to what extent and in what way their social embeddedness is realized, in what way do NGOs influence people in the course of their operation? Within this, the study of the social usefulness of sports non-governmental organizations and the sphere of support conditions in the sphere emerges as a priority area. In our study, we undertake to examine the activity of the organizations included in the survey, their social impact and to compare the results with their role in local society. Nearly 50% of the NGOs surveyed in the study have a local scope, and more than 50% typically engage in grassroots and leisure-related activities.

  • Survey of the Service Offer of Fitness Clubs for Group Classes in Debrecen

    The economic and social importance of the fitness sector is steadily increasing. The range of services provided by fitness centers is expanding and the popularity of fitness clubs is constantly growing. Fitness workouts are easily accessible for everyone, and there are numerous types of fitness centers which can play an important role in everyday physical activity. There are many factors that can influence the choice of fitness consumers for the gym, also fitness professionals play a key role in this regard. It is essential for fitness clubs in order to remain competitive on the market, to employ fitness instructors with the optimal personality and expertise, but in many cases, there is a lack of verification of qualifications. In our study, we conducted interviews with 20 fitness instructors who work in a fitness center that offers group lessons to consumers. The questionnaire included questions about consumer preferences, fitness facilities, trainers qualifications, and activities. Our study was made among eleven fitness clubs in Debrecen. The number of fitness clubs is constantly changing, with each year closing, opening or rebuilding fitness centers, which vary widely in size and number of services offered. The majority of respondent trainers are women as are the participants women in group lessons. Most of the interviewed trainers have OKJ qualifications, but the results reflect that fitness providers have not checked their qualifications at all before applying them. Fitness professionals play an extremely important role in leisure sports, contributing in maintainance and development of the fitness consumers’s health. Their work has a particular responsibility, as they can influence the physical and mental health of others in both positive and negative ways. Not only to avoid the risk of injuries, but also to prevent long-term health damage, fitness professionals play an important role. Controlling the qualifications also be in the interest of fitness clubs, not only avoiding accidents, but also increasing attendance at group classes by employing reliable, excellent personal trainers.

  • The Potential of Online Workouts for Fitness Trainers

    The importance of physical activity for both physical and mental health is unquestionable. For leisure athletes, fitness clubs can be considered as  popular facilities for everyday workouts. Classes run by qualified trainers, whether individual or group workouts, are very popular. In line with the worldwide trend, there is a growing expectation for fitness workouts to be reachable as simple as possible, in as many forms as possible, regardless of the location. The aim of our study is therefore to map the prevalence of online training among trainers working in the fitness sector. There is a significant demand for such workouts, even if it cannot completely replace hours of personal presence. In addition, as well as for target groups who want to find a form of exercise that can be performed anywhere, anytime, the online space provides an ideal opportunity to practice regular physical activity, as well as a good opportunity for coaches to expand their clientele and services.

  • Situation Report of European Club Football (2017 – 2019)

    The most professional and profit oriented sector of the sports industry is football. International summary analyzes of the sector show a steady increase in revenue over the last 20 years. Yet the real turning point in terms of the profitability of European club football was in 2017, when the aggregate result of the clubs playing in the top European leagues were realized as a profit. However in recent years, the sector has faced serious competitors. The esport industry draws attention to itself with the growth rate of the base of its’ followers and related revenues. Also the fitness sector outperformed the football sector in 2019. In this article I reviewed european football between 2017 and 2019, in order to explore the characteristics of the football sector, to ascertain its revenue-generating capacity, its change in its revenue structure, and to answer the questions that if this sport will maintain its dominant position in the European sports market. My research method was document analisys of annual reports published by UEFA and Deloitte, which allowed me to examine data from more than 700 clubs in 55 countries. In overall it can be stated that the european football industry is maintaining it’s position, but it should allocate resources to stabilize its follower base instead of fearing the endagerment by other sports.

  • COVID-19 Pandemic Impact on Employees’ Physical Activity

    Globalization and the recent explosive development of technology have significantly changed people’s lifestyles resulting in an increase in the number of people living a sedentary lifestyle. COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the situation and created an unprecedented situation in the world. In the present study, we investigate changes in the physical activity and sedentary behavior of adult workers caused by the coronavirus epidemic. In our online cross-sectional research, we used snowball methodology. The target group of the survey was adult workers. 108 people filled in the questionnaire, the majority (73.1%) are women, the average age is 37.18 years and most of them have higher degrees (Diploma: 74%, PhD: 14%). The present study revealed a decrease in physical activity and an increase in sedentary time for the employees in our study. Despite respondents detected a decrease in their physical activity, an increase was reported in the proportion of online training participants. The majority of respondents partially, or totally switched to work from home during the pandemic, which may further increase their sedentary lifestyle. We did not find significant differences among the domain of work and leisure time or occupational physical activity patterns. The workplace is a great opportunity for promoting physical activity and reducing sedentary time in the adult working population, therefore it would be important for organizations, decision-makers and health professionals to work on the design of strategies to these goals.


  • Safe, Health Working in Health Care in the Shadow of a Pandemic

    Safe work that does not endanger health is a complex category, the provision of which creates an obligation on the part of the state, the employer and the employee. The task of the state is to determine the basic requirements for work that does not endanger health and safe, as well as the related rights and obligations, and to develop a national policy on occupational safety and health. As a result of the coronavirus epidemic in early 2020, we have faced a whole new form of accidents at work and occupational diseases. In my study, I want to examine the course of the investigation of the infection that takes place during the pandemic in healthcare work, and the possibilities of remuneration for the duration of the illness.

  • Cultural diversity, Intercultural Competence, Tolerance and the Economy: a Review

    Cultural diversity is generally a controversial topic in the literature. Whereas some studies proved that it has economic benefits, others denied that. However, it is possible to avoid the costs related to that through enhancing each of intercultural competence, on the level of firms, and social tolerance, on the level of economies. To investigate that, the study used literature review analysis. Based on the literature, cultural diversity plays important role in enhancing innovation and entrepreneurship which are necessary for economic development. However, it may result in different challenges such as a lack of trust and conflict. Therefore, it could be feasible to manage and benefit from cultural diversity in the companies through cross-cultural training as well as cultural diversity management. On the other hand, economies can avoid cultural diversity's costs by adopting the policies and institutions which are necessary for enhancing the level of social tolerance among people.


Environmental Engineering

  • Strategies and Effects of LEDS (Low Emission Development Strategy) in Fortaleza, Brazil

    When it comes to climate change, the built environment, together with transport, and waste and water management play a significant role as Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emitting sectors, reflecting the strong need to address such issues by local governments. A notable action that has been taken in this regard is the Urban Low Emission Development Strategies (Urban LEDS), which consists of a project implemented by the UN-Habitat and the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) that selected eight model cities and twenty-one satellite cities around the world and aims to support integrated and ambitious climate action, encouraging low-carbon efforts in emerging economies through the collaboration among them. In addition, eight European cities also participated in the project in its first phase, contributing with their expertise and experience with climate change mitigation. Since 2012, the city of Fortaleza in Brazil is a model city of the Urban LEDS project and it has sustainably integrated and developed many projects, making it a more resilient city, stimulating its economic growth and improving its quality of life. This paper aims to present the milestones that Fortaleza has already met within Urban LEDS and its main priorities in the next years, identifying best practices in three European cities (Copenhagen, Zagreb and Hannover) that could also be implemented in its geographical, social and cultural context, as well as indicate lessons that other cities can learn from Fortaleza.


Management Sciences

  • Introducing a Task Management Tool into the Operation of a Management Consulting Firm

    Lean and agile methods are now widely used in various fields. Seeing their success, management consultancy firms also want to take advantage of using them. In this case study, the company selects the appropriate task management tool for their operation, the kanban board, and implements it. The implementation process is supported by quantitative analysis. In order to track the introduction progress of the kanban board, a key performance index is defined: the board activity, which is the number of operations performed on the board in a given time period. Based on the evaluation of over 26 weeks’ data, board activity proved to be an appropriate indicator of the kanban board’s reception, operation, and stability. The individual indicators examined, however, were not found to be suitable for performance appraisal.

  • A Wounded Soldier Fighting on two Fronts: Civil Society Organizations Initiatives Struggling to Overcome the Pandemic Crisis by Practical Protective Means, Volunteerism, Reporting and Awareness Campaign Discourse

    Given the fact that the covid-19 pandemic virus has had a pervasive impact on almost every sphere of life globally, it is noteworthy to highlight the role and position of the civil society sector, and this paper intends to do so by striking at two matters. Initially, outlining the impact on the functioning and activities of Civil Society Organizations (CSOs), to then proceed with their response to the crisis, through new multifarious initiatives/activities. The analysis was developed by using, essentially, unobtrusive data and direct non-participatory observations of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in Kosovo that have had initiatives against covid-19. Although CSOs were badly affected by the pandemic as such, and the consequences it brought, whether, through measures and/or neglect from the central level, they still found the resources and willingness to launch initiatives to combat the pandemic in the form or different. All over the country, appeared organizations which among their activities found a place for awareness campaigns, material and financial assistance to citizens in need, production of masks, face shields, and other protective equipment for citizens or health institutions, and providing voluntary assistance as health staff. To link practice with theory, there are presented cases of NGOs that well reflect scholarship ideas such as the need to have a classification of CSOs based on activities, the importance of their IT repertoires, coproduction, and especially the response to the crisis. The importance of this study grounds on the benefit it brings to understanding the role and contribution of CSOs in exceptional times of crisis, especially for a society that underestimates and neglects this sector.

  • Employment Challenges in the Second Wave of the COVID-19 Virus from a Corporate Perspective

    The changed market conditions caused by the Covid-19 virus forced companies to rethink their strategy and structure and to optimize their processes. The aim of my research is to shed light on the changes in the second wave of the coronavirus epidemic that have had a significant impact on the operation of businesses and presented them with significant challenges. For the study, I used the results of a previous questionnaire survey (Pirohov-Tóth 2020; Pirohov-Tóth, Kiss 2021), which were supplemented with a literature analysis and statistical data from the database of the Central Statistical Office. Furthermore, compared to the first wave of the virus, I examined how job productivity changed in the second wave of the virus. Finally, corporate crisis management options have been presented in my analysis, the practical application of which can contribute to re-emerging from the crisis. It can be stated that the acceleration of digitization and the widespread expansion of advanced technological tools and methods can be considered as one of the biggest positives of the viral situation, which can also mean survival for companies in this pandemic situation.

  • Project Risks and Risky Projects

    Projects are key drivers of organizational change, both their failure and success can have significant impact on the organizational performance. Risks may arise throughout the entire project life cycle. Managing these and initial project planning uncertainties is an important task of Project Management. The study describes the application of traditional project management tools and methods in risk analysis, -evaluation and -treatment based on modern project and risk management standards and recommendations. The authors also examine the link between classic project management objectives (project time - resources – scopes) and risk-based decision-making. The different scale and scope of projects call for different responses to the associated risks. The study highlights the possible role of the ISO 31000 risk management standard package in project risk management. The authors analyse the risk management of the different projects on the basis of processing relevant literature, including the relationship of the project stakeholders to the risks. R&D, agile projects and project portfolios have specific and complex risk exposures, but their project management can provide several „hidden” risk analysis and - treatment functions.

  • Maintenance from the Work Safety Point of View

    Deterioration of the technical condition of plant equipment is a common phenomenon nowadays. According to the experience of authorities, all this contributes to the occurrence of malfunctions and accidents. Plants that operate with an inadequate conservation strategy are now nearing the end of their design life, thus posing an increased accident risk. Aging processes are often accelerated by the operator's underestimation of the effects of equipment stress and the extent of deterioration mechanisms, and the consequent inadequate design and operation of condition monitoring and maintenance procedures. The aim of our work is to examine trends in the light of modern maintenance optimization methods and, in connection with this, to make proposals for the optimization of maintenance scheduling for employers.

Mechanical Engineering

  • Finite Element Analysis of Cellular Structures Using Ansys

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is a process in which the product is composed of overlapping layers of a material that is added using devices such as 3D printers. Its process has been evolving for decades and nowadays it can be used for several applications and with different materials. One modern usage is for medical and dental purposes. Since it became possible to print metal, it has been a good solution for bone implants, once it must be done with biomaterials and can now replicate the bone structure, for that unit cells should compose the implant. Both conditions are now possible to be achieved by AM, and the current study will analyze, using finite element method, the possibilities to create specimens for tests which the final product would result in a 3D printed bone implant.

  • The CAD Modelling Possibilities of Gear Pairs by Two Ways in the Mechanical Engineering Practice

    The GearTeq 2021 software is a complex gear designer software which is capable to design different types of gears based on the initial geometric parameters by the user. Naturally, the users’ appropriate knowledge for the gear theorem and the manufacturing technology is indispensable for the design. The possibilities of the software are shown in this publication. The designed gear pairs are usable for different engineering fields (robots, working machines, vehicles, etc.).

  • Design an Opening Force Measuring Device for Balancing Clips

    This paper deals with the development of a force measuring device to determine the opening force of different types of balancing clips. These elements can be used in the impellers of ventilators to rebalance the rotor. The measuring device contains a commercially available beam type load cell. The data processing is performed by Arduino Nano development platform with a 24-bit sigma delta A/D converter. The device is well applicable to determine the opening force of the clips in different opening distances.

  • An Analytical Solution for Static Problems of Cantilever Curved Beams with Variable Cross Sections

    This paper gives an analytical method to obtain the deformation of a cantilever curved beam. The curved beam considered has circular centre line and the thickness of the cross section in radial direction depends on the circumferential coordinate. The kinematics of the Euler-Bernoulli beam model is used to formulate of governing equations. The curved homogeneous and isotropic elastic beam is fixed at the one of the end cross section and on the other end cross section is subjected to concentrated forces and a couple. A numerical example illustrates the applications of the derived formulae.

  • Torsion of Truncated Hollow Spherical Elastic Body

    This paper deals with the torsion of a body of rotation whose shape is a truncated hollow sphere. The material of the truncated hollow sphere is isotropic, homogeneous and linearly elastic. To solve the torsion problem, the theory of torsion of shafts of varying circular cross section is used, which is introduced by Michell and Föppl. Analytical solution is given for the shearing stresses and displacements. A numerical example illustrates the application of the presented solution. The results of the presented numerical example can be used as a benchmark problem to verify the accuracy of the results computed by finite element simulations.

  • Evaluating the Efficiency of Polyhedral Mesh Elements in Solving the Problem of the Flow around Ship’s Rudder

    Meshing is one of the crucial key features to the success of CFD based simulations, this study is evaluating the efficiency of polyhedral elements in solving the problem of the flow around ship rudder, using a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence model (SST k-ω), and compares it to a tetrahedral based mesh, considering that polyhedral elements were neglected in the past due to difficulties in implementing them, this was solved by introducing a tool by ANSYS that converges tetrahedral elements to polyhedral element, and integrating it into FLUENT software, the model was validated by comparing it with previously validated model which used the full version of ANSYS, this study was concluded using the academic version, but still it was able to produce satisfying results in predicting the lift and the drag coefficient, the pressure around the rudder surface, the velocity and the turbulent kinetic energy, finally the mesh quality was evaluated using the orthogonal quality criteria, the results showed the supremacy of the polyhedral elements in saving time and computational resources and improving mesh quality, and keeping high level of accuracy in predicting the results.

  • Design of Experiments Application for Machining Process Analyse

    In this contribution are results from machining of the aluminium alloy by spiral router. The experiment was designed as full 3 - factors and 2-levels process and for evaluation of input factors to output parameters – Fx and Fy components were used Paret´s diagram and Lorentz´s line. The input parameters were: revolution speed (4000/min. and 6000/min.), working engagement of a cutting edge (depth of cut) ae (1 mm and 3 mm), back engagement of a cutting edge (with  of cut) ap (5 mm and 15 mm) and down (climb) milling.

  • Optimization of the Sheet Metal Base of a Toggle Clamp Using Finite Element Method

    Optimization relates to the ultimate yield strength and the maximum stress incident on the current model under critical working conditions and finds through iterative processing a way to compensate for the strength requirement without going beyond the desired mass limits. In this paper, the horizontal sheet metal base of a horizontal toggle clamp is optimised for mass reduction using the finite element analysis in the computer aided design software. The sheet metal base material is the ANSI32 Steel. In the design software, it is designed with the thickness of 7 mm and it is intended to support a workload of up to 750 N. The constraints were a fixed point added at all the holes and at the bottom surface of the sheet metal base. A number of iterations were made for the 750N loading force across the base plate to run the simulation. For optimization, the aim was to minimize the mass of the base plate. The design parameters  were Von Mises, factor of safety and displacement. The variables were the slots’ width and material thickness along the mid-surface of the sheet metal. The mass was reduced by more than thirty per cent overall.

  • Utilization of 3D Printing in Replacement of Basic Plastic Workpieces

    In the experiment, a 3D printed cogwheel is made using the FDM technology to replace a broken part in a sewing machine. The aim of the project is to examine if a 3D model can be created and manufactured using only entry-level technical knowledge and tools. By the end of the article, it will be apparent that creating functioning plastic parts with a hobby 3D printer and basic CAD experience is very much possible.

Database Logos